• Title, Summary, Keyword: TAM

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Pattern Analysis of Core Competency Model for Subcontractors of Construction Companies Using Fuzzy TAM Network (퍼지 TAM 네트워크를 이용한 건설협력업체 핵심역량모델의 패턴분석)

  • Kim, Sung-Eun;Hwang, Seung-Gook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.86-93
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    • 2006
  • The TAM(Topographic Attentive Mapping) network based on a biologically-motivated neural network model is an especially effective one for pattern analysis. It is composed of of input layer, category layer, and output layer. Fuzzy rule, for input and output data are acquired from it. The TAM network with three pruning rules for reducing links and nodes at the layer is called fuzzy TAM network. In this paper, we apply fuzzy TAM network to pattern analysis of core competency model for subcontractors of construction companies and show its usefulness.

Pattern Analysis of Organizational Leader Using Fuzzy TAM Network (퍼지TAM 네트워크를 이용한 조직리더의 패턴분석)

  • Park, Soo-Jeom;Hwang, Seung-Gook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.238-243
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    • 2007
  • The TAM(Topographic Attentive Mapping) network neural network model is an especially effective one for pattern analysis. It is composed of of Input layer, category layer, and output layer. Fuzzy rule, lot input and output data are acquired from it. The TAM network with three pruning rules for reducing links and nodes at the layer is called fuzzy TAM network. In this paper, we apply fuzzy TAM network to pattern analysis of leadership type for organizational leader and show its usefulness. Here, criteria of input layer and target value of output layer are the value and leadership related personality type variables of the Egogram and Enneagram, respectively.

Anti-Inflammatory Role of TAM Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Via Modulating Macrophage Function

  • Lee, Chang-Hee;Chun, Taehoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2019
  • Macrophage is an important innate immune cell that not only initiates inflammatory responses, but also functions in tissue repair and anti-inflammatory responses. Regulating macrophage activity is thus critical to maintain immune homeostasis. Tyro3, Axl, and Mer are integral membrane proteins that constitute TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Growing evidence indicates that TAM family receptors play an important role in anti-inflammatory responses through modulating the function of macrophages. First, macrophages can recognize apoptotic bodies through interaction between TAM family receptors expressed on macrophages and their ligands attached to apoptotic bodies. Without TAM signaling, macrophages cannot clear up apoptotic cells, leading to broad inflammation due to over-activation of immune cells. Second, TAM signaling can prevent chronic activation of macrophages by attenuating inflammatory pathways through particular pattern recognition receptors and cytokine receptors. Third, TAM signaling can induce autophagy which is an important mechanism to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Fourth, TAM signaling can inhibit polarization of M1 macrophages. In this review, we will focus on mechanisms involved in how TAM family of RTKs can modulate function of macrophage associated with anti-inflammatory responses described above. We will also discuss several human diseases related to TAM signaling and potential therapeutic strategies of targeting TAM signaling.

Application of the Triple Abduction Model for Improving the Skills of Scientific Hypothesis Generation (과학적 가설의 생성력 향상을 위한 삼원귀추모형의 적용)

  • Jeong, Jin-Su;Won, Hee-Jung;Kwon, Yong-Ju
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.595-602
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to test effects of the Triple Abduction Model (TAM) for improving the skills of scientific hypothesis generation in science learning. Twenty-six students were selected for the TAM group and 27 others were selected for a traditional group from one high school. Researchers developed and administered 10 TAM and traditional-style activities. The degree of hypothesis explanation was evaluated during the experimental treatment. Each Subjects' ability in scientific hypothesis generation was assessed by the Science Knowledge Generation Test A and B. Test A was used as a protest and B for a posttest. The results of this study revealed that the degree of hypothesis explanation of TAM was significantly higher than the degree of the traditional group, and the mean of the TAM group was equal to the mean of traditional group on the pretest. Additionally, the mean of the TAM group was significantly higher than the mean of the control group on the posttest. Therefore, instruction with TAM was more effective than the instruction using traditionals method for increasing students' hypothesis generation skills.

Up-regulation of HOXB cluster genes are epigenetically regulated in tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells

  • Yang, Seoyeon;Lee, Ji-Yeon;Hur, Ho;Oh, Ji Hoon;Kim, Myoung Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.9
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    • pp.450-455
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    • 2018
  • Tamoxifen (TAM) is commonly used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Despite the remarkable benefits, resistance to TAM presents a serious therapeutic challenge. Since several HOX transcription factors have been proposed as strong candidates in the development of resistance to TAM therapy in breast cancer, we generated an in vitro model of acquired TAM resistance using ER-positive MCF7 breast cancer cells (MCF7-TAMR), and analyzed the expression pattern and epigenetic states of HOX genes. HOXB cluster genes were uniquely up-regulated in MCF7-TAMR cells. Survival analysis of in slico data showed the correlation of high expression of HOXB genes with poor response to TAM in ER-positive breast cancer patients treated with TAM. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that the overexpression of multi HOXB genes in MCF7 renders cancer cells more resistant to TAM, whereas the knockdown restores TAM sensitivity. Furthermore, activation of HOXB genes in MCF7-TAMR was associated with histone modifications, particularly the gain of H3K9ac. These findings imply that the activation of HOXB genes mediate the development of TAM resistance, and represent a target for development of new strategies to prevent or reverse TAM resistance.

Fuzzy TAM Network Model Using SOM (SOM을 이용한 퍼지 TAM 네트워크 모델)

  • Hong, Jung-Pyo;Hwang, Seung-Gook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.642-646
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    • 2006
  • The fuzzy TAM(Topographical Attentive Mapping) network is a supervised method of pattern analysis which is composed of input layer, category layer, and output layer. But if we don't know the target value of the pattern, the network can not be trained. In this case, the target value can be replaced by a result induced by using an unsupervised neural network as the SOM (Self-organizing Map). In this paper, we apply the results of SOM to fuzzy TAM network and show its usefulness through the case study.

A Study on the TAM(Technology Acceptance Model) in Different IT Environments (이질적인 정보기술 사용 환경 하에서의 기술수용모델(TAM)에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Jun-Woo;Moon, Hyoung-Do
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.175-198
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    • 2007
  • Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been a basis model for testing technology use. Post researches of TAM have been conducted with the updating the TAM by adding new independent variables in order to increase the explanation power of the model. However, one problem is that different independent variables have to be introduced to keep the explanation power whenever applying to particular technology. This reduces the generality of the research model. Thus in order to increase the generality of the model, this study reviewed the previous researches and collected the independent variables used, and regrouped them into three basic independent constructs. New research model was designed with three basic independent constructs with four constructs selected for the mandatory IT environment and voluntary IT environment, and the structured equations analysis(AMOS) was applied to find the significant causal effect relationships between constructs in addition to the explanation power of the model. Finally, this study concluded that new TAM could be used to explain the users' adopting new technology without any adding new particular independent variables.

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Effects of Mifepristone and Tamoxifen on Calcium Modulation in DU-145 Prostate Cancer Cells (DU-145 전립선 암세포에 있어서 mifepristone과 tamoxifen이 칼슘조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yeo-Reum;Kim, Byeong-Gee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1324-1331
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    • 2010
  • Mifepristone (MIF) and Tamoxifen (TAM) have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer and breast cancer for more than a decade. MIF can induce apoptosis in both AR-positive and negative prostate cancer cells. Because of its pleiotropic ligand-receptor properties, TAM exerts cytotoxic activity in estrogen (ER)-positive and various ER.negative cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of these two substances are not yet clear. In the present work, we report that the cytotoxic effects of MIF and TAM are due to the modulation of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level in DU-145, androgen-insensitive cells. When the cells were treated with micromolar concentrations of either MIF or TAM, the growth and viability were significantly decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis induced by MIF or TAM was further proved and analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In the cells cultivated in a normal 1.5 mM $Ca^{2+}$ medium, both MIF and TAM also induced an increase of the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level in a dose-dependent fashion. Since a change in calcium level could not be found in cells of the $Ca^{2+}$-free medium, the increase of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level might be due to an increase in extracellular calcium uptake. Our results show that the apoptotic effect was more prominent in TAM treatment compared to MIF treatment in DU-145 cells. The above findings might be due to the difference in the uppermost pathways of apoptosis induced by either MIF or TAM. When we checked the level of procaspase-8 activation, TAM showed minor level of activation, as opposed to MIF, which exerted strong activation. In both treatments, the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 decreased, and pro-apoptotic protein Bax level increased more than 2-fold. The activation of caspase-3, a key protease enzyme in the downstream pathway of apoptosis, was much higher in the cells treated with TAM, compared to the MIF treatment. The overall apoptotic activity shown in the present work was closely related to intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration levels. Therefore, the cytotoxic activity induced by MIF and TAM might have been due to intracellular calcium modulation.

Hepatoprotective Effect of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Extract against Tamoxifen-induced Liver Injury in Rats

  • El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.563-570
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    • 2005
  • Tamoxifen citrate (TAM), is widely used for treatment of breast cancer. It showed a degree of hepatic carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) against TAM-induced liver injury. A model of liver injury in female rats was done by intraperitoneal injection of TAM in a dose of $45\;mg\;Kg^{-1}\;day^{-1}$, i.p. for 7 successive days. GTE in the concentration of 1.5%, was orally administered 4 days prior and 14 days after TAM-intoxication as a sole source of drinking water. The antioxidant flavonoid; epicatechin (a component of green tea) was not detectable in liver and blood of rats in either normal control or TAM-intoxicated group, however, TAM intoxication resulted in a significant decrease of its level in liver homogenate of tamoxifen-intoxicated rats. The model of TAM-intoxication elicited significant declines in the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase,glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and reduced glutathione concomitant with significant elevations transaminase) levels. The oral administration of 1.5% GTE to TAM-intoxicated rats, produced significant increments in the antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione concomitant with significant decrements in TBARS and liver transaminases levels. The data obtained from this study speculated that 1.5% GTE has the capacity to scavenge free radical and can protect against oxidative stress induced by TAM intoxication. Supplementation of GTE could be useful in alleviating tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats.

Effect of 3-Methylcholanthrene on Rat Uterus: Uterine Growth and Mechanism of Action of 3-Methylcholanthrene

  • Sheen, Yhun-Y.;Kim, Sun-S.;Yun, Hea-C.
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 1993
  • This study has been undertaken to examine the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) on rat uterine growth and to understand the mechanism of action of 3MC in rat uterus. After diethylstilbesterol(DES) or tamoxifen(TAM) or 3MC or DES plus TAM or DES plus 3MC was administered into immature female rats, uterine weight over corn oil-treated uteri. 3MC treatment had no effect on uterine weight but, DES stimulated uterine weight was inhibited by 3MC concomitant tratment. While TAM alone treatment showed slight increase in uterine wieght, inhibited uterine growth simulated by DES when it was adiministrated with DES condirect binding assay with $[^3H]$ estradiol and the relative binding affinities of 3MC and TAM were estimated by competetion assy. Estradiol tumed out to have high affinity for rat uterine estrogen receptor (kd = 0.4 nM). The relative binding affinities of TAM and 3MC were 1% and 4.7% that of DES for rat uterine estrogen receptor, respectively. 3MC was shown to have similar affinity for eat uterine estrogen receptor to that of TAM. Effects of DES 3MC and TAM administration in vivo on rat uterine estrogen recptor level were examined. It was confirmed that the estrogen, DES and antiestrogen, TAM decreased estrogen receptor levels from rat ulterus and also 3MC decreased rat uterine estrogen receptor level when rats were treated with DES, TAM and 3MC in vivo. Data indicates that 3MC acts as an antiestrogen mediated through estrogen receptor system.

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