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Effect of Several Physicochemical Factors on the Biodegradation of Acrylamide by Pseudomonas sp. JK-7 Isolated from Paddy Soil (논 토양에서 분리한 Pseudomonas sp. JK-7에 의한 Acrylamide의 생분해에 영향을 미치는 물리화학적 요인)

  • 천재우;호은미;오계헌
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationships between acrylamide degradation by Pseudomonas sp. JK-7 and several relevant physicochemical environment parameters. In initial experiments, the bacterial culture, strain JK-7 isolated from paddy soil sample was developed to grow aerobically with acrylamide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The bacterium was identified as genus Pseudomonas in the basis of use BIOLOG test, and designated as Pseudomunas sp. JK-7. Strain JK-7 could degrade 50 mM acrylamide completely within 72 hours of incubation. Major intermediates resulting from acrylamide degradation were not detected with the HPLC methodology except acrylic acid which appeared to accumulate transiently in the growth medium. The pH increased from 7.0 to 8.7 with complete degradation of the initial 50 mM acrylamide within 72 hours of incubation. pH control in the range of 5 to 9 influenced the growth of JK-7 and acrylamide degradation, whereas it was not examined the growth and degradation at pH 3 or pH 11, respectively. The effect of supplemented carbons (e.g., glucose, fructose, citrate, succinate) on the acrylamide degradation by the test culture of JK-7 was evaluated. The results indicated that the addition of carbons accelerated the bacterial growth and acrylamide degradation compared to those in the absence of supplemented carbons. The effect of supplemented nitrogens on the degradation was monitored. Increasing concentrations of yeast extract resulted in higher growth yield, based on the turbidity measurement, and complete degradation of acrylamide. However, acrylamide degradation was essentially uninfluenced by the addition of $(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}$, $NH_4Cl$ or urea. Addition of $AgNO_3$, $CuSO_4$ or $HgCl_2$ except $ZnSO_4$ in the test culture inhibited the degradation of acrylamide and growth of JK-7.

Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation therapy of the utaine lervix cancer ($^{192}Ir$source를 이용할 자궁경부암 강내치료시 사용하는 packing의 효과에 대한 고찰)

  • Cho, Jung-Kun;Lee, Du-Hyun;Si, Chang-Kun;Choi, Yoon-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 2004
  • Purpose of the radio-therapy is maximize the radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to the critical organ. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix treatment are external irradiation or an interstitial brachtheraphy make use of isotope. Brachytherapy is a method of radiotherapy in advantage to achieve better local control with minimum radiation toxicity in comparison with external irradiation because radiation dose is distributed according to the inverse square low of gamma-ray emitted from the implanted sources. Authors make use of the patients data which 192Ir gives medical treatment intrcavity. Intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer, critical organ take $20\%$ below than exposure dose of A point in the ICRU report. None the less of the advice, Radiation proctitis and radiation cystitis are frequent and problematic early complications in patients treated with radiation for the uterine cervix cancer. In brachytherapy of uterine cervical cancer using a high dose rate remote afterloading system, it is of prime importance to deliver a accurate dose in each fractionated treatment by minimizing the difference between the pre-treatment planned and post-treatment calculated doses. Use of packing to reduce late complications intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer. Bladder and rectum changes exposure dose rate by radiotherphy make use of packing.

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Development of the Risk Evaluation Model for Rear End Collision on the Basis of Microscopic Driving Behaviors (미시적 주행행태를 반영한 후미추돌위험 평가모형 개발)

  • Chung, Sung-Bong;Song, Ki-Han;Park, Chang-Ho;Chon, Kyung-Soo;Kho, Seung-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.133-144
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    • 2004
  • A model and a measure which can evaluate the risk of rear end collision are developed. Most traffic accidents involve multiple causes such as the human factor, the vehicle factor, and the highway element at any given time. Thus, these factors should be considered in analyzing the risk of an accident and in developing safety models. Although most risky situations and accidents on the roads result from the poor response of a driver to various stimuli, many researchers have modeled the risk or accident by analyzing only the stimuli without considering the response of a driver. Hence, the reliabilities of those models turned out to be low. Thus in developing the model behaviors of a driver, such as reaction time and deceleration rate, are considered. In the past, most studies tried to analyze the relationships between a risk and an accident directly but they, due to the difficulty of finding out the directional relationships between these factors, developed a model by considering these factors, developed a model by considering indirect factors such as volume, speed, etc. However, if the relationships between risk and accidents are looked into in detail, it can be seen that they are linked by the behaviors of a driver, and depending on drivers the risk as it is on the road-vehicle system may be ignored or call drivers' attention. Therefore, an accident depends on how a driver handles risk, so that the more related risk to and accident occurrence is not the risk itself but the risk responded by a driver. Thus, in this study, the behaviors of a driver are considered in the model and to reflect these behaviors three concepts related to accidents are introduced. And safe stopping distance and accident occurrence probability were used for better understanding and for more reliable modeling of the risk. The index which can represent the risk is also developed based on measures used in evaluating noise level, and for the risk comparison between various situations, the equivalent risk level, considering the intensity and duration time, is developed by means of the weighted average. Validation is performed with field surveys on the expressway of Seoul, and the test vehicle was made to collect the traffic flow data, such as deceleration rate, speed and spacing. Based on this data, the risk by section, lane and traffic flow conditions are evaluated and compared with the accident data and traffic conditions. The evaluated risk level corresponds closely to the patterns of actual traffic conditions and counts of accident. The model and the method developed in this study can be applied to various fields, such as safety test of traffic flow, establishment of operation & management strategy for reliable traffic flow, and the safety test for the control algorithm in the advanced safety vehicles and many others.

A Reliable Protocol for transfection of mature primary hippocampal neurons using a neuron-glia co-culture system (신경세포-신경교세포 공동배양을 이용한 성숙한 해마신경세포의 효율적인 형질전환 방법)

  • Lee, Hyun-Sook;Cho, Sun-Jung;Jung, Yong-Wook;Jin, Ing-Nyol;Moon, Il-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.198-203
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    • 2007
  • DNA transfection is a powerful tool for studying gene functions. The $Ca^{2+}$-phosphate precipitation remains one of the most popular and cost-effective transfection techniques. Mature neurons are more resistant to transfection than young ones and most other cell types, and easy to die if microenvironment changes. Here, we report a transfection protocol for mature neurons. The critical modifications are inclusion of glial cells in culture and careful control of $Ca^{2+}$-phosphate precipitation under microscope. Cerebral glial cells were grown until ${\sim}70-80%$ confluence in DMEM/10% horse serum, which was thereafter replaced with serum-free Neurobasal/Ara-C, and 319 hippocampal neurons were plated onto the glial layer Formation of fine $DNA/Ca^{2+}$-phosphate precipitates was induced using Clontech $CalPhos^{TM}$ Mammalian Transfection Kit, and the size ($0.5-1\;{\mu}m$ in diameter) and density(about 10 particles/$100\;{\mu}m^2$) were carefully controlled by the time of incubation in the medium. This modified protocol can be reliably applied for transfection of mature neurons that are maintained longer than two weeks in vitro, resulting in 10-15 healthy transfected neurons per a well of 24-well plates. The efficacy of the protocol was verified by punctate expression of $pEGFP-CaMKII{\alpha}$, a synaptic protein, and diffuse expression of pDsRed2. Our protocol provides a reliable method for transfection of mature neurons in vitro.

Effectiveness Analysis for Traffic and Pedestrian Volumes of Pedestrian Pushbutton Signal (차량 및 보행자 교통량에 따른 보행자 작동신호기의 효과 분석)

  • Cho, Han-Seon;Park, Ji-Hyung;Noh, Jung-Hyun
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2007
  • Because usually signal controllers on the crosswalks of mid-block provide pedestrian signals every cycle based on the fixed signal plan, pedestrian signals are provided even when there is no pedestrian demand. Consequently, signal is operated inefficiently and this may cause drivels to experience useless delay or violate the signal. Even though recently pushbuttons have been installed to improve the efficiency of pedestrian signal control in the crosswalks of mid-block and the pedestrian safety. they are not spread out national-wide in Korea because of the cost of the pushbutton equipments and the lack of an acknowledgement of the efficiency of the pushbutton. In this study, the effectiveness of the pushbutton on saving the vehicle delay was verified through before and after study in 4 study sites using a traffic micro-simulation model, VISSIM. To evaluate the viability of the pushbutton, a benefit/cost analysis was also performed for 4 study sites. It was found that B/C ratio of all of 4 study sites was greater than 1. The sensitivity analysis for the traffic volume and pedestrian volume were performed to identify the impact of the both volume on the operation of pushbutton. And, a benefit/cost analysis was performed for all scenarios. It was found that when the pedestrian volume is greater than 90ped/h, the pedestrian signal was operated same as the fixed signal plan. That is, there is no benefit of pushbutton at all once the pedestrian volume is greater than 90ped/h. When the pedestrian volume is equal to or less than 90ped/h and the traffic volume is greater than 2,500veh/h, B/C ratio is greater than 1. Also it was found that as traffic volume increases and pedestrian volume decreases, the benefit increases. In this study, the criteria for installation of pushbutton on the crosswalks of mid-block are developed through the sensitivity analysis and benefit/cost analysis. The results of this study may be used as a criteria for expansion of pushbutton system.

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Evaluation of Water Quality after Rehabilitation of Cheonggye Stream using AGP Test (조류성장잠재력 조사를 이용한 청계천 복원 이후 수질 평가)

  • Park, Myung-Hwan;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Suh, Mi-Yeon;Kim, Yong-Jae;Kim, Baik-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.234-243
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    • 2007
  • Algal growth potential (AGP) test was performed to evaluate the water quality and changes in phytoplankton communities before and after a heavy rain event at six sampling sites in Cheonggye Stream (St. 1 and 2), Jungnang Stream (St. 3 and 4), and Lower part of Han River System (St. 5 and 6) after rehabilitation of Cheonggye Stream, October 2005. To test AGP on each sampling site, cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was applied as a standard alga. Total nitrogen (TN) showed high values at Jungnang Stream, while St. 4 recorded highest values in this study. However, TN values of Cheonggye Stream and Lower Part of Han River showed similar levels. Total phosphate (TP) also showed high values at Jungnang Stream, while St. 4 recorded highest. However, TP in Cheonggye Stream were extremely low levels. Although chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ (chi-${\alpha}$) contents before the rain event were similar through the sampling sites, chl-${\alpha}$ after the rain increased dramatically at Jungnang Stream and Lower part of Ban River. In particular, after the rain, TP was the highest at St. 4, where Cyclotella sp. dominated the phytoplankton community. When compared with control, AGP values before the rain were comparatively low in all sites, while those after the rain highly increased with the dose-dependently of field water added, due perhaps to the increased nutrients by rainfall. Similar results were observed in Cheonggye Stream. Therefore, for the aesthetic fostering for the citizens, although Cheonggye Stream was Presently being sustained by treated water supply, they have a potential of outbreak of phytoplankton by the increased nutrients supply when a heavy rain comes.

The Ability of Cervus Elaphus Sibiricus Herbal Acupuncture to Inhibit the Generation of Inflammatory Enzymes on Collagen-induced Arthritis Mice (녹용약침(鹿茸藥鍼)이 CIA 모델 생쥐의 염증인자 생성억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Jong-Soon;Hwang, Ji-Hye;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Lee, Dong-Gun;Kang, Min-Joo;Back, Song-Ook;Cho, Hyun-Seok;Kim, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Kap-Sung
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2007
  • Backgrounds : Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) is known as the chronic inflammatory diseasethat induces persistent inflammation in the joint cavity. The destruction of cartilage occurs as the result of bones destoyed by pannus, several influential cytokines induced by the synovial capsulitis, varieties of proteinases, $O_2$ radicals, and the secondary degenerative changes of articular cartilage. The type 2 collagen-induced arthritis model is used in recent experimental research on rheumatoid arthritis. Cervus elaphus sibiricus (Nockyong) has the effect of relieving pain by nourishing the muscles, joints, and bones. It is also known to be efficacious in promoting and enhancing the immune system. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cervus elaphus sibiricus herbal acupuncture to inhibit the generation of proinflammatory enzyme on type 2 collagen-induced arthritis. I investigated the inhibition of mRNA transcription of MIF(macrophage migration inhibitory factor), $TNF-{\alpha}$(Tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$) and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) of Cervus elaphus sibiricus herbal acupuncture using an in vitro test. Also investigated was the inhibition of differentiation of Th 1 cells and activation of cytokines(MIF, $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-6, MMP-9), which are known to cause initial RA ,and are also related to the morphology of the synovial membranes of the joint capsule, by an in vivo test, using CIA(collagen induced arthritis) model mice. Materials & methods : The laboratory animals used in this experiment were 4 week-old DBA female mice, weighing approximately 20 grams, and adjusted to the laboratory environment. The experiment was divided into the normal group(NOR)-no treated group, control group(CON)-CIA induced group, and sample group(SAM)-Cervus elaphus sibiricus herbal acupuncture treated group. RA was induced in the mice via injection of $50{\mu}{\ell}$ C II mixed CFA. The Cervus elaphus sibiricus herbal acupuncture solution was applied on $GB_{35}$(陽陵泉) for 26 days from the 3rd day of RA inducement. The concentration of the solution was determined via a MTT assay. To research the effect on the expression of MIF, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and MMP-9 mRNA, RT-PCR was performed on synovial membrane cells from the knee joint of CIA mice. C II induced RA knee joint's histo-chemical synovial membrane was observed using a specimen model via the Hematoxilin and Eosin dying technique. Results : The expression of mRNA of RA-related cytokines such as MIF, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and MMP-9 dosedependently decreased in the cell from the synovial membranes of the joint, which is treated with Cervus elaphus sibiricus herbal acupuncture solution. In mice treated with Cervus elaphus sibiricusherbal acupuncture, the damage of synovial membranes of the joint was lessened, and differentiation of Th 1 cells was suppressed. The activation of RA-related cytokines such as MIF was suppressed, and the generation of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and MMP-9 showed a statistically significant decreas. Conclusions : It is speculated that Cervus elaphus sibiricus herbal acupuncture has the therapeutic effect of palliating the damage of the tissue impaired by RA by inhibition of the initial RA progression and by regulating excessive differentiation of Th 1 cell as it suppresses the generation of RA-related cytokines during the highest stage of RA by acting on pro-inflammatory enzymes.

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Comparative Functional Analysis of the Malate Dehydrogenase(Mor2) during in vitro Maturation of the Mouse and Porcine Oocytes (체외성숙 과정 중 생쥐와 돼지 난자의 Malate Dehydrogenase(Mor2)의 기능에 대한 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa;Kim, Yun-Sun;Lee, Hyun-Seo;Kim, Yu-Nna;Lee, Kyung-Ah
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.263-272
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    • 2007
  • Contrast to mouse where its in vitro maturation rates are high without specific supplements or presence of the cumulus cells, there are some species, such as porcine, where its in vitro oocyte maturation rates are still very low. This comparative study was conducted to investigate the role of malate dehydrogenase(Mor2) during oocyte maturation by RNAi in the mouse and porcine. The Mor2 double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) was prepared speciesspecifically and microinjected into the cytoplasm of denuded germinal vesicle(GV) oocytes. Oocytes were cultured for 48 h(porcine) and 16 h(mouse) in M199 with 10% porcine follicular fluid, pyruvate, p-FSH, EGF, cystein, and estradiol-$17{\beta}$. We measured changes in oocyte morphology, maturation rates and mRNA levels after Mor2 RNAi. We confirmed gene sequence-specific knock down of Mor2 mRNA in both species after Mor2 RNAi. In contrast to our previous finding that mMor2 RNAi resulted in GV arrest in the mouse, we found that pMor2 RNAi resulted in MI arrest in denuded porcine oocytes(58%), but developed to MII(84.4%) in COCs. To determine whether this difference between mouse and porcine RNAi is due to differences in culture media, we cultured mouse oocytes in the M199 media for 16 h after mMor2 RNAi. Mouse oocytes were developed to MII stage(62%) and there was no statistical difference compared to that of non-injected(76.8%) and buffer-injected(73.3%) control groups. Therefore, we concluded that the mouse and porcine oocytes are having different metabolic systems in relation to malate dehydrogenase for oocyte maturation. This could be a basis for differences in maturation rates in vitro in two species. Further scrutinized studies on the metabolic pathways would led us in finding better culture system to improve oocyte maturation rates in vitro, especially in more challenging species like the porcine.

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Effects of Auxin and Fog Treatments on the Green-Wood Cutting of the Mature Trees in Prunus yedoensis (왕벚나무 성숙목의 녹지삽목에서 Auxin 및 Fog 처리 효과)

  • Kim, Chang-Soo;Kim, Zin-Suh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.96 no.6
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    • pp.676-683
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    • 2007
  • In an attempt to develop an efficient method for the propagation of mature Prunus yedoensis (45 to 55 years old), green wood cuttings from normal branch and sprouts branch were treated with three different kinds of auxin (Rootone < 1-naphthylacetamide 0.4% >, IBA 100 ppm, and control and two different kinds of fog systems (0.9 L/min. and 0.54 L/min.). The Rootone treatment showed higher values in the percentage of rootings (PR) and the mean number of roots per cutting (NR) than the IBA treatment in the early stage. However, in the late stage, the values of PR and NR in the Rootone treatment become lower than those in the IBA 100 ppm treatment. On the other hand, root development ceased 62 days after taking cuttings for all of the treatments. The IBA 100 ppm treatment showed the best performance in root development (PR= 89.5%, NR = 6.5, LR=6.4 cm). The values of PR (76.5%) and NR (6.4) in the 0.9 L/min. of fog treatment was higher than those (PR = 71.7% and NR = 5.4) in the 0.54 L/min. of fog treatment. The cuttings from sprouts (PR: 74.8%, NR: 5.9, LR: 5.7 cm) showed slightly better performance in rooting rate that the cuttings from shoots (PR : 73.3%, NR: 5.9, LR: 5.4 cm). Statistically significant interactions were presented among most of the different combinations of three factors (auxin treatments, fog treatments, and types of cuttings). The PR showed the highest value of 98.0% in the combination of cuttings of shoots+IBA 100 ppm+0.54 L/min. fog treatments. In case of NR, the cuttings from normal branch showed a higher value than the cuttings from sprouts branch under the fog treatment of 0.9 L/min., while this tendency was reversed under the fog treatment of 0.54 L/min.. The perigon development of roots, which reflects the number and the direction of roots, was best in the IBA treatment (85.6%).

Effects of Cellulose and Pectin on Diet-induced Thermogenesis in Young Women (한국인 젊은 여성에서 셀룰로오스 및 펙틴이 식이성 발열효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Seung-Ho;Park, Jeong-Jin;Choi, In-Seon;Ro, Hee-Kyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.194-200
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of fiber free control diet (CD), cellulose diet (CED) and pectin diet (PTD) on diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) in healthy Korean woman for 3 hours. The three test diets were as follows: CD (carbohydrate intake: 63.4% of energy, protein intake: 14.0% of energy and fat intake: 25.8% of energy), CED (carbohydrate intake: 62.5% of energy, protein intake: 14.0% of energy and fat intake: 26.1% of energy) and PTD (carbohydrate intake: 62.7% of energy, protein intake: 14.0% of energy and fat intake: 26.2 of energy). Groups were served 10 g of cellulose for CED and 10 g of pectin for PTD, respectively. DIT was measured at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consuming each diet. The mean age of all subjects was $22.3{\pm}1.9$ years. Body weight was $52.5{\pm}8.6$ kg and body mass index was $20.6{\pm}2.7kg/m^2$. Preprandial resting energy expenditure was $0.79{\pm}0.02kcal/min$ and postprandial DIT were $14.05{\pm}0.62%$ for CD, $9.33{\pm}0.62%$ for CED, $11.07{\pm}1.35%$ for PTD as a percentage of the energy load. DIT of CD was significantly higher than those of CED and PTD. There was no significant difference in postprandial change in body temperature after consuming each test diets and the sympathetic nervous system activity measured by heart rate was significantly higher in CD than CED and PTD (p<0.05). With this study, it can be concluded that CED and PTD have significantly lowered in DIT (p<0.05). We didn't show the correlation of the factors that relate in DIT; thus, further experiments on that matter should be followed.