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Serological Analysis and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Group A Streptococci in Seoul(1998-2000) (3년간(1998-2000년) A군 연구균 감염의 혈청학적 형분류와 역학적 특징)

  • Choi, Sun-Hee;Kim, Yun-Ho;Cha, Sung-Ho;Kim, Ki-Sang;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.1368-1372
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Group A streptococci have a cell wall which consists of M protein and T protein. T protein is known to be helpful in the understanding of the epidemiology of group A streptococci. To study the epidemiologic characteristics, we serotyped T protein of group A streptococci obtained from patients admitted to hospitals, or who visited OPD in five districts of Seoul the during last three years. Methods : Group A streptococci were obtained in five districts in north, northeast, central, northwest and south Seoul from 1998 through 2000. All isolated group A streptococci were serotyped with T protein antisera(Institute of Sera and Vaccine, Prague, Czech Republic). Results : In 1998, analysis of obtained total number of 92 strains revealed that T12, T4, and NT acounted for 72.2%. Among seven cases of scarlet fever, T12 was isolated in four cases and T4 was found in three cases. Two cases of tonsilar abscess produced T8 and NT. One case of cervical lymphadenitis showed T12. In 1999, 41 cases were studied showing that T12, T4, and T1 contributed 68%. Among five cases of scarlet fever, T12 and T4 make up three case. There were two cases of pneumonia(T4 and T1) and one case of cervical lymphadenitis(T8/25). In 2000, the study was performed in four districts except the central area. Among 83 isolates, T12, T4 and T1 accounted for 63.9%. There were three cases of scarlet fever(T12, T4, T5), one case of tonsillar abscess(T12), one case of pneumonia(NT) and one case of sepsis(T1). Conclusion : Serological analysis of T protein of group A streptococci shows no endemic specificity. The yearly pattern reveals that T12 had been decreasing but T1 had shown the opposite trend.

Seasonal Distribution of T Serotyping and emm Genotyping of Group A Streptococci Obtained from Children with Streptococcal Infections in Masan, Korea, 2003~2004 (2003~2004년 경남 마산 지역에서 분리된 A군 연쇄구균의 T 혈청형과 emm 유전자형의 계절별 분포)

  • Jeon, Ho-Sang;Park, Hwa-Jin;Lee, Hee-Joo;Ma, Sang-Hyuk;Cha, Sung-Ho
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The aim of this study is to know seasonal distribution of group A streptococci obtained from one center using emm genotyping and T serotyping in Masan from 2003 through 2004. Methods : Among children who visited the Changwon Fatima Hospital at Masan, Korea from June 2003 through February 2004, 100 patients who had clinical findings of acute pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and cellulitis were confirmed as GAS by culture, and were enrolled in our study. All obtained GAS were sent to the WHO Collaborative Center for Reference and Research on Streptococci, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis for T serotyping and emm genotyping. We classified these results again according to seasonal and disease's entities. Results : 19 different T serotypes was typed. T4(27.5%), T1(17.6%), T6(13.7%), and T12(13.7%) serotypes were relatively common in summer, while T4(28.3%), T12(15.2%), and T12/B3264(8.7%) were common in winter. T4 and T12 were persistent all year around. Distribution of T serotypes in 89 patients with pharyngotonsillitis were T4(26.7%), T12(14.0%), T1(12.8%), and T6(11.6%) in order of frequency. 15 different emm genotypes was typed. The number of emm 1, emm 6, emm 9, and emm 44 genotypes decreased or disappeared in winter, and the number of emm 3, emm 12, and emm 89 genotypes increased or reappeared in winter. Conclusion : Because T serotyping and emm genotyping are useful tools for evaluating epidemiology and pathogenesis of group A streptococci, we should monitor these strains every year, and should serotype and genotype GAS obtained from the invasive streptococcal infections.

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Characteristics of $TiN/TiSi_2$ Contact Barrier Layer by Rapid Thermal Anneal in $N_2$ Ambient (질소 분위기에서 순간역처리에 의해 형성시킨 $TiN/TiSi_2$ Contact Bsrrier Lauer의 특성)

  • 이철진;허윤종;성영권
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.633-639
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    • 1992
  • The physical and electrical properties of TiN/TiSiS12T contact barrier were studied. The TiN/TiSiS12T system was formed by rapid thermal anneal in NS12T ambient after the Ti film was deposited on silicon substrate. The Ti film reacts with NS12T gas to make a TiN layer at the surface and reacts with silicon to make a TiSiS12T layer at the interface respectively. It was found that the formation of TiN/TiSiS12T system depends on RTA temperature. In this experiment, competitive reaction for TiN/TiSiS12T system occured above $600^{\circ}C$. Ti-rich TiNS1xT layer and Ti-rich TiSiS1xT layer were formed at $600^{\circ}C$. stable structure TiN layer and TiSiS1xT layer which has CS149T phase and CS154T phase were formed at $700^{\circ}C$. Both stable TiN layer and CS154T phase TiSiS12T layer were formed at 80$0^{\circ}C$. The thickness of TiN/TiSiS12T system was increased as the thickness of deposited Ti film increased.

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CD43 Expression Regulated by IL-12 Signaling Is Associated with Survival of CD8 T Cells

  • Lee, Jee-Boong;Chang, Jun
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.153-163
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    • 2010
  • Background: In addition to TCR and costimulatory signals, cytokine signals are required for the differentiation of activated CD8 T cells into memory T cells and their survival. Previously, we have shown that IL-12 priming during initial antigenic stimulation significantly enhanced the survival of activated CD8 T cells and increased the memory cell population. In the present study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which IL-12 priming contributes to activation and survival of CD8 T cells. Methods: We observed dramatically decreased expression of CD43 in activated CD8 T cells by IL-12 priming. We purified $CD43^{lo}$ and $CD43^{hi}$ cells after IL-12 priming and analyzed the function and survival of each population both in vivo and in vitro. Results: Compared to $CD43^{hi}$ effector cells, $CD43^{lo}$ effector CD8 T cells exhibited reduced cytolytic activity and lower granzyme B expression but showed increased survival. $CD43^{lo}$ effector CD8 T cells also showed increased in vivo expansion after adoptive transfer and antigen challenge. The enhanced survival of $CD43^{lo}$ CD8 T cells was also partly associated with CD62L expression. Conclusion: We suggest that CD43 expression regulated by IL-12 priming plays an important role in differentiation and survival of CD8 T cells.

A Study on the Properties of TiN/${TiSi}_{2}$ Bilayer by a Rapid Thermal Anneal in ${NH}_{3}$ Ambient (${NH}_{3}$ 분위기에서 급속열처리에 의한 TiN/${TiSi}_{2}$ 이중구조막의 특성에 대한 고찰)

  • 이철진;성영권
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.869-874
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    • 1992
  • The physical and electrical properties of TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer were studied. The TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer was formed by rapid thermal anneal in NHS13T ambient after the Ti film was deposited on silicon substrate. The Ti film reacts with NHS13T gas to make a TiN layer at the surface and reacts with silicon to make a TiSiS12T layer at the interface respectively. It was found that the formation of TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer depends on RTA temperature. In this experiment, competitive reaction for TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer occured above $600^{\circ}C$. Ti-rich TiNS1xT layer and Ti-rich TiSiS1xT layer and Ti-rich TiSiS1xT layer were formed at $600^{\circ}C$. stable structure TiN layer TiSiS12T layer which has CS149T phase and CS154T phase were formed at $700^{\circ}C$. Both stable TiN layer and CS154T phase TiSiS12T layer were formed at 80$0^{\circ}C$. The thickness of TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer was increased as the thickness of deposited Ti film increased.

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Beneficial Biological Activities of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA의 생물학적 기능)

  • Ha, Yeong L.;Kim, Jeong O.;Kim, Young S.
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.965-973
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    • 2017
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds at C9,C11 and C10,C12 positions. Of possible CLA isomers, a naturally occurring CLA isomer is c9,t11-CLA which is produced from linoleic acid by linoleate isomerase from various rumen and lactic bacteria, and mushroom mycelia. Meanwhile, synthetically prepared CLA contained an equal amount of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA isomers, and other isomers as minor constituents. CLA was firstly mentioned in 1939 during the elaidinization reaction of linoleic acid. Thereafter, CLA was not an attractant to scientists because it was not scientifically interested any more. However, since the anticarcinogenic action was driven from 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis in 1987, CLA-related researches were drastically elevated, resulting in approximately 6,100 research papers in literature, so far. CLA exhibited the significant biological activities: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic, body-fat reducing, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, testosterone producing and other activities. Interestingly, two major CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, exhibited different biological activities. Meanwhile, t,t-CLA isomers which is minor constituent of chemically synthesized CLA from linoleic acid exhibited more potent anticarcinogenic activity in carcinogen-induced animal models and cancer cell lines than other CLA isomrs. In the present review, the significant biological activities of CLA were discussed along with historical studies of CLA since 1939.

The Effect on Logistics Cost of Incompatible Packaging Sizes in T-11 and T-12 pallet systems (T-11형 및 T-12형 파렛트 간 공용포장규격 미적용으로 인해 물류비에 미칠 수 있는 영향)

  • Jung, Sung-Tae;Yoon, Nam-Soo
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2013
  • Purpose - This is a case study aimed at finding a solution for improving the pallet loading efficiency in the process of delivering products through a transshipment using the T-11 and T-12 pallet systems. The study proposes a solution by demonstrating the case of a certain manufacturer A, who aims to reduce the logistics cost by using packaging sizes that are commonly applicable and can improve the compatibility between the T-11 pallet system, designated as the standard pallet in Korea, and the T-12 pallet system, which is commonly used in other foreign countries. The use of common sizes increases compatibility among the two systems and reduces both logistics and environmental costs. Thus, this case study calculates the quantitative benefits of applying common packaging sizes to improve the compatibility between the T-11 and T-12 pallet systems. These systems are considered to be the most important and widely used transportation systems in the global logistics industry. Research design, data, and methodology - This study examined manufacturer A's representative product and delivery system and assessed how manufacturer A was affected by the use of incompatible packaging sizes in the T-11 (1100 mm×1100 mm) and T-12 (1200mm×1000 mm) pallet systems, which were specified in the KS T 1002 standard. In addition, this study analyzed the impact of these packaging sizes on A's logistics cost. The TOPS program (Total Packaging System) was used to simulate pallet loading efficiency,and the main parameter studied was volume, as calculated from length, width, and height. Results - When the sizes of secondary packaging were not compatible across the T-11 and T-12 pallet systems, a reduction in loading efficiency was observed, leading to an increase in logistics cost during transshipment. Such low loading efficiencies led to a further loss of efficiency in transportation, storage and unloading. This may have a possible environmental impact with high social expenses, such as increased CO2 emissions. Hence, this study proposed that the KS T 1002 standard be amended to include 21 packaging sizes, including 7 sizes of the 600 mm×500 mm category, which are compatible with both the T-11 and T-12 pallet systems. Conclusions - This study found that the 69 standard sizes under the T-11 pallet system and the 40 standard sizes under the T-12 system in the KS T 1002 standard can be simplified and reduced to 21 mutually compatible packaging sizes, enabling logistics standardization and reducing national-level logistics costs. If the government pays attention to this study and considers the standardization of common sizes for the T-11 and T-12 pallet systems and amends the KS T 1002 standard, this study will deliver practical value to the global logistics industry, apart from being of academic significance.

Tumor Cell Clone Expressing the Membrane-bound Form of IL-12p35 Subunit Stimulates Antitumor Immune Responses Dominated by $CD8^+$ T Cells

  • Lim, Hoyong;Do, Seon Ah;Park, Sang Min;Kim, Young Sang
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2013
  • IL-12 is a secretory heterodimeric cytokine composed of p35 and p40 subunits. IL-12 p35 and p40 subunits are sometimes produced as monomers or homodimers. IL-12 is also produced as a membrane-bound form in some cases. In this study, we hypothesized that the membrane-bound form of IL-12 subunits may function as a costimulatory signal for selective activation of TAA-specific CTL through direct priming without involving antigen presenting cells and helper T cells. MethA fibrosarcoma cells were transfected with expression vectors of membrane-bound form of IL-12p35 (mbIL-12p35) or IL-12p40 subunit (mbIL-12p40) and were selected under G418-containing medium. The tumor cell clones were analyzed for the expression of mbIL-12p35 or p40 subunit and for their stimulatory effects on macrophages. The responsible T-cell subpopulation for antitumor activity of mbIL-12p35 expressing tumor clone was also analyzed in T cell subset-depleted mice. Expression of transfected membranebound form of IL-12 subunits was stable during more than 3 months of in vitro culture, and the chimeric molecules were not released into culture supernatants. Neither the mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clones nor mbIL-12p40-expressing tumor clones activated macrophages to secrete TNF-${\alpha}$. Growth of mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clones was more accelerated in the $CD8^+$ T cell-depleted mice than in $CD4^+$ T cell-depleted or normal mice. These results suggest that $CD8^+$ T cells could be responsible for the rejection of mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clone, which may bypass activation of antigen presenting cells and $CD4^+$ helper T cells.

Binding Interactions of TMAP to Triple- and Double Helical DNA

  • Kim, Nan-Jung;Yoo, Sang-Heon;Huh, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.175-187
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    • 2006
  • Binding interactions between a positively charged porphyrin derivative TMAP(meso-tetra(p-trimethylanilinium-4-yl)porphyrin) and triple helical $(dT)_{12}{\cdot}(dA)_{12}{\cdot}(dT)_{12}$, as well as double helical $(dA)_{12}{\cdot}(dT)_{12}$ have been studied with NMR, UV and CD spectroscopy to obtain the detailed information about the binding mode and binding site. UV melting studies showed both DNA duplex and triple helix represented very similar UV absorption patterns upon binding TMAP, but the presence of third strand of triple helical $(dT)_{12}{\cdot}(dA)_{12}{\cdot}(dT)_{12}$, inhibited improvement in thermal stability in terms of melting temperature, $T_m$. In addition, the TMAP molecule is thought to bind to the major groove, according to CD and NMR data. But absence of the clear isosbestic point in UV absorption spectra represented that binding of TMAP to DNA duplex as well as DNA triplex did not show a single binding mode, rather complex binding modes.

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