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Factors Influencing Subjective Happiness among Korean Adolescent: Analysis of 2014 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey (청소년의 주관적 행복감에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구 : 2014년 제 10차 청소년건강행태온라인조사 자료 분석)

  • Kim, Han-Na;Kim, Jeong-Seon;Roh, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.7656-7666
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of subjective happiness among Korean adolescents and to supply basic data for enhancing to subjective happiness among Korean adolescents. This study used the 2014 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior On-lin Survey data. It conducted a secondary data analysis of 72,060 cases. It conducted frequency analysis, t-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis by SPSS 18.0. Although various independent variables influenced on emotional support(t=44.335, p<,001), gender(t=27.730, p<.001), grade(t=25.347, p<.001), economic status(t=-25.345, p<.001), living arrangement(t=-6.158, p<.001), school record(t=-7.512, p<.001), father's educational status(t=-2.378, p<.001), subjective health status(t=46.062, p<.001), depression(t=-23.837, p<.001), sleep(t=19.871, p<.001), level of stress(t=-78.685, p<.001), alcohol(t=-13.481, p<.001) and drug use(t=-2.671, p<.01), smoking(t=-11.988, p<.001), breakfast(t=4.443, p<.001), activity(t=4.757, p<.001) were key factors of subjective happiness among Korean adolescents. The findings of this study were as follow: male middle students, who had emotional support, higher economic status, school record and father's educational level, living with family showed higher levels of subjective happiness. It also having good subjective health status, not depressed, more sufficient sleep, lower stress, no experience of drinking, smoking and drugs, more physical activity and having breakfast showed higher levels of subjective happiness.

Effect of pH Control on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Chicken Breast Surimi (닭가슴살 Surimi의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 pH 조절의 영향)

  • Jin Sang-Keun;Kim Il-Suk;Hur Sun-Jin;Park Ki-Hun;Ha Ji-Hee;Kang Seoc-Mo;Choi Yeung-Joon;Kim Jin-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of pH adjustment on physico-chemical characteristics of chicken breast surimi. The chicken breast meat was ground with distilled water, of which pH was then adjusted to 2.5 (T1), 3.0 (T2), 10.5 (T3) and 11.0 (T4) for surimi manufacture, respectively. Water content was higher in order of T4>T1>T3>T2 (p<0.05). Crude protein and crude fat were higher in T3 and T4 compared with T1 and T2 (p<0.05). $L^*$ values, myofibrillar protein and water holding capacity of T2 and T4 were higher than those of T1 and T3 (p<0.05). T4 had the lowest yield among the treatments (p<0.05). T1 was higher in yield and pH, whereas breaking force and deformation were higher in T1 (p<0.05). $a^*$ was higher in order of T3>T2>T4>T1 and $b^*$ was lower in T1 compared with other treatments (p<0.05). In textural properties, the chewiness values of T2 and T3 were higher than those of T1 and T4, the hardness was higher in order of T2>T3>T4>T1 (p<0.05). Cohesiveness and gumminess of T1 showed higher values than those of other treatments (p<0.05). In sensory evaluation, the note for appearance was higher in T2 than other treatments (p<0.05), however other traits were not significantly different (p>0.05). Therefore, the alkaline processing (T4, pH 11.0) would be recommended.

Psychosocial Factors Influence the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder among Psychiatric Patients (정신질환자들에 동반된 기능성 위장질환에 영향을 미치는 정신사회적 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Deung-Hyun;Jang, Seung-Ho;Ryu, Han-Seung;Choi, Suck-Chei;Rho, Seung-Ho;Paik, Young-Suk;Lee, Hye-Jin;Lee, Sang-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial characteristics of functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) in patients with psychiatric disorders. Methods : This study was conducted with 144 outpatients visiting the psychiatric clinic at a university hospital. FGIDs were screened according to the Rome III questionnaire-Korean version. Demographic factors were investigated, and psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Korean, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Chisquared test and student's t-test were used as statistical analysis methods. Results : There were differences in education level between two groups divided according to FGID status (${\chi}^2=10.139$, p=0.017). Comparing the psychiatric disorder by FGID group, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group showed significant differences (${\chi}^2=11.408$, p=0.022). According to FGID status, IBS group showed significant differences for anxiety (t=-3.106, p=0.002), depressive symptom (t=-2.105, p=0.037), somatic symptom (t=-3.565, p<0.001), trait anger (t=-3.683, p<0.001), anger-in (t=-2.463, p=0.015), and anger-out (t=-2.355, p=0.020). Functional dyspepsia group showed significant differences for anxiety (t=-4.893, p<0.001), depressive symptom (t=-3.459, p<0.001), somatic symptom (t=-7.906, p<0.001), trait-anger (t=-4.148, p<0.001), state-anger (t=-2.181, p=0.031), anger-in (t=-2.684, p=0.008), and anger-out (t=-3.005, p=0.003). Nonerosive reflux disease group showed significant differences for anxiety (t=-4.286, p<0.001), depressive symptom (t=-3.402, p<0.001), somatic symptom (t=-7.162, p<0.001), trait anger (t=-2.994, p=0.003), state anger (t=-2.259, p=0.025), anger-in (t=-2.772, p=0.006), and anger-out (t=-2.958, p=0.004). Conclusions : Patients with psychiatric disorders had a high prevalence of FGID, and various psychosocial factors contributed to such differences. Therefore, the psychiatric approach can offer better understandings and treatments to patients with FGID.

A study on the change of the views on E.M.T. profession of the E.M.T. college students (일부 전문대 응급구조학생의 응급구조전문직관의 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hak-Soo;Choi, Eun-Sook;Kim, Jin-Hue;Shin, Dong-Min;Lee, In-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.28-41
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the change of perceptions related to E.M.T. profession of E.M.T. student and to provide the basic data for development of curriculum. The subjects of the survey were 216 students from 3 junior college by questionaire from November 25 to November 29, 1996 in Kwang-Ju, Cheong-Ju, and Kong-Ju. The results were analyzed using the SAS and can be summerized as follows : 1. The view on profession was a statistically significant difference inspecial knowledge & skill training (t=-1.686, P<.001), high income (t=-0.753, P<.05) 2. The view on competence as a E.M.T. was a statistically significant differncein sufficient professional knowledge on the E.M.T. (t=-1.144, P<.001), own's health (t=-0.808, P<.001), sincerity and responsibility (t=-1.429, P<.01), satisfaction and effort (t=-1.335, P<.01), boundary of affairs (t=-1.356, P<.01) 3. The view on E.M.T. profession was a statistically significant difference inprotect of pt. life & to relieve the pain (t=-2.388, P<.001) 4. The view on necessary knowledge of E.M.T. was a statistically significant difference in patient assessment (t=-2.168, P<.001), ACLS (t=1.678, P<.001), hemorrhage & shock (t=-3.252, P<.001), trauma (t=-4.284, P<.001), cardiopulmonary disturbance (t=-2.897, P<.001), acute abdomen (t=-4.284, P<.001), neonatal disease (t=-4.032, P<.001), OBGY disease(t=-4.151, P<.001), emergency delivery (t=-2.825, P<.001), infectious disease (t=-2.930, P<.001), environmental emergency (t=-3.123, P<.05), recording(t=2.22, P<.05) 5. The view on ideology of E.M.T. was a statistically significant difference in belief & faith (t=-2.344, P<.001), knowing of own (t=-2.142, P<.01), humanity (t=-2.581, P<.05), knowing of patient (t=-2.079, P<.05).

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Gab Theory and Minimal Intuition on Truth (간극이론과 진리에 대한 최소직관)

  • Lee, Jinhee
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.145-184
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    • 2016
  • Williamson(1994) proved incompatibility of Gab Theory and Tarski T-schema. But this does not means that Gab Theory could not involve intuition on truth that is expressed by T-schema. I will show that Gab Theory and mutual entailment of 'p' and 'it is true that p'(p⊨T

    and T

    ⊨p) are compatible. It will draw that Gab Theory can involve minimal intuition on truth. After all what I want to reveal is logical space for Gab Theory through the compatibility of the mutual entailment and negation of the Principle of Bivalence. To prove the compatibility, I will present a consequent relation which should be accepted whenever we accept Gab Theory and demonstrate Gab Theory and the mutual entailment imply following two thesis; 1) not-T

    and T are not equivalent. 2) p entails T

    but not-T

    does not entails not-p.

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Musculoskeletal Diseases' of the 119 Rescue party's (119 구급대원의 근골격계 질환)

  • Shin, Sang-Yol;Jung, Ji-Yun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.6461-6468
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    • 2013
  • This research is conducted to investigate musculoskeletal diseases' that can be developed in paramedics body whose are in charge of emergency situations before they arrive at the hospital. The data were collected from 216 of paramedics from July 2, 2012 to July 31, 2012. As a result, 57.9% of participants have already felt the subjective symptoms of the muscular skeletal diseases, and 47.2% of them felt the pain on their waists and hips. These pains are highly related to their working situations. In the aspects of the muscuoskeletal diseases' symptoms, general characteristics, gender (t=16.579, p=.000), age (t=102.344, p=.000), education (t=5.363, p=.027), drinking (t=6.999, p=.030), and smoking (t=6.266, p=.009), have significance differences. Professional characteristics, career (t=67.684, p=.000), passengers of the ambulance (t=7.717, p=.004), qualification or license (t=25.480, p=.000), and position (t=74.615, p=.000), have also significance differences.

Effect of Protein Deprivation on Subsequent Efficiency of Dietary Protein Utilization in Finishing Pigs

  • Whang, K.Y.;Donovan, S.M.;Easter, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.659-665
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    • 2000
  • A nitrogen (N) balance trial was conducted to examine the effect of N deprivation on subsequent N retention, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and IGF-I levels and the ratio of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 to IGFBP-l and -2. Pigs in treatment (T) 1 were given diet A (2.39% N) and those in T2 and T3 were given diet B (1.31% N) and excreta were collected (period 1 (P1)). Pigs in T1 continued to receive diet A while diets for T2 and T3 were changed to diets A and C (2.74% N), respectively. The excreta were collected for two more periods (P2 and P3). During P1, pigs in T2 and T3 retained 50% less N (p<0.001) than those in T1. However, pigs provided T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.05) retained more N than those assigned to T1 during P2. Pigs in T3 tended to retain more (p=0.10) N than those receiving T2 for the same period. The BUN values were lower (p<0.05) for pigs assigned to T2 and T3 than T1 during P1 and P2. Both IGF-I and IGFBP ratios of pigs assigned to T1 were higher (p<0.05) than those given T2 and T3 during P1 but no differences were found during P2 and P3.

Quality Characteristics of Aerobic Packed Pork during Storage after Fermentation with Soy Sauce, Red Pepper and Soybean Paste Seasonings (간장, 고추장 및 된장 양념으로 발효시킨 함기포장 돈육의 저장기간 동안 품질 특성)

  • Jin, S.K.;Kim, I.S.;Hah, K.H.;Lyou, H.J.;Park, K.H.;Lee, J.R.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.679-690
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics of aerobic packed pork during storage after fermentation with soy sauce, red pepper and soybean paste seasonings. The ham of pork were cut to cube($7{\time}10{\time}2$cm) and Korea traditional seasonings such as soy sauce(T1), red pepper paste(T2), soybean paste(T3) were seasoned by the proportions of meat to seasonings(1:1), respectively. The seasoned sample were fermented by fill into plastic box at $1{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. And then, the fermented meat from each pack was aerobic packed and stored at $1{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for up to 28 days. The pH of T1 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T2 and T3 at 1 day of storage, but were significantly(P<0.05) higher at 14 and 28 days of storage. The water-holding capacity of T1were significantly(P<0.05) higher compared to T2 and T3 at 1 and 28 days of storage. The shear force of T3 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T1 during storage. The surface meat L* values of T3 were significantly(P<0.05) higher than those of T1 and T2, but a* and b* values of T2 were significantly(P<0.05) higher. The volatile basic nitrogen(VBN) of T3 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T2 at 1 and 14 days of storage, but T1 were significantly(P<0.05) lower at 28 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) of T3 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T1 and T2. The total plate counts of T1 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T2 and T3 at 1 day of storage, but T2 were significantly(P<0.05) lower at 14 and 28 days of storage. The Escherichia coli of T1 and T3 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T2 at 1 day of storage. The Lactobacilli spp. of T2 were significantly(P<0.05) lower compared to T1 and T3.

Properties of $T_1-OH-T_2$(T1 = Al, B and T2 = P, Si) Bridges on Metal-Substituted $AlPO_4-5$ Molecular Sieves : MNDO Calculations (금속-치환 $AlPO_4-5$ 분자체에서 가교 $T_1-OH-T_2(T_1$=Al,B 그리고 $T_2$= P, Si)에 대한 성질 : MNDO)

  • Son, Man Sik;Baek, U Hyeon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1994
  • Semiempirical MNDO calculations are employed to study ionicity of OH groups and stability in $T_1-OH-T_2bridges(T_1$ = Al, B and $T_2$ = P, Si) such as found in aluminophosphate family($AlPO_4-5$, BAPO-5, and SAPO-5) molecular sieves. Dimeric model clusters of Al-OH-P, B-OH-P and Al-OH-Si bridges were considered. It is shown that the elongation of the T-O bond, upon replacement of Al by B, occurs preferentially by a local deformation of the Al-O-P bridge. But the elongation of the T-O bond occurs preferentially by a rotation of Al-O-Si bridge upon substitution P for Si. Also, the ionicity of OH groups and stability increase in order to B-OH-P < Al-OH-P < Al-OH-Si bridge.

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Effect of Pleurotus eryngii and Meat Particle Size on Sausage Quality (새송이버섯과 원료육의 입자 차이가 소시지의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jin, Sang-Keun;Kim, Il-Suk;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Jeong, Ki-Jong;Moon, Sung-Sil
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2006
  • The effect of Pleurotus eryngii and meat particle size on properties of sausage quality was investigated. Pleurotus eryngii and meat were processed and combined in the following three ways: T1 (minced Pleurotus eryngii+emulsified meat), T2 (chopped Pleurotus eryngii+emulsified meat) and T3 (chopped Pleurotus eryngii+chopped meat). The pH values of sausages showed T1 to be significantly higher (p<0.05) than T2 and T3. The shear force values showed no significant difference between treatments. T2 and T3 had significantly higher hardness values (p<0.05) than T1. With regard to color, the lightness and whiteness of sausage were significantly higher (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 than for T3. No significant differences between treatments were found regarding redness and yellowness. Panels rated T2 and T3 significantly higher (p<0.05) for aroma and flavor than T1. T2 was rated significantly juicier (p<0.05) than T1, T2 and T3 were rated significantly higher (p<0.05) for overall acceptability than T1.