• Title, Summary, Keyword: TCL

Search Result 66, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through a Minimal Incision on the Distal Wrist Crease: An Anatomical and Clinical Study

  • Yoo, Hye Mi;Lee, Kyoung Suk;Kim, Jun Sik;Kim, Nam Gyun
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
    • /
    • v.42 no.3
    • /
    • pp.327-333
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background An anatomical analysis of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and the surrounding structures might help in identifying effective measures to minimize complications. Here, we present a surgical technique based on an anatomical study that was successfully applied in clinical settings. Methods Using 13 hands from 8 formalin-fixed cadavers, we measured the TCL length and thickness, correlation between the distal wrist crease and the proximal end of the TCL, and distance between the distal end of the TCL and the palmar arch; the TCL cross sections and the thickest parts were also examined. Clinically, fasciotomy was performed on the relevant parts of 15 hands from 13 patients by making a minimally invasive incision on the distal wrist crease. Postoperatively, a two-point discrimination check was conducted in which the sensations of the first, second, and third fingertips and the palmar cutaneous branch injuries were monitored (average duration, 7 months). Results In the 13 cadaveric hands, the distal wrist crease and the proximal end of the TCL were placed in the same location. The average length of the TCL and the distance from the distal TCL to the superficial palmar arch were $35.30{\pm}2.59mm$ and $9.50{\pm}2.13mm$, respectively. The thickest part of the TCL was a region 25 mm distal to the distal wrist crease (average thickness, $4.00{\pm}0.57mm$). The 13 surgeries performed in the clinical settings yielded satisfactory results. Conclusions This peri-TCL anatomical study confirmed the safety of fasciotomy with a minimally invasive incision of the distal wrist crease. The clinical application of the technique indicated that the minimally invasive incision of the distal wrist crease was efficacious in the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome.

Standard of Terminal Coupling Loss of ISDN Telephone (ISDN전화기의 단말 결합 손실 기준)

  • 강경옥;강성훈;장대영
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1965-1972
    • /
    • 1994
  • A standard on talker echo for ISDN telophone, mainly consisting of those on sending and receiving loudness ratings and terminal coupling loss(TCL), is necessary. Accordingly, if sending and receiving loudness ratings are pre-determined, we need a standard on TCL providing echo-free telephone communications to telephone users, and the standard can be classified into that weighted TCL($TCL_w$) and that on stability loss. In this paper, in order to make a national standard on TCL, based on users' perceived quality on a talker echo, we conducted user opinion tests on talker echo. From the results of correlation between echo and user opinion on quality and measurement on TCL of telephones, we proposed the standard as follows; we must preserve TCL_w of at least 40dB and stability loss of at least 10dB when overall loudness rating for ISDN telephone, sum of sending and receiving loudness ratings, is normalized to 10dB.

  • PDF

Developing a Bridge Module to Java Component for SID Simulator (SID 시뮬레이터와 자바 컴포넌트 연동 모듈 개발)

  • Ma'ruf, Hasrul;Kwon, Jin Baek
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1635-1637
    • /
    • 2010
  • Simulation tools help creating a low cost and efficient development of embedded system. SID is an open source simulator software that consists library of components for modelling hardware and software components. A component can be written in C/C++ and Tcl/Tk. Currently, the SID simulation toolkit only provides support for C++ and Tcl/Tk. Tcl/Tk is used to write GUI-based components. However, we have observed that Tcl/Tk components cause slow simulation response because Tcl/Tk is a script language. It is not proper for developing the cutting-edge products with rich graphics. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest Java to a new language for GUI components in SID by developing a bridge module for SID to interworking with Java components.

  • PDF

Long non-coding RNA T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 serves as a sponge for miR-21 modulating the cell proliferation of retinoblastoma through PTEN

  • Tao, Sisi;Wang, Weidong;Liu, Pengfei;Wang, Hua;Chen, Weirong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.23 no.6
    • /
    • pp.449-458
    • /
    • 2019
  • Retinoblastoma (Rb) is one of the most common eye malignancies occur in childhood. The crucial roles of non-coding RNAs, particularly long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been widely reported in Rb progression. In the present study, we found the expression of lncRNA T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (TCL6) was significantly downregulated in Rb tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of lncRNA TCL6 promoted cell proliferation while reduced cell apoptosis in Rb cells. Moreover, lncRNA TCL6 serves as a sponge for miR-21, a previously-reported oncogenic miRNA in Rb, by direct targeting to negatively regulated miR-21 expression, therefore modulating Rb proliferation through miR-21. TCL6 overexpression inhibited Rb cell proliferation while miR-21 overexpression exerted an opposing effect; the effect of TCL6 overexpression was partially attenuated by miR-21 overexpression. PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was involved in lncRNA TCL6/miR-21 axis modulating Rb cell proliferation. Taken together, lncRNA TCL6 serves as a tumor suppressor by acting as a sponge for miR-21 to counteract miR-21-mediated PTEN repression.

Methods for Adding Demand Response Capability to a Thermostatically Controlled Load with an Existing On-off Controller

  • Jin, Young Gyu;Yoon, Yong Tae
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.10 no.3
    • /
    • pp.755-765
    • /
    • 2015
  • A thermostatically controlled load (TCL) can be one of the most appropriate resources for demand response (DR) in a smart grid environment. DR capability can be effectively implemented in a TCL with various intelligent control methods. However, because traditional on-off control is still a commonly used method in a TCL, it is useful to develop a method for adding DR capability to the TCL with an existing on-off controller. As a specific realization of supervisory control for implementing DR capability in the TCL, two methods are proposed - a method involving the changing of a set point and a method involving the paralleling of an identified system without delay. The proposed methods are analyzed through the simulations with an electric heater for different power consumption levels in the on-state. Considerable cost benefit can be achieved with the proposed methods when compared with the case without DR. In addition, the observations suggest that a medium power consumption level, instead of the maximum power, in the on-state should be used for consistently obtaining the cost benefit without severe temperature deviation from the specified temperature range for DR.

Improved Single-Stage AC-DC LED-Drive Flyback Converter using the Transformer-Coupled Lossless Snubber

  • Jeong, Gang-Youl;Kwon, Su-Han
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.644-652
    • /
    • 2016
  • This paper presents an improved single-stage ac-dc LED-drive flyback converter using the transformer-coupled lossless (TCL) snubber. The proposed converter is derived from the integration of a full-bridge diode rectifier and a conventional flyback converter with a simple TCL snubber. The TCL snubber circuit is composed of only two diodes, a capacitor, and a transformer-coupled auxiliary winding. The TCL snubber limits the surge voltage of the switch and regenerates the energy stored in the leakage inductance of the transformer. Also, the switch of the proposed converter is turned on at a minimum voltage using a formed resonant circuit. Thus, the proposed converter achieves high efficiency. The proposed converter utilizes only one general power factor correction (PFC) control IC as its controller and performs both PFC and output power regulation, simultaneously. Therefore, the proposed converter provides a simple structure and an economic implementation and achieves a high power factor without the need for any separate PFC circuit. In this paper, the operational principle of the proposed converter is explained in detail and the design guideline of the proposed converter is briefly shown. Experimental results for a 40-W prototype are shown to validate the performance of the proposed converter.

Supporting Java Components in the SID Simulation System

  • Ma'ruf, Hasrul;Febiansyah, Hidayat;Kwon, Jin-Baek
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.101-118
    • /
    • 2012
  • Embedded products are becoming richer in features. Simulation tools facilitate low-costs and the efficient development of embedded systems. SID is an open source simulation software that includes a library of components for modeling hardware and software components. SID components were originally written using C/C++ and Tcl/Tk. Tcl/Tk has mainly been used for GUI simulation in the SID system. However, Tcl/Tk components are hampered by low performance, and GUI development using Tcl/Tk also has poor flexibility. Therefore, it would be desirable to use a more advanced programming language, such as Java, to provide simulations of cutting-edge products with rich graphics. Here, we describe the development of the Java Bridge Module as a middleware that will enable the use of Java Components in SID. We also extended the low-level SID API to Java. In addition, we have added classes that contain default implementations of the API. These classes are intended to ensure the compatibility and simplicity of SID components in Java.

Evaluation of thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the changes of concentration and toxicity on tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

  • Hue, Jin Joo;Lee, Hu-Jang;Jon, Sangyong;Nam, Sang Yoon;Yun, Young Won;Kim, Jong-Soo;Lee, Beom Jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.54 no.4
    • /
    • pp.245-252
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was investigated the change of concentration and toxicity of thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) on tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats. TCL-SPION at the dose of 15 mg/kg body weight was intravenously injected into the tail vein of the male Sprague-Dawley rats. The fate of TCL-SPION in serum, urine and tissues was observed during 28 days. Serum iron level was maximal at 0.25 h post-injection and gradually declined thereafter. In addition, the sinusoids of liver and the red pulp area of spleen were mainly accumulated iron from 0.5 h to 28-day post-injection. In kidney, iron deposition was detected in the tubular area until 0.5 h after injection. Malondialdehyde concentration in the liver slightly increased with time and was not different with that at zero time. In the liver and spleen, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 levels of TS treated with TCL-SPION were not different with those of the control during the experimental period. From the results, TCL-SPION could stay fairly long-time in certain tissues after intravenous injection without toxicity. The results indicated that TCL-SPION might be useful and safe as a contrast for the diagnosis of cancer or a carrier of therapeutic reagents to treat diseases.

Effects of Transverse Cracks on Stress Distributions of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Tracks Subjected to Train Loads (연속철근 콘크리트궤도의 횡균열이 열차 하중에 의한 응력 분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Sung Geun;Choi, Seongcheol;Jang, Seung Yup;Cha, Soo Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.355-364
    • /
    • 2014
  • The restrained volume changes of concrete due to variations of temperature and moisture produce transverse cracks in continuously reinforced concrete tracks (CRCTs). Such cracks are known to significantly affect the behaviors and long-term performance of CRCT. To investigate the effects of the transverse cracks on the behavior of CRCT and to develop more reasonable maintenance standards for cracks, in this study, the stress distribution of the track concrete layers (TCL) and the hydraulically stabilized base course (HSB) with transverse cracks were numerically predicted by a three dimensional finite element analysis when CRCT was subjected to train loads. The results indicate that the bending stresses of TCL and vertical stresses at the interfaces between TCL and HSB increased as the cracks were deepened. In addition, vertical stresses were locally concentrated near reinforcing steel in cracks in TCL when full-depth cracks developed, which may lead to punch-outs in CRCTs. Comparably, the effects of crack width and spacing were not as significant as crack depth. This study indicates that ensuring the long-term performance of CRCTs requires adequate maintenance not only for crack width and spacing but also for crack depth. Our results also show that locating HSB joints between sleepers is beneficial to the long-term performance of CRCTs.

Assessment of health risk associated with arsenic exposure from soil, groundwater, polished rice for setting target cleanup level nearby abandoned mines

  • Lee, Ji-Ho;Kim, Won-Il;Jeong, Eun-Jung;Yoo, Ji-Hyock;Kim, Ji-Young;Lee, Je-Bong;Im, Geon-Jae;Hong, Moo-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.44 no.1
    • /
    • pp.38-47
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study focused on health risk assessment via multi-routes of As exposure to establish a target cleanup level (TCL) in abandoned mines. Soil, ground water, and rice samples were collected near ten abandoned mines in November 2009. The As contaminations measured in all samples were used for determining the probabilistic health risk by Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. The human exposure to As compound was attributed to ground water ingestion. Cancer risk probability (R) via ground water and rice intake exceeded the acceptable risk range of $10^{-6}{\sim}10^{-4}$ in all selected mines. In particular, the MB mine showed the higher R value than other mines. The non-carcinogenic effects, estimated by comparing the average As exposure with corresponding reference dose were determined by hazard quotient (HQ) values, which were less than 1.0 via ground water and rice intake in SD, NS, and MB mines. This implied that the non-carcinogenic toxic effects, due to this exposure pathway had a greater possibility to occur than those in other mines. Besides, hazard index (HI) values, representing overall toxic effects by summed the HQ values were also greater than 1.0 in SD, NS, JA, and IA mines. This revealed that non-carcinogenic toxic effects were generally occurred. The As contaminants in all selected mines exceeded the TCL values for target cancer risk ($10^{-6}$) through ground water ingestion and rice intake. However, the As level in soil was greater than TCL value for target cancer risk via inadvertent soil ingestion pathway, except for KK mine. In TCL values for target hazard quotient (THQ), the As contaminants in soil did not exceed such TCL value. On the contrary, the As levels in ground water and polished rice in SD, NS, IA, and MB mines were also beyond the TCL values via ground water and rice intake. This study concluded that the health risks through ground water and rice intake were greater than those though soil inadvertent ingestion and dermal contact. In addition, it suggests that the abandoned mines to exceed the risk-based TCL values are carefully necessary to monitor for soil remediation.