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Effects of Seeding Dates and Growth Periods on the Growth Characteristics, Dry Matter Yield and Feed Value of Corn for Silage in Paddy Field (논토양에서 파종시기와 재배기간이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성, 건물수량 및 사료적 가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Lee, Jae-Hun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.441-448
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of the seeding dates and growth periods on the growth characteristics, dry matter yield and feed value of corn for silage in paddy field. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of five seeding dates, 1 May (T1), 8 May (T2), 15 May (T3), 22 May (T4) and 29 May (T5). And harvesting time homologized by August 24. Therefore, growing periods were 115 days (T1), 108 days (T2), 101 days (T3), 94 days (T4) and 87 days (T5), respectively. In maturities at harvest time, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were full dent, early dent, late dough, dough and early dough stage, respectively. Plant height and numbers of root system were highest in T5 (p<0.01), but leaf length was higher in T4 than others (p<0.05). Dead leaf, tip filling degree and ear circle were higher in T1 than others (p<0.05, 0.01). Leaf width, ear height, leaf number, ear length, stem diameter, stem hardness and brix were not significantly different among the treatments. Dry matter yield and TDN yield were higher in the order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > T5 (p<0.01). Crude protein, crude ash, NDF, ADF and crude fiber were significantly higher in T4 (p<0.05, 0.01). But crude fat was the highest in T1, T3 was the lowest as compared to other treatments (p<0.01). Total EAA(essential amino acids) were higher in order of T4 > T3 > T1 > T2 > T5, and total NEAA (nonessential amino acids) were higher in order of T1 > T4 > T2 > T3 > T5, and total amino acids were higher in order of T4 > T1 > T3 > T2 > T5. But no significant differences were found among the treatments. TUFA (total unsaturated fatty acid) and TSFA (total saturated fatty acid) were in order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T5 > T4 (p<0.01). Minerals were the highest in T4 (4,721.25 mg/kg), and T2 (2,970.80 mg/kg) was the lowest as compared to other treatments (p<0.05). Based on the above results, seeding dates could be recommended as early May, and harvest times is yellow ripe stage for qualitative and quantitative production of corn for silage in rice paddy field soil.

Effect of Dietary Supplemention with Probiotics, Illite, Active Carbon and Hardwood Vinegar on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler (사료내 생균제, 일라이트, 활성탄 및 목초액의 첨가가 육계의 성장 능력 및 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Y.J.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2007
  • We investigated the effects of dietary supplements of probiotics, illite, active carbon and hardwood vinegar on growth performance, feed intake, and pH, shear force, sensory evaluation, meat color and fatty acid composition of meat in broilers. Two hundred broilers were fed diets for five weeks containing 0.2% of probiotics (T1), and 1% of Illite (T2), 1% active carbon (T3), or 1% hardwood vinegar (T4). Body weight gain was higher in T1 and T4 groups fed the starter diet but was the lowest in C and T4 for finishing period (P<0.05). Feed efficiency was not significantly different. In proximate composition, crude fat content of chicken meat were decreased lower in all treatment groups than control, but moisture, crude protein and crude ash were not significantly different. Cooking loss was decreased in T3 and T4 and WHC (water holing capacity) was increased in T3 and T4 groups compared to the other groups. In sensory evaluation, T4 tended to improve the hardness. Redness $(a^*)$ and yellowness $(b^*)$ were no difference between the all treatment groups, lightness $(L^*)$ were higher in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups than control group (P<0.05). Stearic acid content was lower in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups, but oleic acid contents were higher in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups (P<0.05). These results showed that supplementing broiler diets with 1.0% hardwood vinegar may noticeably improve the meat quality of broiler.

High-Level Expression of T4 Endonuclease V in Insect Cells as Biologically Active Form

  • Kang, Chang-Soo;Son, Seung-Yeol;Bang, In-Seok
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1583-1590
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    • 2006
  • T4 endonuclease V (T4 endo V) [EC 3. 1. 25. 1], found in bacteriophage T4, is responsible for excision repair of damaged DNA. The enzyme possesses two activities: a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase (CPD glycosylase) and an apyrimidic/apurinic endonuclease (AP lyase). T4 denV (414 bp cDNA) encoding T4 en do V (138 amino acid) was synthesized and expressed using either an expression vector, pTriEx-4, in E. coli or a baculovirus AcNPV vector, pBacPAK8, in insect cells. The recombinant His-Tag/T4 endo V (rHis-Tag/T4 endo V) protein expressed from bacteria was purified using one-step affinity chromatography with a HiTrap Chelating HP column and used to make rabbit anti-His-Tag/T4 endo V polyclonal antibody for detection of recombinant T4 endo V (rT4 endo V) expressed in insect cells. In the meantime, the recombinant baculovirus was obtained by cotransfection of BacPAK6 viral DNA and pBP/T4 endo V in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells, and used to infect Sf21 cells to overexpress T4 endo V protein. The level of rT4 endo V protein expressed in Sf21 cells was optimized by varying the virus titers and time course of infection. The optimal expression condition was set as follows; infection of the cells at a MOI of 10 and harvest at 96 h post-infection. Under these conditions, we estimated the amount of rT4 endo V produced in the baculovirus expression vector system to be 125 mg/l. The rT4 endo V was purified to homogeneity by a rapid procedure, consisting of ion-exchange, affinity, and reversed phase chromatographies, based on FPLC. The rT4 endo V positively reacted to an antiserum made against rHis-Tag/T4 endo V and showed a residual nicking activity against CPD-containing DNA caused by UV. This is the first report to have T4 endo V expressed in an insect system to exclude the toxic effect of a bacterial expression system, retaining enzymatic activity.

Effects of Whole Grain Barley Cracked Feed on the Eating Behavior of Hanwoo Steers During Finish Fattening Period (통보리 분쇄 사료 급여가 비육후기 한우 채식행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Choi, Yu-Rak
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of whole grain barley cracked feed on eating behaviors of Hanwoo steers during finish fattening period. Thirty Hanwoo steers (28 months old) were assigned to five dietary treatments: control (C: normal concentrate as a basal diet), and four feeding groups [T1: 10% addition of whole grain barley cracked (WGBC) feed, T2: 20% addition of WGBC, T3: 30% addition of WGBC and T4: 40% WGBC during the finish fattening period, respectively]. The results of eating behaviors for 48 hours are summarized as follows: Total intake (roughage + concentrate) was higher in the order of T4 > T1 > C > T3 > T2 (P<0.05). Eating time was higher in the order of T4 > T3 > C > T1 > T2 (P<0.01). Ruminating time was higher in the order of T4 > T1 > C > T3 > T2 (P<0.05). But resting time was higher in the order of T2 > T1 > C > T3 > T4. The chewing time including eating and ruminating time was higher in the order of T4 > T3 > C > T1 > T2 (P<0.01). Number of bolus, number of total chews, number of chews/bolus and feed value index were highest in T4 (P<0.05). Ruminating time per bolus was highest in C, and T3 was the lowest (P<0.05) as compared to others. Number of bolus per minute was highest in T3, and C is the lowest (P<0.05). Eating rate and chewing efficiency were highest in T2 (P<0.01, 0.05), but ruminating efficiency was higher in T1 than others. The group behavior was higher in the order of resting(78.5%) > ruminating(11.4%) > eating(10.1%). The stand resting of group behavior was higher in the order of T3 > C > T2 > T1 > T4.

Thyroid Function Test in Thyroid Diseases and Pregnancy - The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA - (임신 및 각종 갑상선질환에서 갑상선 기능 판정에 관한 연구 - 혈청유리 $T_4$의 진단적 의의에 관한 고찰 -)

  • Yoo, M.H.;Yoon, H.J.;Shin, Y.T.;Lee, J.C.;Chung, S.I.;Cho, B.Y.;Lee, M.;Lee, M.C.
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1981
  • To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine (FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free $T_4\;and\;T_4,\;T_3,\;T_3RU$, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1. In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, $T_3,\;free\;T_4$ and FTI, $T_4/TBG$ ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. $T_4$ is increased in 94% (18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79% (15/19). 2. In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free $T_4$ and FTI is decreased in all cases. $T_4$ is decreased in 87.5% (7/8), $T_3$ is decreased in 75% (6/8) and $T_4/TBG$ ratio is decreased in 62.5% (5/8). 3. In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, $T_4,\;free\;T_4$, FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and $T_3$ is normal in 60% (3/5) and slightly increased in 40% (2/5). 4. In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free $T_4$ and FTI are decreased in all cases, but $T_4\;and\;T_3,\;T_4/TBG$ ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free $T_4$ or FTI are recommended as optimal thyroid function test. 5. In normal pregnancy, free $T_4$, FTI and $T_4/TBG$ ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters revealed unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6. The coefficients of correlation between free $T_4$ and FTI were 0.862 (p<0.001) and 0.685 (p<0.001) between free $T_4\;and\;T_4/TBG$ ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free $T_4$ was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free $T_4$ measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the diagnosis of hypothyrodism or with $T_3$ for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

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Effect of the Feeding Probiotics, Illite, Activated Carbon, and Hardwood Vinegar on the Meat Quality and Shelf-Life in Chicken Thigh (사료내 생균제, 일라이트, 활성탄 및 목초액의 첨가가 닭 다리육의 품질 및 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Jik;Yoon, Yong-Bum
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.480-485
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    • 2008
  • In this experiment, 5 treatments consisted of control, probiotics (0.2%; T1), illite (1.0%; T2), activated carbon (1.0%; T3), and hardwood vinegar (1.0%; T4) as diets of chicken were evaluated for 35 days through feeding of 200 male chickens (Arbor Acre Broiler). Thigh muscle from slaughtered chickens were analyzed on pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), shear force, and meat color during 10 d of cold storage at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. Groups of T3 and T4 showed higher pH levels compared to the control group, and T4 showed significantly higher value. Over the storage period, all treatment groups showed increase in pH (p<0.05). Values of VBN of T1, T3, and T4 were lower than those of the control group and T2 up to 7 d of storage (p<0.05), but there was no significance at 10 d of storage. Values of TBARS of T3 and T4 were lower than the control group, T1, and T2, while all treated groups showed rapid increase of TBARS values over storage period (p<0.05). Shear force did not show significant difference among treated groups, but it was decreased over storage. Lightness of meat color (L) in treated groups was higher than the control, and T4 showed the highest value during entire storage period (p<0.05). Yellowness levels (b) of T3 and T4 were higher than the control group. These results may suggest the improvement of chicken meat quality and shelf life via the addition 1% activated carbon and 1% hardwood vinegar into feed.

Effect of Dietary Thyroid Hormone on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Serum Thyroid Hormone Concentration and Energy Metabolism of Broiler Chicks (갑상선 호르몬의 경구투여가 육계의 사양성적, 체조성, 혈청 호르몬 농도 및 에너지 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 가천흥;김창혁;채병조;이영철
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary thyroid hormone (T$_3$and T$_4$) on growth, feed conversion ratio and serum T$_3$or T$_4$concentration of broiler chicks. Zero to six week-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven treatment groups for feeding trials with three replication : control, T$_3$(0.1), T$_3$(1.0), T$_3$(5.0), T$_4$(0.1), T$_4$(1.0), T$_4$(5.0) ppm group. Concentrations of T$_3$and T$_4$in serum were analyzed. The weight gain of T$_3$(1.0), T$_3$(5.0) and T$_4$(5.0) groups were significantly lower than that of control. No statistically significant adverse effect was observed in other groups (p〉0.05). Feed intake was significantly lower in T$_3$(0.1, 1.0 and 5.0) and T$_4$(5.0) than in control group (p〈0.05), and the feed conversion ratio had a similar trend to the feed intake change. The contents of liquid and abdominal fat pad in carcass were significantly decreased in all T$_3$and T$_4$groups (p〈0.05). T$_3$and T$_4$concentration in serum was significantly increased at over 1.0ppm of the hormone supplementation level. As T$_3$addition level increased, T$_4$concentration in serum reduced ; however, T$_3$in serum was directly proportional during fasted were slightly increased when T$_3$or T$_4$was added to broiler diets.

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Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis and Structural Comparison of 3 members of Tomato Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (토마토에서 분리한 3종류의 Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene에 대한 염기서열 및 특성비교)

  • 여윤수;예완해;이신우;배신철;류진창;장영덕
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 1999
  • Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4, 3, 1, 5) genomic clones were isolated from tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genomic DNA libraries using tomato PAL5 cDNA sequences as probes. The nucleotide sequences of tPAL1, tPAL4 and tPAL5 were compared. tPAL5 contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 722 amino acids, interrupted by a 710 bp intron in the codon for the amino acid 139. tPAL1 encodes a polypeptide of 249 amino acids which is much shorter than tPAL5 gene due to a premature stop codon and does not contain an intron. tPAL4 encodes a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, interrupted by a 305 bp intron in the codon for the amino acid 138. Premature stop codons observed in tPAL1 and tPAL4 gene produce a short polypeptide rather than a normal polypeptide (722 aa). tPALl shows 87.2% homology with tPAL4 and 85.3% homology with tPAL5 gene whereas tPAL4 showes 91.4% homology with tPAL5 at nucleotide level. In general, phylogenetic analysis showed that genes isolated from tomato, potato, and sweet potato were belong to the same group and another dicot plants such as parsley, bean, soybean, pea and alfalfa formed another group. PAL genes isolated from rice and yeast showed very low homology with other PAL genes and formed the other group.

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Effect of Plowing Frequency and Sowing Dates on the Agronomic Characteristics, Feed Value, Weed Yield and Palatability of Silage Corn (경운횟수와 파종기 이동이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성, 사료가치, 잡초발생 및 가축의 기호성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Byoung-Tae;Hwang, Joo-Hwan;Jeon, Byoung-Tae;Moon, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of plowing frequency and sowing dates on the agronomic characteristics, feed value, weed yield and palatability of silage corn. Treatments were a basal treatment(C: May 5 seeding, plowing once, weeding control once), T1(May 12 seeding, plowing twice, weeding control 0 time), T2(May 19 seeding, plowing three times, weeding control 0 time, T3(May 26 seeding, plowing four times, weeding control 0 time) and T4(June 2 seeding, plowing five times, weeding control 0 time). The experiment was performed at the College of Life and Natural Sciences of Sangju University in Sangju in 2006. The plant height and ear height showed highly in order to C > T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 treatment, leaf length was the highest at T2 (96.0cm). Leaf width and number of dead leaf were the highest at C and T3 (11.2cm), C, C and T1 (4.6), respectively. Stem diameter was the highest at T3 as 31mm, while T2 was the lowest as 25mm (p<0.05). Ear circle showed highly in order of C > T1 > T4 > T3 > T4 (p<0.05), and tip filling degree was the highest at C treatment as 8.8, while T4 treatment was the lowest as 6.0 (p<0.05). The stem hardness and grain hardness were C < T1 < T2 < T3 < T4 (p<0.05). Stem saccharinity was T1(6.1%) was the highest, while T2(3.0%) was the lowest(P<0.05). Fresh yield of weed was the lowest at C treatment as 500 kg/ha, but T1 treatment was the highest as 44,100 kg/ha (p<0.05). Weed coverage rate showed highly in order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > C treatment (p<0.05). Fresh yield of corn was the highest at C treatment as T3,550 kg/ha, but T4 treatment was the lowest as 65,500 kg/ha (p<0.05). Dry matter yield of corn showed highly in order of C(26,978 kg/ha) > T1(26,130 kg/ha) > T2(20,255 kg/ha) > T3(20,255 kg/ha) > T4(17,508 kg/ha) treatment (p<0.05). Crude protein content was T1(7.69%) > T4(7.42%) > T2(6.34%) > T3(5.99%) > C(5.91%) treatment (p<0.05), and Crude fat content showed highly in order of C (2.13%) > T1(2.04%) > T2(1.96%) > T3(1.95%) > T4(1.84%) treatment. Relative palatability of Holstein, Korean native goat and spotted deer was the highest at C treatment, but Korean native cattle was the highest at T1 treatment.

Effect of pH Control on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Chicken Breast Surimi (닭가슴살 Surimi의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 pH 조절의 영향)

  • Jin Sang-Keun;Kim Il-Suk;Hur Sun-Jin;Park Ki-Hun;Ha Ji-Hee;Kang Seoc-Mo;Choi Yeung-Joon;Kim Jin-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of pH adjustment on physico-chemical characteristics of chicken breast surimi. The chicken breast meat was ground with distilled water, of which pH was then adjusted to 2.5 (T1), 3.0 (T2), 10.5 (T3) and 11.0 (T4) for surimi manufacture, respectively. Water content was higher in order of T4>T1>T3>T2 (p<0.05). Crude protein and crude fat were higher in T3 and T4 compared with T1 and T2 (p<0.05). $L^*$ values, myofibrillar protein and water holding capacity of T2 and T4 were higher than those of T1 and T3 (p<0.05). T4 had the lowest yield among the treatments (p<0.05). T1 was higher in yield and pH, whereas breaking force and deformation were higher in T1 (p<0.05). $a^*$ was higher in order of T3>T2>T4>T1 and $b^*$ was lower in T1 compared with other treatments (p<0.05). In textural properties, the chewiness values of T2 and T3 were higher than those of T1 and T4, the hardness was higher in order of T2>T3>T4>T1 (p<0.05). Cohesiveness and gumminess of T1 showed higher values than those of other treatments (p<0.05). In sensory evaluation, the note for appearance was higher in T2 than other treatments (p<0.05), however other traits were not significantly different (p>0.05). Therefore, the alkaline processing (T4, pH 11.0) would be recommended.