• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synurus deltoides

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Cerebrosides and Triterpenoids from the Roots of Synurus deltoides

  • Lee, Hyun-Young;Min, Byung-Sun;Son, Kun-Ho;Chang, Hyeun-Wook;Kim, Hyun-Pyo;Kang, Sam-Sik;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.193-196
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    • 2006
  • A mixture of cerebrosides (1) and four triterpenoids (2 - 5) have been isolated from the hexane- and EtOAc-soluble fractions of the roots of Synurus deltoides (Ait.) Nakai (Compositae). Triterpenoid structures were determined as lupeol (2), $\beta-amyrin$ (3), $\alpha-amyrin$ (4), and ursolic acid (5). Synurus cerebrosides (1) were characterized as a common long chain base (2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-amino-8-octadecene-1,3,4-triol and fatty acyl chains; palmitic acid, (2R)-2-hydroxybehenic acid, (2R)-2-hydroxytricosanoic acid, (2R)-2-hydroxylignoceric acid, (2R)-2-hydroxypentacosanoic acid, and (2R)-2-hydroxyhexacosanoic acid. The synurus cerebrosides (1) were the first isolation from a natural source.

Inhibitory Effects of Synurus deltoides Extracts on the Mutagenesis Induced by Various Mutagens (각종 변이원들에 의해 유도된 돌연변이원성에 대한 수리취 추출물의 억제작용)

  • 함승시;한홍식;최근표;오덕환
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.528-533
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    • 1997
  • This study was undertaken to determine the antimutagenic effects of Synurus deltoides extracts on the mutagenesis induced by 3-amino-1, 4-dimethyl-5-H-pyrido[4, 3-blindol(Trp-P-1), 2-amitnofluorene (2-AF) and 4-nitroquinolin-1-oxide(4NQO) using Ames test. Raw juice, heated juice, and ethanol extract from Synurus deltoides itself did not induce mutagenesis. The raw juice, heated juice and ethanol extract of 50${mu}ell$/plate showed approximately 90%, 37% and 28% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by Trp-P-1 against TA98 strain, while 80%, 60% and 58% inhibition was observed on the mutagenesis induced by 2-AF at the concentration of 200${mu}ell$/plate, respectively. TA100 strain was more sensitive than TA98 strain by raw juice, heated juice and ethanol extract on the mutagenesis induced by Trp-P-1 and 2-AF. Meanwhile, the raw juice, heated juice, and ethanol extract showed very limited inhibitory effects on the mutagenesis induced by 4-NQO against TA98 and TA100 strain. These results indicate that raw juice had the strongest inhibitory effect on the Trp-P-1 or 2-AF induced mutagenesis, but all of the extracts had a little antimutagenc effects on the 4-NQO induced mutagenesis.

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Antigenotoxic Effects of Synurus deltoides Extract on Benzo[a]pyrene Induced Mutagenesis

  • Ham, Seung-Shi;Han, Hong-Sik;Park, Kun-Pyo;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.162-166
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    • 1997
  • This study investigated the antigenotoxic effects of Synurus deltoides extract on the mutagenesis induced by benzo[a]pyene(B[a]P). About 80% and 90% antimutagenic effects were observed in the presence of over 200$\mu\textrm{g}$/plate of methanol extract of Synurus deltoides against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 induced by B[a]P, respectively. The methanol extract itself did not induce an increased frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes(MNPCE) irrespective of the sampling time(up to 72h), while the treatment with benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) at 150mg/kg significantly increased (p<0.05) the incidence of MNPCE. The strongest relative frequency of MNPCE was observed at 36h after injection of B[a]P and the most significant reduction (p<0.05) in the frequencies of MNPCE was occurred at the feeding of the methanol extract to mice 12 h before injection of B[a]P. The most significant reduction (p<0.05) with 48% was observed in the frequencies of MNPCE when 50 mg/kg of the methanol extract was given to the mice 12h before injection of B[a]P, while the strongest relative frequency inhibition was 54% at the multiple feeding of 5mg/kg of the methanol extract e time every day for 5 days on th frequencies of MNPCE induced by 150 mg/kg of B[a]P. These results indicate that the methanol extract of Synurus deltoides have a strong modulatory effect on benzo[a]pyrene induced MNPCE.

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Ethanol extract of Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai suppresses in vitro LPS-induced cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo acute inflammatory symptoms

  • Jiang, Yunyao;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2014
  • Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai, belonging to the Compositae family, is an edible plant widely distributed in Northeast Asia. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulative effects of the ethanol extract of S. deltoides (SDE). The SDE extract strongly down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and TNF-${\alpha}$ in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, SDE also suppressed the nuclear translocation of the activation protein (AP)-1 and the nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$), and simultaneously decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), p38, and Akt. In agreement with the in vitro observations, the orally administered SDE ameliorated the acute inflammatory symptoms in the arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and the EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Therefore, S. deltoides have a potential anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential therapeutic use in the inflammation-associated disorders.

Comparison of Volatile Aroma Compounds between Synurus deltoides and Aster scaber Leaves (수리취와 참취 엽의 휘발성 향기성분 비교)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Cheol;Sa, Jou-Young;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon;Han, Sang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2012
  • This study was investigated to compare the volatile aroma compounds of Synurus deltoides and Aster scaber. The volatile aroma compounds from Synurus deltoides and Aster scaber were extracted by soild-phase microextraction (SPME) methods. S. deltoides had 97 volatile aroma compounds such as including 5-acetyl-1,2-dihydro acenaphtylene (14.63%), ${\beta}$-cubebene (9.31%), caryophyllene (8.97%), ${\beta}$-chamigrene (7.14%), ${\beta}$-selinene (2.71), ${\alpha}$-farnesene (2.47%), ${\alpha}$-bergamotene (2.26%), ${\beta}$-elemene (1.94%), etc. A. scaber had 84 volatile aroma compounds such as (+)-epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (10.38%), terpinolen (10.09%), caryophyllene (6.04%), 8-isopropenyl-1,5-dimethyl-1,5-cyclodeca diene (5.42%), ${\alpha}$-himachalene (5.04%), ${\beta}$-thujene (4.37%), ${\beta}$-pinene (4.28%), ${\beta}$-cubebene (3.99%), etc. Conclusively, the main common volatile aroma compounds in S. deltoides and A. scaber leaves were 19 volatile aroma compounds such as caryophyllene, terpinolen, ${\beta}$-cubebene. But the composition and amount of volatile aroma compounds were very different between the two species.

New Anti-Inflammatory Formulation Containing Synurus deltoides Extract

  • Choi, Yong-Hwan;Son, Kun-Ho;Chang, Hyeun-Wook;Bae, Ki-Hwan;Kang, Sam-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Pyo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.848-853
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    • 2005
  • Synurus deltoides was previously found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity especially against chronic inflammation, and strong analgesic activity in vivo. In this study, new anti-inflammatory formulation containing S. deltoides extract as a major ingredient was prepared and in vivo activity was evaluated. The plausible action mechanism was also investigated. The new formulation (SAG) contains 1 part of S. deltoides extract, 0.9 part of Angelica gigas extract and 0.9 part of glucosamine sulfate (w/w). SAG inhibited dose-dependently edematic response of arachidonic acid (AA)- and 12-O-tetradecanoyl 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice, which is an animal model of acute inflammation. SAG showed 44.1 % inhibition of AA-induced ear edema at an oral dose of 50 mg/kg. In an animal model of chronic inflammation, SAG clearly reduced the edematic response of 7 -day model of multiple treatment of TPA (38.1 % inhibition at 200 mg/kg/day). Furthermore, SAG (50-800 mg/kg/day) as well as S. deltoides extract (285 mg/kg/day) significantly inhibited prostaglandin $E_2$ production from the skin lesion of the animals of 7-day model. These results were well correlated with in vitro finding that SAG as well as S. deltoides extract reduced cyclooxygenase (COX)-1- and COX-2-induced prostanoid production, measured in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Therefore, these results suggest that SAG possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo against acute as well as chronic inflammatory animal models at least in part by inhibition of prostaglandin production through COX-1/COX-2 inhibition. And COX inhibition of SAG is possibly contributed by S. deltoides extract among the ingredients. Although the anti-inflammatory potencies of SAG were less than those of currently used anti-inflammatory drugs, this formulation may have beneficial effect on inflammatory disorders as a neutraceutical.

Comparison of Water Potential Parameters in Aster scaber and Synurus deltoides Leaves Obtained from P-V Curves (P-V 곡선법에 의한 참취와 수리취의 수분포텐셜 비교)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Cheol;Jeon, Seong-Ryeol;Han, Sang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to establish a proper cultivation site and diagnose the drought-tolerance of Aster scaber and Synurus deltoides leaves by using Pressure-volume curves. In order to measure pressure-volume (P-V) curves, Aster scaber and Synurus deltoides were cut off above ground part and the tip of the cutting were placed in water, which was covered with a plastic bag. Samples were kept overnight (about 12 hours) in darkness at room temperature (20~25$^{\circ}C$) to achieve maximal turgor (full saturation). The pressure in the chamber was gradually increased from 0.3MPa to 1.8MPa by nitrogen gas. After measured, leaf samples were dried at 80$^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours and dry weight of each samples were determined. The result of the original bulk osmotic potential at maximum turgor ${\Psi}^{sat}_o$ sat was lower -0.8 MPa in Aster scaber leaves than -0.7 MPa Synurus deltoides leaves. Also the osmotic potential at incipient plasmolysis ${\Psi}^{tlp}_o$ in Aster scaber leave was -0.9 MPa. In contrast, the value of maximum bulk modulus of elasticity $E_{max}$ of Aster scaber leaves were approximately two folds higher than that of Synurus deltoides leaves. The values of the relative water content at incipient plasmolysis $RWC^{tlp}$ are all above 90% showing that the function of osmoregulation is somewhat better, and Vo/DW, Vt/DW, Ns/DW of Synurus deltoides leaves were approximately 1~2 times higher than that of Aster scaber leaves. Thus, responses to water relations of Aster scaber and Synurus deltoides such as ${\Psi}^{sat}_o$, ${\Psi}^{tlp}_o$, $E_{max}$, ${\Psi}_{P,max}$, $RWC^{tl}$ were shown that the Aster scaber leaves was slightly higher drought-tolerance than Synurus deltoides leaves. However, in both of Aster scaber and Synurus deltoides, occurring incipient plasmolysis at the high water content, have a relatively lower drought-tolerance property indicating that growth of these plants are cultivated appropriate in high moisture soil sites.

Analysis of General Components, Mineral Contents, and Dietary Fiber Contents of Synurus deltoides (수리취(Synurus deltoids)의 일반성분, 무기질 및 식이섬유에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Min-Hee;Choi, Byoung-Gon;Lim, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Heo, Nam-Ki;Yu, Seong-Hee;Kim, Jong-Dai;Lee, Kwang-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.1631-1634
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to estimate the general components, minerals, and dietary fiber contents of Synurus deltoides. S. deltoides contained 81.1% moisture content, and the proportions of crude fat, crude protein, crude ash, and crude fiber were 0.3%, 4.2%, 2.6%, and 3.5%, respectively. Potassium (3,249.1 mg) was the most abundant component among the minerals in S. deltoides. In addition, S. deltoides contained many other minerals, e.g. calcium (854.8 mg), phosphorus (60.3 mg), magnesium (344.7 mg), sodium (57.3 mg), zinc (1.7 mg), iron (30.9 mg), copper (0.8 mg), and manganese (5.8 mg). Almost all of the mineral contents of S. deltoides were higher than those of Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri, except for zinc, copper, and manganese. Total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) contents of S. deltoides were 42.6 g, 37.9 g, and 4.7 g, respectively, and these were also higher than those of A. scaber and L. fischeri used in this study. These results suggest that S. deltoides may be a valuable nutrient source.

Changes of Characteristics Related to Photosynthesis in Synurus deltoides under Different Shading Treatments (차광처리에 따른 수리취의 광합성 관련 특성 변화)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Cheol;Noh, Hee-Sun;Kim, Jong-Whan;Ahn, Soo-Yong;Han, Sang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.320-330
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes of chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters, and leaf growth of Synurus deltoides under different shading treatments. S. deltoides was grown under non-treated (full sunlight) and three different shading conditions (Shaded 88~93%, 65~75%, and 45%~55%). Light compensation point ($L_{comp}$), dark respiration ($D_{resp}$), maximum photosynthesis rate ($Pn_{max}$), photo respiration rate ($P_{resp}$), carboxylation efficiency ($\Phi_{carb}$), and photochemical efficiency were decreased with increasing shading level; However, $CO_2$ compensation point ($CO_{2\;comp}$), total chlorophyll content, and specific leaf area (SLA) were shown the opposite trend. S. deltoides under 88~93% treatment showed the lowest photosynthetic activity such as maximum photosynthetic rate ($Pn_{max}$), photochemical efficiency, and $CO_2$ compensation point ($CO_{2\;comp}$). Therefore, photosynthetic activity will be sharply decreased with a long period of 8~12% of full sunlight. With the shading level decreased, carotenoid content and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) increased to prevent excessive light damage. This result suggested that growth and physiology of S. deltoides adapted to high light intensity through regulating its internal mechanism.

Development of Beverages Drinks Using Mountain Edible Herbs (산채류를 이용한 음료 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 함승시;이상영;오덕환;김상헌;홍정기
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 1997
  • Beverages using mountain edible herbs(MEH) were formulated by determining optimum ratio of juices of MEH to several other ingredients. Fermented beverages were made by mixing juices(1 volume) fermented with Lactobacillus helverticus with syrup(3 volumes), followed by homogenization and flavoring . The general analysis and quality change of the beverages during storage were Peformed. The analysis of the beverages showed that the pH of Synurus deltoides and Cirsium sctidens were 3.8 and 3.7, titratable acidities were 0.50 and 0.49, optical densities were 1.201 and 1.119, respectively, The pH and color were not significantly changed when Synurus deltoides and Cirsium sctidens were stored at room temperature and 37$^{\circ}C$ for 6 months. The pH of Synurs deltoides beverage ranged 3.95~3.96 and pH of Cirsium sctidens was 3.83~3.95 at room temperature and 3.87~3.98 at 37$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The analysis of fermented beverages showed that pHs of Synurus deltoides and Cirsium sctidens were 3.65 and 3.70, titratable acidities were 0.57 and 0.60. Solids-non-fat were 3.2 and 3.1, and total counts of lactic acid bacteria were 2.5$\times$10$^{8}$ and 4.0$\times$10$^{8}$ , respectively. The changes of pH and titratable acidities stored at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 15 days were 3.39~3.56 and 0.61~0.81 for Synurus deltoides and 3.48~3.67 and 0.60~0.78 for Cirsium sctidens, respectively.

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