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Analysis and Prediction of Anchovy Fisheries in Korea ARIMA Model and Spectrum Analysis (한국 멸치어업의 어획량 분석과 예측 ARIMA 모델 및 스펙트럼 해석)

  • PARK Hae-Hoon;YOON Gab-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 1996
  • Forecasts of the monthly catches of anchovy in Korea were carried out by the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model and spectral analysis. The seasonal ARIMA model is as follows: $$(1-0.431B)(1-B^{12})Z_t=(1-0.882B^{12})e_t$$ where: $Z_t=value$ at month $t;\;B^{p}$ is a backward shift operator, that is, $B^pZ_t=Z_{t-p};$ and $e_t=error$ term at month t, which is to forecast 24 months ahead the anchovy catches in Korea. The prediction error by the Box-Cox transformation on monthly anchovy catches in Korea was less than that by the logarithmic transformation. The equation of the Box-Cox transformation was $Y'=(Y^{0.58}-1)/0.58$. Forecasts of the monthly anchovy catches for $1991\~1992$, which were compared with the actual catches, had an absolute percentage error (APE) range of $1.0\~63.2\%$. Total observed annual catches in 1991 and 1992 were 170,293 M/T and 168,234 M/T respectively, while the predicted catches were 148,201 M/T and 148,834 M/T $(API\;13.0\%\;and\;11.5\%,\;respectively)$. The spectrum analysis of the monthly catches of anchovy showed some dominant fluctuations in the periods of 2.2, 6.1, 10.2 12.0 and 14.7 months. The spectrum analysis was also useful for selecting the ARIMA model.

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The increased GUS gene inactivation over generation in Arabidopsis transgenic lines (애기장대 형질전환 식물체의 세대경과에 따른 GUS유전자의 비활성화에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Soon-Ki
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2002
  • The effect of transgene inactivation in T2, T3 and F2 generations was analyzed in progeny seedlings which had been generated by Agrobacterium (LBA4404/pBI121)-mediated transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana. In a system which investigated in the expression of $\beta$-glucuronidase(GUS)gene in kanamycin-resistant (ke $n^{R}$)seedlings, GUS inactivated seedlings were observed in 5 of 12 tested lines of T2 generation and the frequency of GUS inactivation was approximately 2.3%. Lines with multi-copies of T-DNA exhibited severe GUS gene inactivation with the frequency of 5.8% in T2 generation. In T3 generation lines exhibited GUS gene inactivation with the frequency of 1.3%. In contrast, inactivation increased dramatically up to 12.6% in multi-copy T-DNA line. A similar phenomenon was also found in F2 progeny from a transgenic line which had been crossed with wild-type Arabidopsis plant, WS-O (GUS gene inactivation frequency 9.9%). These results indicate that the foreign gene introduced into the plant was inactivated progressively in its transmission during subsequent generations and the transgenic line with multi-copies of T-DNA tended to show more increased inactivation.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Test of Streptococcus pyogenes Obtained in Patients with Streptococcal Infections, 2000 (2000년 A군 연쇄구균 감염자로부터 분리된 균주의 항균제 감수성 검사)

  • Kim, Yeon-Ho;Cha, Sung-Ho;Ma, Sang-Hyuk;Kim, Ki-Sang;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : About 41% of obtained group A streptococci in the 1998 was reported as erythromycin-resistant streptococci in Seoul, Korea. The most common T serotype was T12, followed by T4 and T28. We'd like to monitor the serological changes and antibiotic sensitivity test of Streptococcus pyogenes obtained from the patients with pharyngotonsillitis and invasive diseases from 1999 through 2001. Also, it could be proposed to choose the proper antibiotic selection in the area where the rate of erythromycin-resistant streptococci is high. Methods : From Jan. 1999 to Oct. 2001, 208 isolates of group A streptococci were collected from inpatients and outpatients with pharyngotonsillitis, scarlet fever, and invasive infections in Seoul and Southern part of peninsula. All isolates were serotyped by T-agglutination, minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) which were determined by agar dilution methods, according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results : The most common T serotype was T12(29.8%), followed by T1(23.1%), T4 (14.9%). T1 was prominent serotype compared with previous year. T serotyping, among 25 isolates obtained from the patients with scarlet fever in Southern part of peninsula mostly, was T12, T1, and T4 in order of frequency. All the isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin, cefprozil, vancomycin, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol. However, 23 isolates(14.2%) was resistant to erythromycin and 18 isolates(11.1%) was resistant to clarithromycin. Serotype T12 was found to be the most resistant serotype to erythromycin and/or clarithromycin. Conclusion : High rate of erythromycin-resistant streptococci which surveyed in 1998 were reduced to 14.2% in this study. We should have to further evaluate the reason of decreased resistant strains and consider the resistant strains of streptococci in choosing the antibiotics. There was no serological characteristics according to the types of disease entities. Between the serologic distributions in Seoul and the Southern part of peninsula area are same, we could presume that the serological typing of strains obtained over the country may be not different.

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IL-12 and IL-23 Production in Toxoplasma gondii- or LPS-Treated Jurkat T Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling Pathways

  • Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed;Kang, Byung-Hun;Kim, Jae-Su;Lee, Jae-Hyung;Choi, In-Wook;Cha, Guang-Ho;Yuk, Jae-Min;Lee, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.613-622
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    • 2017
  • IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related in structure, and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulation of immune responses. However, little is known about the regulation of these cytokines in T cells. Here, we investigated the roles of PI3K and MAPK pathways in IL-12 and IL-23 production in human Jurkat T cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii and LPS. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly increased in T cells after stimulation with T. gondii or LPS. T. gondii and LPS increased the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 in T cells from 10 min post-stimulation, and peaked at 30-60 min. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway reduced IL-12 and IL-23 production in T. gondii-infected cells, but increased in LPS-stimulated cells. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly reduced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors in T. gondii- and LPS-stimulated cells, but not in cells treated with a JNK1/2 inhibitor. Collectively, IL-12 and IL-23 production was positively regulated by PI3K and JNK1/2 in T. gondii-infected Jurkat cells, but negatively regulated in LPS-stimulated cells. And ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK positively regulated IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells. These data indicate that T. gondii and LPS induced IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells through the regulation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways; however, the mechanism underlying the stimulation of IL-12 and IL-23 production by T. gondii in Jurkat T cells is different from that of LPS.

ATF3 Mediates Anti-Cancer Activity of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Colon Cancer Cells

  • Kim, Kui-Jin;Lee, Jihye;Park, Yeonhwa;Lee, Seong-Ho
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.134-140
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    • 2015
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of isomers of linoleic acid. CLA increases growth arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells through an isomer-specific manner. ATF3 belongs to the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and is associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which t10, c12-CLA stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. t10, c12-CLA increased an apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells in dose dependent manner. t10, c12-CLA induced ATF3 mRNA and luciferase activity of ATF3 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. The responsible region for ATF3 transcriptional activation by t10, c12-CLA is located between -147 and -1850 of ATF3 promoter. mRNA stability of ATF3 was not affected by t10, c12-CLA treatment. t10, c12-CLA increases $GSK3{\beta}$ expression and suppresses IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. The knockdown of ATF3 suppressed expression of $GSK3{\beta}$ and NAG-1 and PARP cleavage. The results suggest that t10, c12-CLA induces apoptosis through ATF3-mediated pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.

Effect of trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Calcium-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Production and Nuclear Factor-${\kappa}B$ Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells (LPS 자극 RAW 264.7 세포에 있어서 칼슘의존성 ROS와 NO 생산 및 NF-${\kappa}B$ 활성에 대한 CLA의 억제효과)

  • Choi, Tae-Won;Kang, Byeong-Teck;Kang, Ji-Houn;Yang, Mhan-Pyo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2015
  • Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) has been shown to participate in the regulation of anti-inflammatory effects. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of t10c12-CLA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-${\kappa}B$) activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and to determine whether these effects were associated with change of intracellular calcium ion ($Ca^{2+}$). ROS production was increased in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and this effect was suppressed by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), a calcium chelator. t10c12-CLA suppressed ROS production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, which was further more decreased by treatment with BAPTA/AM. These indicated that t10c12-CLA decreases $Ca^{2+}$-dependent ROS production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Similarly, NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 DNA binding activity and NO production were decreased by treatment with either t10c12-CLA, BAPTA/AM, or t10c12-CLA and BAPTA/AM combination. However, there were no differences between t10c12-CLA and BAPTA/AM treatment in NO production of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that t10c12-CLA inhibits the increases in ROS and NO production and the NF-${\kappa}B$ activation in LPS-stimulated condition. These results suggested that CLA exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of LPS-induced ROS and NO production, and NF-${\kappa}B$ activationn via $Ca^{2+}$-dependent pathway.

The Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers on the Cell Proliferation, Apotosis and Expressions of Uncoupling Protein (Ucp) Genes during Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (Conjugated Linoleic Acid 이성체가 3T3-L1 지방전구세포 분화중 세포증식, 세포사멸 및 Ucp 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon So-Young;Kang Keum-Jee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.533-539
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    • 2004
  • It has been reported that CLA decreases fat deposition in vivo and in vitro experiments. Among CLA isomers, c9t11 and t10c12 have been shown to exert active biological activities. For example, t10c12 reduces body weight and increases lean body mass, whereas, c9t11 has little effect on body fattness. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the anti-obesity action of CLA isomers are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of t10c12 and c9t11 on lipid accumulation, cell proliferation, cell death and the expression levels of Ucp genes which are proposed as targets for anti-obesity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Isomers of CLA at 50$\mu$M were added into preadipocyte differentiation medium for 3, 6 and 9days. Control cells received only the vehicle in the differentiation medium. Cytochemical analyses for lipid accumulation, cell proliferation and apotosis were carried out to compare lipidogenesis and cellular activity. RT-PCR analysis of GAPDH, Ucp 2,3 and 4 were also performed to find any modulatory effects of CLA isomers on the metabolic genes. Lipid accumulation indicated by Oil Red-O staining was inhibited in CLA isomers as compared to the control. T10c12 isomer showed less lipidogenesis than c9t11 did. A decrease occurred in CLA isomers as shown by BrdU incorporation. Apotosis has occured at higher level in t10c12 when compared to that of t9c11. Ucp 2, 3 and 4 genes were also upregulated in CLA isomers. T10c12 showed higher level of Ucp gene expressions than the c9t11 did. The biological activities of CLA isomers were also found to be different during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, suggesting that different isomers may be active in certain stage of lipidogenesis. The results indicate that both c9t11 and t10c12 CLA isomers decrease lipidogenesis, inhibit cell proliferation, increase cell death and upregulate in Ucp gene expressions during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. T10c12 isomer was more effective than c9t11 in overall anti-obesity activity.

LPS Stimulated B Lymphocytes Inhibit the Differentiation of Th1 Lymphocytes (LPS에 의해 자극된 B 림프구에 의한 Th1 림프구 분화 억제)

  • Kim, Ha-Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1425-1431
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    • 2015
  • The lymphocyte component of the immune system is divided into B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes produce antibodies (humoral immunity) via maturation into plasma cells, and T lymphocytes kill other cells or organisms (cellular immunity). A traditional immunological paradigm is that B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte interactions are a one-way phenomenon, with T lymphocytes helping to induce the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin class-switched plasma cells. A deficiency of T lymphocytes was reported to result in defective B lymphocyte function. However, evidence for a reciprocal interaction between B and T lymphocytes is emerging, with B lymphocytes influencing the differentiation and effector function of T lymphocytes. For example, B lymphocytes have been shown to induce direct tolerance of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and induce T lymphocytes anergy via transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) production. The present study showed that LPS-stimulated B lymphocytes inhibited the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes by inhibiting the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from dendritic cells. An interaction between the B lymphocytes and dendritic cells was not needed for this inhibition, and the B lymphocytes did not alter dendritic cell maturation. B lymphocyte-derived soluble factor (BDSF) suppressed the LPS-induced IL-12p35 transcription in the dendritic cells. Overall, these results point to a novel B lymphocyte- mediated immune suppressive mechanism. The findings cast doubt on the traditional paradigm of immunological interactions involving B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte interactions.

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA) on Proliferation and Differentiation of Porcine Adipocyte and Muscle Cell (Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)가 돼지 지방세포와 근육세포의 증식과 분화에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, C.S.;Kim, H.R.;Kang, J.N.;Kim, N.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2007
  • The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) isomers, cis-9, cis-11(c9c11), cis-9, trans-11(c9t11), trans-9, trans-11(t9t11), trans-10, cis-12(t10c12) on differentiation of pig preadipocytes and myogenic satellite cells during culture. Cells were isolated from new born pigs. The t10c12 isomer decreased differentiation of pig preadipocytes(92%), but not that of myogenic cells. The t9t11 isomer decreased differentiation of preadipocytes(14%) and increased that of myogenic cells (26%). No other CLA isomers affected differentiation of preadipocytes or myogenic cells. The effects of CLA on proliferation of preadipocytes and myogenic cells were small, compared to the effects on differentiation. These results suggest that CLA isomers have different effects on differentiaton of pig preadipocytes and myogenic cells.

Serial Survey on Group A beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Carrier Rate and Serotyping in Elementary School Children in 1996~1998 (3년간(1996~1998) 초등학생의 A군 연쇄구균 보균율과 혈청학적 분류에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Ju-Ye;Kang, Hyeon-Ho;Cha, Sung-Ho;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : The accuracy of bacteriologic diagnosis of beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis depends on the degree of carrier rate in that area where the throat swabs are obtained and the evaluation of serological T typing as an epidemiologic marker is important to understand epidemiology of streptococcal infection. The purpose of this study is to know the carrier rates of group A streptococcus in normal children form four different areas and to find out the epidemiologic characteristic in distribution of the serotypes for 3 years. Method : Throat swabs were obtained from the tonsillar fossa of normal school children in four different areas(Uljin, Seoul, Osan, Kunsan) from March to May 1996, in Uljin in April 1997, and in Uljin in April 1998. The samples were plated on a 5% sheep blood agar plate and incubated overnight at $37^{\circ}C$ before examination for the presence of beta-hemolytic colonies. All isolated beta-hemolytic streptococcus were grouped and serotyped by T agglutination. Results : The carrier rate of beta-hemolytic streptococci and group A streptococci in 1996 were 27.6%, 18.6% at Uljin; 16.4%, 2.7% at Seoul; 33.0%, 26.0% at Osan; 20.0%, 12.3% at Kunsan, respectively. Among 1,192 normal school children from 4 different areas, we obtained 179 strains of group A streptococci. Fifty two percent of the strains were typable by T agglutination in 1996. Common T-type in 1996 were NT, T1, T3, T2 at Uljin; T12, T25 at Seoul; NT, T6, T28 at Osan; T25, T4, NT, T5 at Kunsan, in decreasing order, respectively. At Uljin, T1, T3, T25 accounted for 69% of strains in 1996, T1, T12, T25 accounted for 70% in 1997, and T12, T4 accounted for 88% in 1998. Conclusion : Higher carrier rates were found in Uljin and Osan, where there are a lower population density with scanty of medical facilities compared with another areas. We supposed that low carrier rates is likely to be related to antibiotic abuse or some epidemiologic factor. The periodic and seasonal serotyping analysis is important in monitoring and understanding the epidemiologic patterns of group A streptococci.

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