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A case of fused thoracic vertebrae and deformity of the lumbar vertebrae in equine (말의 흉추골유합과 요추골변형의 1례)

  • Kim, Chong-Sup;Song, Chi-Won;Cho, Gyu-Hyen;Lee, Sang-Rae;Yang, Je-Hoon;Won, Chung-Kil
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 2003
  • The fused thoracic vertebra and deformity of the lumbar vertebrae in the female Thoroughbred horse were observed macroscopically. The 11th and 12th thoracic vertebrae (T) were partially fused. They were composed of three parts between the spinous process of the 11th and 12th T, left and right caudal articular processes of the 11th T, and left and right cranial articular processes of the 12th T. The vertical surface of cranial articular process of the 11th T and left mamillary process of the 12th T were absent. The left caudal part of the transverse process of the 12th T and left costal fovea of the transverse process of the 12th T were severely deformed. On the other hand, the left transverse process of the first lumbar vertebra (L) was a typical rib-like transverse process and two times longer than the right transverse process of the 2nd L. The right transverse process of 4th L has an oval concave facet on the medial part of caudal border for articulation with the right transverse process of 5th L; the latter has a corresponding convex facet on the medial part of the cranial border in the right transverse process of the 5th L.

Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

  • Dohme-Meier, F.;Bee, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2012
  • An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (${\Sigma}18$:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that this isomer is subjected to greater biohydrogenation with increasing supply than 18:2t10c12. The fact that unprotected 18:2t10c12 escaped biohydrogenation in sufficient amounts to affect milk fat synthesis reveals opportunities to develop feeding strategies where reduced milk fat production is desirable or required by the metabolic state of the cow.

Haplotype Analysis of MDRI Gene (Exon 12, 21 and 26) in Korean (한국인에 있어서 MDRI 유전자(exon 12, 21 및 26)의 일배체형 분석)

  • Kim, Se-Mi;Park, Sun-Ae;Cho, Hea-Young;Lee, Yong-Bok
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the SNPs on MDR1 exon 12, 21 and 26 in Korean population and to analyze haplotype frequency on MDR1 exon 12, 21 and 26 in Korean population. A total of 426 healthy subjects was genotyped for MDR1, using polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic tests. Haplotype was statistically inferred using an algorithm based on the expectation-maximization (EM). MDR1 C1236T genotyping revealed that the frequency for homozygous wild-type (C/C), heterozygous (C/T) and for homozygous mutant-type (T/T) was 20.19%, 46.48% and 33.33%, respectively. MDR1 G2677T/A genotyping revealed that the frequency for homozygous G/G, heterozygous G/T, homozygous T/T, heterozygous G/A, heterozygous T/A and for homozygous A/A type was 30.75%, 42.26%, 9.86%, 7.51 %, 7.04% and 2.58%, respectively. MDR1 C3435T genotyping revealed that the frequency for homozygous wild-type (C/C), heterozygous (C/T) and for homozygous mutant-type (T/T) was 38.73%, 50.24% and 11.03%, respectively. Twelve haplotypes were observed. Of the three major haplotypes identified (CGC, TTT and TGC), the CGC haplotype were mainly predominant in the Korean populations and accounted for 29.96% of total haplotype in Korean.

Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis Profile of Erythromycin-Clindamycin Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes Isolated in Korea (국내분리 Erythromycin-Clindamycin 내성 Streptococcus pyogenes에 대한 Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis 양상 분석)

  • Lee, Young-Hee;Hwang, Kyu-Jam;Lee, Kwang-Jun;Park, Kang-Soo;Bae, Song-Mee;Sung, Hwa-Young;Kim, Ki-Sang;Lee, Chong-Sam
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2000
  • Ninety two strains of Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated from patients with pharyngitis, scarlet fever, skin infection, and invasive streptococcal infections in Seoul, Korea from January to December, 1998. All isolates were epidemiologically characterized by T protein serotype, and serum opacity factor (OF) detection to phenotypes. To analyze the genetic relationship, fifty two isolates including 32 erythromycin-clindamycin (Em-Cm) resistant strains, 20 antimicrobial susceptible strains were attempted to the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). T protein serotype showed 16 kinds in distribution including T12 and T4. Among the total isolates, 40 strains (43.5%) belonged to the T12 serotype and twenty strains (21.7%) to T4 serotype. On the other hand, when infection aspect of S. pyogenes isolates were analysed by T serotype distribution, T12 type was predominant for pharyngitidis which contributed to 21 strains (53%) and for skin infection isolates which contributed to 11 strains (28%), respectively. In case of T4 type, it was the most predominant pharyngitidis isolates which contributed to 8 strains (40%). In T serotype distribution of Em-Cm resistant strains, 27 strains (84%) of the thirty two showed T12 serotype. In minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Em-Cm resistance isolates, thirty two isolates showed resistant to erythromycin 27 strains (84%), had high MIC of >$128\;{\mu}g/ml$. And also to clindamycin, twenty two strains (69%) had high MIC of >$128\;{\mu}g/ml$. When OF detection of Em-Cm resistance of S. pyogenes isolates were analyzed by T serotype distribution, T12 serotype isolates revealed that all of the isolates except one strain were OF negative. In PFGE profile analysis to Em-Cm resistance isolates, of the twenty seven, Em-Cm resistance of T12 serotype isolates, 26 strains showed identical PFGE profile and all of these isolates revealed that OF negative. Eighty four percent of Em-Cm resistance S. pyogenes isolates had identical phenotype and PFGE profile. These results strongly suggested that the Em-Cm resistant S. pyogenes isolates from Seoul area showed close genetic correlation and PFGE could be available tool for molecular epidemiology.

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Why Dynamic Security for the Internet of Things?

  • Hashemi, Seyyed Yasser;Aliee, Fereidoon Shams
    • Journal of Computing Science and Engineering
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.12-23
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    • 2018
  • The Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem potentially includes heterogeneous devices with different processing mechanisms as well as very complicated network and communication models. Thus, analysis of data associated with adverse conditions is much more complicated. Moreover, mobile things in the IoT lead to dynamic alteration of environments and developments of a dynamic and ultra-large-scale (ULS) environment. Also, IoT and the services provided by that are mostly based on devices with limited resources or things that may not be capable of hosting conventional controls. Finally, the dynamic and heterogeneous and ULS environment of the IoT will lead to the emergence of new security requirements. The conventional preventive and diagnostic security controls cannot sufficiently protect it against increasing complication of threats. The counteractions provided by these methods are mostly dependent on insufficient static data that cannot sufficiently protect systems against sophisticated and dynamically evolved attacks. Accordingly, this paper investigates the current security approaches employed in the IoT architectures. Moreover, we define the dynamic security based on dynamic event analysis, dynamic engineering of new security requirements, context awareness and adaptability, clarify the need for employment of new security mechanism, and delineate further works that need to be conducted to achieve a secure IoT.

Effect of trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Production of Prostaglandin E2, Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Porcine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

  • Seo, Hae-Ryun;Ahn, Changhwan;Kang, Byeong-Teck;Kang, Ji-Houn;Jeung, Eui-Bae;Yang, Mhan-Pyo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). t10c12-CLA was treated with different concentrations in culture medium of LPS$na{\ddot{i}}ve$ and LPS-stimulated PBMCs. The mRNA expressions of prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$)-synthase, COX-2 and 5-LOX were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the production levels of $PGE_2$ and 5-LOX in culture supernatant from PBMCs with or without LPS were assessed by ELISA. In LPS$na{\ddot{i}}ve$ PBMCs, treatment of t10c12-CLA significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expressions of PGE2 synthase and 5-LOX compared to vehicle control. Expression of COX-2 mRNA did not show significant difference compared to vehicle control by t10c12-CLA treatment in LPS$na{\ddot{i}}ve$ PBMCs. However, the addition of LPS in PBMCs markedly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of COX-2, $PGE_2$ synthase and 5-LOX, and also significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the production of $PGE_2$ and 5-LOX relative to LPS$na{\ddot{i}}ve$ PBMCs, respectively. However, the addition of t10c12-CLA significantly (p < 0.01) suppressed the LPS-induced excessive expression of COX-2, $PGE_2$ synthase, and 5-LOX compared to those of PBMCs treated with LPS alone. The production levels of $PGE_2$ and 5-LOX in culture supernatant from LPS-stimulated PBMCs were also significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by the treatment of t10c12-CLA compared to LPS alone. These results suggested that t10c12-CLA has an anti-inflammatory effect via dual inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX with gene expression and production level in LPS-stimulated porcine PBMCs. Therefore, it was thought that t10c12-CLA can attenuate the inflammatory response by down-regulation of eicosanoids production.

A Study on the Strength Characteristics of the FRP Bonding Method (FRP 이음방식에 따른 구조강도 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kung-Woo;Kang, Dae-Kon;Baek, Myoung-Kee;Park, Jai-Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.778-783
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    • 2015
  • We studied about the strength characteristics of the FRP bonding method due to reduce accident on the oceans and protect life for my people. We test tension and bending strength of butt joint, lap joint, V-scarf joint, X-scarf joint. The result of test, it's pattern is similar both tension and bending strength. Tension strength and bending strength was excellent in order to X-scarf-butt joint-V-scarf-lap joint. The tension strength is the best properties X-scarf showed a 57% strength rate of the basic material, and bending strength showed a 77% strength rate of the basic material. Overall, the X-scarf 12t joint has most excellent properties of tension and bending strength. The lap joint has worst properties of tension and bending strength. We have to test having different over-lay of V-scarf and X-scarf joint each 12t, 16t, 20t. V-scarf of 20t over-lay has excellent character of tension and bending strength. But X-scarf of 12t over-lay has excellent character of tension and bending strength. The results are shown to the contrary. The ship is received a lot of stress. it's hard to compare a direction both actual and test. But we can acknowledge material basic characteristic of strength through tension and bending test. We give the four repair method; butt joint, lap joint, V-scarf joint, X-scarf joint and the reduced ratio in comparison with basic material; In addition give the separated data for V-scarf and X-scarf characteristic of 12t, 16t, 20t overlay length. For our study repair man can select good repair method in his work station.

Improved Reproductive Efficiency in Gilts by Intrauterine Infusion of Killed Boar Semen before Breeding

  • Capitan, Severino S.;Penalba, F.F.;Geromo, F.B.;Dalumpienes, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.789-792
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    • 2006
  • Two separate trials were conducted to determine the effects of uterine priming prior to first breeding and quantify any changes in the reproductive efficiency of gilts. In trial I twelve (12) gilts were randomly assigned to 3 treatments:T1:infusion of distilled water (control), T2: single infusion of killed semen (KS1), and T3: double infusion of killed semen (KS2). Each treatment had 4 breeding gilts which were bred by natural insemination (NI). In trial II, another set of 12 breeding gilts were randomly allotted to the same treatments and were subsequently bred by artificial insemination (AI). Infusions, through the use of AI catheters, were done during the $2^{nd}$ estrous cycle for T1 and T2, whereas infusions for T3 were made during the $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ cycles. Regular breeding was subsequently made during the $3^{rd}$ estrous cycle. All gilts that returned to cycle were rebred within the 30-day period. In trial I (natural breeding), total piglets born was higher (p<0.05) in T2 (12.75 piglets) and T3 (11.75 piglets) than in the control (10.5 piglets). T3 obtained the highest (p<0.05) litter size (10.25 piglets) and heaviest litter weight (74.12 kg) at 28 days weaning, followed by T2 (9.80 piglets and 65.0 kg, respectively). The control yielded the lowest (p<0.05) litter size (7.50) and the lightest litter weight (47.00 kg) at weaning. For Trial II gilts (artificially inseminated), T3 gave higher (p<0.05) litter size born alive (10.88 piglets), total piglets born (11.72 piglets) and live litter weight at birth (15.30 kg) than those of T2 and the control. These results indicate that prebreeding intrauterine infusion of killed boar semen, either single or double, improved the reproductive performance of gilts.