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Study on Performance and Meat Characteristics in Korean Native Commercial Chicken I. Study on Performance in Korean Native Commercial Chicken by Feeding System by Feeding System (한국재래닭의 육용실용계의 발육 및 육질특성 구명 연구 1. 사료 급여체계에 따른 한국재래닭 육용실용계의 발육능력)

  • 강보석;이상진;김상호;김웅배;오봉국
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding system on performance in Korean Native Commercial Chicken. A total 864 birds produced from (Cornish ♂ X (Korean Native Chicken ♂ XRhode Island Red♀)♀ ] crossbreeds in National Livestock Research Institute, for 16 weeks. Feeding system of T1 and T$_2$ were same types from hatch to 8 weeks, starter diets(O~4 weeks, mash, ME 3,100kcal, CP 22.94%), grower diets(4~8 weeks, crumble, ME 3,100kcal, CP 19.31%). Nutrient content of finisher diets of T$_1$(pellet, ME 3,200kcal, CP 20.44%) was higher than T$_2$(mash, ME 3,100kcal, CP 14.88%) in order to improve meat quality for 8~16 weeks. Fertility and hatchability of Korean Native Commercial Chicken was 83.9% and 69.7%, respectively. Viabilities of T$_1$ and T$_2$ at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks were 98.8%, 97.9%, 96.5% and 99.1%, 95. 8%, 92.8%, 90.3%, respectively. The viability of 0 to 8 weeks was not significantly in feed treatments, but 12 and 16 weeks was significantly T$_1$ higher than T$_2$(P<0.05). Body weights of T$_1$and T$_2$ at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks were 551g, 1,379g, 2,441g, 3,056g and 554g, 1,360g, 2,254g, 2,956g, respectively. The body weight of 0 to 8 weeks was not significantly feed treatments but 12 and 16 weeks was significantly T1 higher than T$_2$(P<0.05). Feed conversion of T$_1$ and T$_2$ to 4, 8,12 and 16 weeks were 1.91, 2.28, 3.34, 4.23 and 1.90, 2.28, 3.53, 4.46, respectively. The feed conversion of 0 to 8 weeks was not significantly feed treatments but 12 and 16 weeks was significantly T$_1$ lower than T$_2$(P<0.05). The ME intake 1 bird per 1 day of T$_1$ and T$_2$were 3S9kcal, 357kca1, respectively, not significantly feed treatments but CP intake were 24.8g, 20.3g, respectively. T$_2$ was lower than T$_1$(P$_1$ and T$_2$were 13,426kca1, 13,819Ykcal, respectively, not significantly feed treatments but CP requirement per kg body weight gain were 928g, 763g, respectively, T$_2$ was lower than T$_1$(P<0.05).

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t10,c12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Upregulates Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis and Triglyceride Synthesis via mTOR Pathway Activation

  • Go, Gwang-Woong;Oh, Sangnam;Park, Miri;Gang, Gyoungok;McLean, Danielle;Yang, Han-Sul;Song, Min-Ho;Kim, Younghoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1569-1576
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    • 2013
  • In mice, supplementation of t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increases liver mass and hepatic steatosis via increasing uptake of fatty acids released from adipose tissues. However, the effects of t10,c12 CLA on hepatic lipid synthesis and the associated mechanisms are largely unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that gut microbiota-producing t10,c12 CLA would induce de novo lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG) synthesis in HepG2 cells, promoting lipid accumulation. It was found that treatment with t10,c12 CLA ($100{\mu}M$) for 72 h increased neutral lipid accumulation via enhanced incorporation of acetate, palmitate, oleate, and 2-deoxyglucose into TG. Furthermore, treatment with t10,c12 CLA led to increased mRNA expression and protein levels of lipogenic genes including SREBP1, ACC1, FASN, ELOVL6, GPAT1, and DGAT1, presenting potential mechanisms by which CLA may increase lipid deposition. Most strikingly, t10,c12 CLA treatment for 3 h increased phosphorylation of mTOR, S6K, and S6. Taken together, gut microbiota-producing t10,c12 CLA activates hepatic de novo lipogenesis and TG synthesis through activation of the mTOR/SREBP1 pathway, with consequent lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells.

Effects of YangkyukSanwha-Tang Applied to Soyangin on Diabetic Rats (소양인(少陽人)에 응용(應用)되는 양격산화탕(凉膈散火湯)이 백서(白鼠)의 당뇨병(糖尿病)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Hong, Sung Bum;Hong, Sun-Yong
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.201-217
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    • 1991
  • In order to investigate experimental effects of Yangkyuksanwha-Tang, which is the typical prescription for diseased SOYANGIN, on diabetes rats, the observation and measurement was made on the content of volume of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, total protein, electrolyte($K^+$, $Na^+$) in serum, by dosing the cooked Y.S.T. to diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin and following result was obtained. 1. The volume of blood glucose, in the diabetes rats, was decreased significantly, and remarkable decrease of blood glucose was shown in the Y.S.T. (12.5ml/kg) dosed group, after 4weeks of experiment. 2. The volume of total cholesterol of blood serum was decreased notably, especially remarkable reduce of total cholesterol was shown in the Y.S.T. (12.5ml/kg) dosed group after a week. 3. The volume of triglyceride in the blood serum of diabetic rats, induced by the streptozotocin was decreased after 4 weeks, and remarkable decrease was shown in the Y.S.T. (12.5ml/kg) dosed group after 2 weeks of experiment. 4. The volume of the phospholipid in the diabetes rats, was decreased significantly in the Y.S.T. (12.5ml/kg) dosed group after 2 weeks of experiment. 5. The volume of total protein of diabetes rats, was increased in all group, and the remarkable increase was shown in the Y.S.T. (12.5ml/kg) dosed group after 4 weeks. 6. The volume of the sodium in the Y.S.T. (12.5ml/kg) dosed group, was notable in each Y.S.T. dosed group (1.25ml/kg, 12.5ml/kg) after a week experiment. According to above results, It is expected that Y.S.T. applied to SOYANGIN, can be used for medical treatment of diabetes with effect. But because the effect can be somewhat different depending upon dosage, appropriate operation on clinic is needed, for the best curing effect.

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Fire Resistance of High-Strength Concrete Corresponding to the Finishing Material Kinds and Thickness (마감재 종류 및 두께 변화에 따른 고강도 콘크리드의 내화특성)

  • Jung, Hong-Keun;Pei, Chang-Chun;Lee, Seong-Yeun;Han, Chang-Peng;Han, Min-Cheol;Han, Cheon-Goo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.473-474
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    • 2009
  • In this study, a column member of an existing architecture finished with gypsum board was assumed to examine fire resistance characteristics according to the type and thickness of finishing material. All specimens showed spalling to the reinforcing part after fire resistance test. For temperature characteristics, rapid temperature increase of 100${\sim}$200 $^{\circ}C$ was shown between 35 ${\sim}$ 60 minutes in the sequence of 9.5 T, 9.5 T (2 pieces), 12.5 T, 15 T and fire resistant 12.5 T. The analysis suggested that finishing materials with better fire resistance are necessary.

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The effect of Chiljehyangbuhwan on the abdomial & palmar temperature in the primary dysmenorrhea patients (칠제향부환(七製香附丸)이 원발성(原發性) 월경통(月經痛) 환자(患者)의 복부(腹部) 및 수장부(手掌部) 온도(手掌部 溫度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Cho, Jung-Hoon;Jang, Jun-Bock;Lee, Kyung-Sub;Yoon, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Oriental Medical Thermology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.46-58
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: We intended to observe the relations between Chiljehyangbuhwan and abdominal & palmar temperature according to primary dysmenorrhea severity. Methods: We selected the 100 primary dysmenorrhea patients by the screening tests (first screening test-inquiry, second screening test-clinical test. additionally WHR (Waist-to-Hip ratio) by Inbody 2.0). By the fixed blocked randomization and double blind method, Chiljehyangbuhwan or placebo was administered for 1 menstration period. Finally, 69 patients remainded. Before and after administration, we measured 4 points abdominal temperature (Chon-jung (CV17), Chung-wan(CV12), Kwan-won(CV4). Chung-guk(CV3)) by DITI(DOREX Inc., USA). And then we checked the difference of temperature $({\Delta}T)$ between CV17 and CV12/CV17 and CV4/CV17 and CV3/CV12 and CV4/CV12 and CV3. Also, we measured 2 points (palmar region, upper front of forearm) for the difference of palmar temperature $({\Delta}T)$. Then, we checked palmar temperature minus upper front of forearm temperature and took an average of right and left ${\Delta}T.$ After that. we compared ${\Delta}T$ with primary dysmenorrhea severity evaluated by VRS (verbal rating scale) and MVRS (multidimensional verbal rating scale). In dysmenorrhea severity. we standardized scale score and 3-group-severity by score (mild, moderate. severe). Besides, we compared palmar ${\Delta}T$ with abdominal ${\Delta}T$. For statistics, we used ANOVA and Spearman's rho correlations. SPSS 13.0 for windows. Results: In case of MVRS, though Chiljehyangbuhwan was correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$(CV12 and CV3/CV12 and CV4). it was not correlated to palmar ${\Delta}T$. In case of VRS, though Chiljehyangbuhwan was not correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$. it was correlated to palmar ${\Delta}T$. However. palmar ${\Delta}T$ was not correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05). Conclusion: The primary dysmenorrhea patients showed that severity by MVRS was connected with abdominal ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3/CV12 and CV4) and severity by VRS was connected with palmar ${\Delta}T$ after Chiljehyangbuhwan administration. So we can consider Chiljehyangbuhwan partially effects the abdominal & palmar temperature according primary dysmenorrhea severity. However, palmar temperature was not correlated to abdominal temperature. Therefore, we need further study.

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Enhancement of Antigen-specific Antibody and $CD8^+$ T Cell Responses by Codelivery of IL-12-encapsulated Microspheres in Protein and Peptide Vaccination

  • Park, Su-Hyung;Chang, Jun;Yang, Se-Hwan;Kim, Hye-Ju;Kwak, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Byong-Moon;Lee, Sung-Hee;Sung, Young-Chul
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.186-196
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    • 2007
  • Background: Although IL-12 has been widely accepted to playa central role in the control of pathogen infection, the use of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) as a vaccine adjuvant has been known to be ineffective because of its rapid clearance in the body. Methods: To investigate the effect of sustained release of IL-12 in vivo in the peptide and protein vaccination models, rIL-12 was encapsulated into poly ($A_{DL}$-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Results: We found that codelivery of IL-12-encapsulated microspheres (IL-12EM) could dramatically increase not only antibody responses, but also antigen-specific $CD4^+\;and\;CD8^+$ T cell responses. Enhanced immune responses were shown to be correlated with protective immunity against influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virus challenge. Interestingly, the enhancement of $CD8^+$ T cell response was not detectable when $CD4^+$ T cell knockout mice were subjected to vaccination, indicating that the enhancement of the $CD8^+$ T cell response by IL-12EM is dependent on $CD4^+$ T cell "help". Conclusion: Thus, IL-12EM could be applied as an adjuvant of protein and peptide vaccines to enhance protective immunity against virus infection.

Production of c9,t11- and t10,c12-conjugated Linoleic Acids in Humans by Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60

  • Lee, Ki-Eun;Lee, Yeon-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1617-1619
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    • 2009
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60 was tested for whether it can produce c9,t11- and t10,c12-conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in human. After consumption of L. rhamnosus PL60, L. rhamnosus was detected in feces 1 week after the start of intake. Analysis by gas chromatography showed that concentrations of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLAs in serum had increased and concentrations of serum leptin had significantly decreased. Results showed that L. rhamnosus PL60 can survive in human intestines and produce CLAs in humans. This is the first report that bacteria can produce CLAs in humans.

Effects of Caprylic Acid and Cyclodextrin Complex on In vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production (Caprylic Acid와 Cyclodextrin 복합물이 In vitro 반추위 발효성상 및 메탄 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, K.H.;Seol, Y.J.;Lee, S.S.;Oh, Y.G.;Nam, I.S.;Kim, D.H.;Choi, C.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.657-666
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of caprylic acid(CA)-cyclodextrin (CD) complex on in vitro fermentation characteristics, total gas and methane production. Experiment was done with six treatment groups; 1) no CA-CD complex(control), 2) CA 20 mg(T1), 3) CD 830 mg(T2), 4) CA-CD complex 425 mg(T3), CA-CD complex 850mg(T4), CA-CD complex 1,700 mg(T5). Ruminal pH, ammonia and total VFA concentrations of T2, T3, T4 and T5 were lower(P<0.05) than those of control and T1 for the 12h incubation. The increase in molar percentage of propionate was observed in T4 and T5 compared with control and T2 for the 8h incubation(P<0.05), however, the ratio of acetate to propionate was unchanged in all treatments. Total gas of T1 was lower than that of control, but T2, T3, T4 and T5 were higher compared with control for 12h incubation(P<0.05). If the methane ratio (as %) to total gas for all treatments was compared, T3, T4 and T5(CA-CD supplemented groups) averaged 2.7% whereas control, T1 and T2 showed 3.4, 2.8 and 5.1%, respectively. Therefore, according to these results, it might be concluded that supplementation of CA-CD complex could reduce methane production without disrupting ruminal fermentation.

Kinetics of IL-23 and IL-12 Secretion in Response to Toxoplasma gondii Antigens from THP-1 Monocytic Cells

  • Quan, Juan-Hua;Zhou, Wei;Cha, Guang-Ho;Choi, In-Wook;Shin, Dae-Whan;Lee, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2013
  • IL-23 and IL-12 are structurally similar and critical for the generation of efficient cellular immune responses. Toxoplasma gondii induces a strong cell-mediated immune response. However, little is known about IL-23 secretion profiles in T. gondii-infected immune cells in connection with IL-12. We compared the patterns of IL-23 and IL-12 production by THP-1 human monocytic cells in response to stimulation with live or heat-killed T. gondii tachyzoites, or with equivalent quantities of either T. gondii excretory/secretory proteins (ESP) or soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAg). IL-23 and IL-12 were significantly increased from 6 hr after stimulation with T. gondii antigens, and their secretions were increased with parasite dose-dependent manner. IL-23 concentrations were significantly higher than those of IL-12 at the same multiplicity of infection. IL-23 secretion induced by live parasites was significantly higher than that by heat-killed parasites, ESP, or STAg, whereas IL-12 secretion by live parasite was similar to those of ESP or STAg. However, the lowest levels of both cytokines were at stimulation with heat-killed parasites. These data indicate that IL-23 secretion patterns by stimulation with various kinds of T. gondii antigens at THP-1 monocytic cells are similar to those of IL-12, even though the levels of IL-23 induction were significantly higher than those of IL-12. The detailed kinetics induced by each T. gondii antigen were different from each other.

Free Living Amoeba-Bacteria Interactions: Analysis of Escherichia coli Interactions with Nonpathogenic or Pathogenic Free Living Amoeba

  • Jung, Suk-Yul
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2011
  • Free-living amoebae ingest several kinds of bacteria. In other words, the bacteria can survive within free-living amoeba. To determine how Escherichia coli K1 isolate causing neonatal encephalitis and non-pathogenic K12 interact with free-living amoebae, e.g., Acanthamoeba castellanii (T1), A. astronyxis (T7), Naegleria fowleri, association, invasion and survival assays were performed. To understand pathogenicity of free-living amoebae, in vitro cytotoxicity assay were performed using murine macrophages. T1 destroyed macrophages about 64% but T7 did very few target cells. On the other hand, N. fowleri which needed other growth conditions rather than Acanthamoeba destroyed more than T1 as shown by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. In association assays for E. coli binding to amoebae, the T7 exhibited significantly higher association with E. coli, compared with the T1 isolates (P<0.01). Interestingly, N. fowleri exhibited similar percentages of association as T1. Once E. coli bacteria attach or associate with free-living amoeba, they can penetrate into the amoebae. In invasion assays, the K1 (0.67%) within T1 was observed compared with K12 (0%). E. coli K1 and K12 exhibited high association with N. fowleri and bacterial CFU. To determine the fate of E. coli in long-term survival within free-living amoebae, intracellular survival assays were performed by incubating E. coli with free-living amoebae in PBS for 24 h. Intracellular E. coli K1 within T1 (2.5%) and T7 (1.8%) were recovered and grown, while K12 were not found. N. fowleri was not invaded and here it was not recovered.