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A Study on the Fine Structure of the Marine Diatoms of Korean Coastal Waters - Genus Thalassiosira 3

  • Lee, Jin-Hwan;Park, Joon-Sang
    • ALGAE
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.187-199
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    • 2008
  • A study on the fine structure of the marine diatom Thalassiosira has been carried out during the periods from January 2007 to March 2008 in Korean coastal waters. As the third series of the Thalassiosira species, a fine structure, description, distribution and taxonomic remarks of the six Thalassiosira species were observed by means of light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The critical features of Thalassiosira species were a shape of external tubes of marginal strutted processes and labiate process. Six species showed each different shape of external tubes, marginal strutted processes and labiate process. The shape of external tube was divided into five types: T shape of Thalassiosira curviseriata, small-rounded shape of T. lundiana, double-layer form and flame shape of T. nordenskioeldii, tulip shape of T. punctigera and tooth-shape of T. tenera. This external character may be able to key character for positive identification of the Thalassiosira species. Of these Thalassiosira lundiana, T. minuscula and T. tenera were new records for Korean coastal waters.

SHAPE PRESERVING ADDITIONS OF LR-FUZZY INTERVALS WITH UNBOUNDED SUPPORT

  • Hong, Dug-Hun
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.27 no.5_6
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    • pp.1049-1059
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    • 2009
  • Continuous t-norm based shape preserving additions of LR-fuzzy intervals with unbounded support is studied. The case for bounded support, which was a conjecture suggested by Mesiar in 1997, was proved by the author in 2002 and 2008. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient conditions for a continuous t-norm T that induces DR-shape preserving addition of LR-fuzzy intervals with unbounded support. Some of the results can be deduced from the results given in the paper of Mesiar in 1997. But, we give direct proofs of the results.

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Unbalanced ANOVA for Testing Shape Variability in Statistical Shape Analysis

  • Kim, Jong-Geon;Choi, Yong-Seok;Lee, Nae-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.317-323
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    • 2010
  • Measures are very useful tools for comparing the shape variability in statistical shape analysis. For examples, the Procrustes statistic(PS) is isolated measure, and the mean Procrustes statistic(MPS) and the root mean square measure(RMS) are overall measures. But these measures are very subjective, complicated and moreover these measures are not statistical for comparing the shape variability. Therefore we need to study some tests. It is well known that the Hotelling's $T^2$ test is used for testing shape variability of two independent samples. And for testing shape variabilities of several independent samples, instead of the Hotelling's $T^2$ test, one way analysis of variance(ANOVA) can be applied. In fact, this one way ANOVA is based on the balanced samples of equal size which is called as BANOVA. However, If we have unbalanced samples with unequal size, we can not use BANOVA. Therefore we propose the unbalanced analysis of variance(UNBANOVA) for testing shape variabilities of several independent samples of unequal size.

A Study for Safety Evaluation of the Prestressed Hybrid Beam with T-shape Steel Member which was Developed to Build Large Span Educational Facilities (대공간 교육시설 축조를 위하여 개발된 T형 강재를 이용한 프리스트레스트 합성보의 안전성 평가를 위한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hun;Kim, Tae-Hui
    • The Journal of Sustainable Design and Educational Environment Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate structural safety and economic efficiency of prestressed hybrid beam using T-shape steel member which was developed to build large span educational facilities. Hybrid beam specimens were manufactured with 16.0m long and load was uniformly distributed by 12.0kN steel hexahedrons. In this study, honeycomb beam design process was introduced to T-shape section steel beam design. Vibration condition of specimens were analyzed by Korea Building Code 2009 and AISC Steel Design Guide Series-11. As a result, the prestressed hybrid beam with T-shape steel member has about 10.4% of cost reduction effect.

Active shape change of an SMA hybrid composite plate

  • Daghia, Federica;Inman, Daniel J.;Ubertini, Francesco;Viola, Erasmo
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2010
  • An experimental study was carried out to investigate the shape control of plates via embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. An extensive body of literature proposes the use of SMA wires to actively modify the shape or stiffness of a structure; in most cases, however, the study focuses on modeling and little experimental data is available. In this work, a simple proof of concept specimen was built by attaching four prestrained SMA wires to one side of a carbon fiber laminate plate strip. The specimen was clamped at one end and tested in an environmental chamber, measuring the tip displacement and the SMA temperature. At heating, actuation of the SMA wires bends the plate; at cooling deformation is partially recovered. The specimen was actuated a few times between two fixed temperatures $T_c$ and $T_h$, whereas in the last actuation a temperature $T_f$ > $T_h$ was reached. Contrary to most model predictions, in the first actuation the transformation temperatures are significantly higher than in the following cycles, which are stable. Moreover, if the temperature $T_h$ is exceeded, two separate actuations occur during heating: the first follows the path of the stable cycles; the second, starting at $T_h$, is similar to the first cycle. An interpretation of the phenomenon is given using some differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements. The observed behavior emphasizes the need to build a more comprehensive constitutive model able to include these effects.

Synthesis of Polyurethanes Containing Poly(dimethyl siloxane) and Their Thermal and Shape Memory Properties (폴리디메틸실록산 성분을 포함하는 폴리우레탄의 합성과 이들의 열적 및 형상기억 특성)

  • Ra, Sang Hee;Kim, Young Ho
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.602-612
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    • 2014
  • Polyurethanes containing poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) unit, PU-Si, were synthesized and their thermal and shape memory properties were investigated. Various amounts of PDMS units were incorporated via a solution polymerization method using mixed diols of poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) (PTMEG) and PDMS-diol as the soft segment (SS) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol as the hard segment (HS). Two series of PU-Si samples with an HS content of 23% or 32% were prepared and analyzed. For PU-Si with an HS content of 23%, both the cold crystallization temperature ($T_{cc}$) and melt crystallization temperature of the SS domain moved higher temperature with increasing PDMS content, while the melting temperature ($T_m$) of the SS domain remained unaffected. The increase in HS content from 23% to 32% resulted in the increased $T_m$ and disappearance of $T_{cc}$. The shape recovery of PU-Si flim with an HS content of 32% increased while its shape retention decreased as PDMS content increased.

A study on the reidual stress and strain deu to welding of L and T shapes (L형 및 T형 잠류응력과 변형율에 관한 연구)

  • ;;Kim, Won Young
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 1981
  • This paper presents a method of calculation of the stresses, the strains and the deflections due to welding in L shape and in T shape. Using step by step method of plasticity and establishing the equilibrium conditions in section, we calculated thermal stresses and strains during welding and in the final step of calculation we got the residual stresses, strains and the deflections due to welding. Also we measured the stresses and the strains with hole-drilling method and compared the results with the method of calculation presented in this paper. Because of its symmetry of section, the deflection due to welding in T shape is generally much less than that in L shape. The residual stresses are tensile in welded joints and HAZ, and compressive in base metal as butt welding of plates, but the compressive stresses in base metal decrease repidly as the points are away from welded joint except horizontal plates of T shape. The theoretical method of calculaiton presented in this paper coincides faily well with the experiment.

Internal Short-circuiting Estimation in Clearwell : Part A. Improving T10/T Using Intra Basin and Diffuser Wall by Applying ISEM to Field (정수지 내부 단락류 발생 평가 : Part A. 정수장 내부 단락류 분석을 통한 장폭비와 형태가 T10/T 값에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Shin, Eunher;Lee, Seungjae;Kim, Sunghoon;Park, Heekyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2008
  • Disinfection is a basic and effective microorganism inactivation method and historically contributed a decrease in waterborne diseases. To guarantee the disinfection ability, improving T in CT value is important. Many indexes are used to estimate the hydraulic efficiency, however, these are black-box analysis. Therefore it is need to develope new estimation method. In this study, internal short-circuiting estimation method (ISEM) is developed using CFD and we inquire into the factor which causes increase of $T_{10}/T$ value as LW ratio increases. And the effect of shape on the relation of LW ratio and $T_{10}/T$ is analyzed. As LW ratio increases, internal short-circuiting index (ISI) of influent and effluent zone is rapidly reduced and recirculation and dead zone are reduced in channel zone. Therefore, as the $T_{10}/T$ value converges maximum value, ISI curve is changed from "V" shape to "U" shape and hydraulic efficiency is improved especially in downstream portion of clearwell. The less the shape ratio(width/length of clearwell) is the less the $T_{10}/T$ value is at a same LW ratio because the portion of turning zone increases as shape ration decreases, therefore more boundary separation is generated.

T-sum of bell-shaped fuzzy intervals

  • Hong, Dug-Hun
    • 한국데이터정보과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.81-95
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    • 2006
  • The usual arithmetic operations on real numbers can be extended to arithmetical operations on fuzzy intervals by means of Zadeh's extension principle based on a t-norm T. A t-norm is called consistent with respect to a class of fuzzy intervals for some arithmetic operation if this arithmetic operation is closed for this class. It is important to know which t-norms are consistent with a particular type of fuzzy intervals. Recently Dombi and Gyorbiro proved that addition is closed if the Dombi t-norm is used with two bell-shaped fuzzy intervals. A result proved by Mesiar on a strict t-norm based shape preserving additions of LR-fuzzy intervals with unbounded support is recalled. As applications, we define a broader class of bell-shaped fuzzy intervals. Then we study t-norms which are consistent with these particular types of fuzzy intervals. Dombi and Gyorbiro's results are special cases of the results described in this paper.

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The Effects The Type of Canes-Handle Affects in Recovering-Balance of Hemiplegic patients (지팡이 손잡이 형태가 편마비 환자의 균형 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Yeol;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Park, Min-Chull;Han, Jin-Tae;Kweon, Oh-Hyun;Bae, Sung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: We compared T-type and I-type canes on postural balance in 28 hemiplegic patients. Methods: Subjects were allocated randomly into two groups: a T-shape cane group (n=14) and an I-shape cane group (n=14). Before the test, subjects were trained by a physical therapist to walk with a cane for 6 weeks. The Main Outcome Measures were measured as maximal sway velocity, sway path, sway area, and partial weight bearing using a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) and ambulation velocity using a 'Timed up and go test'. We also measured the maximal ambulation velocity. Results: The distribution of weight bearing on the affected side without the cane was 35% in the I-shape cane group and 36% in the T-shape cane group. After training, weight bearing on the affected side increased by 45% in the I-shape cane group and 40% in the T-shape cane group. With the cane held in the hand, weight bearing on the affected side in the T-shape cane group decreased by 3%. Conclusion: The I-shaped cane increased static standing balance, including hemiplegic side weight bearing. Therefore, I-shape canes can improve the balance of hemiplegic patients.

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