• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synthesis

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SYNTHESIS OF NANO-SIZED IRON FOR REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION. 2. Effects of Synthesis Conditions on Iron Reactivities

  • Song, Ho-Cheol;Carraway, Elizabeth R.;Kim, Young-Hun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2005
  • Nano-sized iron was synthesized using borohydride reduction of $Fe^{3+}$ in aqueous solution. A wide range of synthesis conditions including varying concentrations of reagents, reagent feeding rate, and solution pH was applied in an aqueous system under anaerobic condition. The reactivity of nano-sized iron from each synthesis was evaluated by reacting the iron with TCE in batch systems. Evidence obtained from this study suggest the reactivity of iron is strongly dependent on the synthesis solution pH. The iron reactivity increased as solution pH decreased. More rapid TCE reduction was observed for iron samples synthesized from higher initial $Fe^{3+}$ concentration, which resulted in lower solution pH during the synthesis reaction. Faster feeding of $BH_4^-$ solution to the $Fe^{3+}$ solution resulted in lower synthesis solution pH and the resultant iron samples gave higher TCE reduction rate. Lowering the pH of the solution after completion of the synthesis reaction significantly increased reactivity of iron. It is presumed that the increase in the reactivity of iron synthesized at lower pH is due to less precipitation of iron (hydr)oxides or less surface passivation of iron.

Solid-phase Synthesis of 7-Aryl-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-one Derivatives on a BOMBA Resin Utilizing the Smiles Rearrangement

  • Lee, Ji-Min;Yu, Eun-Ae;Park, Joo-Yeon;Ryu, In-Ae;Shin, Dong-Soo;Gong, Young-Dae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1325-1330
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    • 2009
  • A general method has been developed for the solid phase synthesis of drug-like 7-aryl-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)- one derivatives 6. The method relies on a novel, microwave irradiation promoted cyclization reaction of the BOMBA resin bound, N-substituted-$\alpha$-(2-chloro-4-bromophenoxy)acetamide 3 that takes place via a Smiles rearrangement. The 7-bromobenzo[1,4]oxazine 4, produced in this process is converted to 7-aryloxazin analogs 5 by utilizing Suzuki coupling with various substituted arylboronic acids. Finally, the target 7-aryl-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-ones 6 are liberated from the resin by treatment with 5% TFA. The progress of the reactions involved in this preparative route can be monitored by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy on a single bead. The target compounds, obtained by using this five-step sequence, are produced in high yields and purities.

Effects of Taurine on Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Poultry and Mice

  • Shim, K.S.;Jung, H.J.;Na, C.S.;Yoon, C.;Park, Garng H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.865-870
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we have attempted to understand the effects of taurine on serum and liver concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in broiler chickens and mice in the post-absorptive state, and on in vitro protein synthesis in the livers of broiler chickens and laying hens, as well as the effects of taurine on in vivo protein synthesis in the liver of mice. The experimental animals were subjected to 24 h of starvation in order to perpetuate a post-absorptive state. Serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the taurine groups than in the controls in both the broilers and the mice. However, taurine resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in liver concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides, relative to what was seen in the control groups of both animals. Taurine stimulated the in vitro synthesis of 57-kDa, 40-kDa and 23-kDa proteins in the liver of broilers, but inhibited the in vitro synthesis of 54-kDa, 37-kDa and 24-kDa proteins. Taurine in the liver of laying hens exerted effects on in vitro protein synthesis, with the exception of the 26-kDa protein which was not detected in broiler liver, but was inhibited by taurine in the liver of laying hens. Unlike the findings regarding in vitro protein synthesis in the liver of broilers or laying hens, taurine appeared to stimulate the synthesis of only two proteins, a 47-kDa and a 40-kDa protein, in the liver of mice. Overall, theses findings indicate that taurine treatment results in a reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and also affects protein synthesis in the livers of broilers, laying hens, and mice.

Synchrotron Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Its Applications in Polymer Nanotechnology

  • Ree, Moon-Hor;Lee, Byeong-Du;Yoon, Jin-Hwan;Heo, Kyu-Young;Jin, Kyeong-Sik;Jin, Sang-Woo;Kim, Hyun-Chul;Kim, Gha-Hee;Choi, Seung-Chul;Oh, Weon-Tae;Park, Young-Hee;Hwang, Yong-Taek;Kim, Jong-Seong
    • Proceedings of the Polymer Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.120-120
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    • 2006
  • In our study grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) measurements with synchrotron radiation sources were conducted statically and in-situ for a series of nanoscale thin films prepared from nanoporous dielectrics, block copolymers, brush polymers, and molecular assemblies. All GIXS measurements were performed at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The measured scattering data were analyzed in detail by using newly developed GIXS scattering theory. All GIXS results will be discussed in details with considering the materials chemistry and nanostructure formation process parameters.

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Modeling, Preparation, and Elemental Doping of Li7La3Zr2O12 Garnet-Type Solid Electrolytes: A Review

  • Cao, Shiyu;Song, Shangbin;Xiang, Xing;Hu, Qing;Zhang, Chi;Xia, Ziwen;Xu, Yinghui;Zha, Wenping;Li, Junyang;Gonzale, Paulina Mercedes;Han, Young-Hwan;Chen, Fei
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.111-129
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    • 2019
  • Recently, all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have attracted increasing interest owing to their higher energy density and safety. As the core material of ASSBs, the characteristics of the solid electrolyte largely determine the performance of the battery. Thus far, a variety of inorganic solid electrolytes have been studied, including the NASICON-type, LISICON-type, perovskite-type, garnet-type, glassy solid electrolyte, and so on. The garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolyte is one of the most promising candidates because of its excellent comprehensively electrochemical performance. Both, experiments and theoretical calculations, show that cubic LLZO has high room-temperature ionic conductivity and good chemical stability while contacting with the lithium anode and most of the cathode materials. In this paper, the crystal structure, Li-ion transport mechanism, preparation method, and element doping of LLZO are introduced in detail based on the research progress in recent years. Then, the development prospects and challenges of LLZO as applied to ASSBs are discussed.

Approximate Synthesis of 5-SS Multi Link Suspension Systems for Steering Motion (조향 운동을 고려한 5-SS 멀티링크 현가장치의 근사 합성)

  • Kim, Seon-Pyeong;Sim, Jae-Gyeong;An, Byeong-Ui;Lee, Eon-Gu
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2001
  • This paper presents an approximate synthesis of 5-SS multi link suspension for 2 D.O.F motions. In the proposed synthesis method, alteration curves of camber, toe, kingpin and caster angles are optimized during the bump rebound and the steering motions. And joint positions can be located within desired boundari es. Especially, steering motions are considered for control of kingpin offset and caster trail. Prescribed motions contain both wheel center positions and imaginary kingpin axes in the multi link type suspension. Constraint equations are formulated with di splacement matrix and velocity matrix using instantaneous screw axis.

Combustion Characteristics of Synthesis Gas Generated in Waste Pyrolysis Process (폐기물 열분해과정에서 발생된 합성가스의 연소 특성)

  • Ahn, Yong-Soo;Hwang, Sang-Soon;Lee, Sung-Ho;Lee, Hyup-Hee
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2003
  • The synthesis gas generated in waste pyrolysis melting process which consists of pyrolysis of waste and melting process of ash is known to be an alternative fuel. Since the compositopn of synthesis gas is much different from other synthesis gases, the fundamental combustion characteristics are analyzed in this study. The radiation heat heat flux is used to estimate the heat flux from flames made by many combinations of fuel and oxidant supply. The results show that the synthesis gas needs much more amount of oxidant for equivalent heat flux to methane flame and the inverse diffusion flame type for synthesis gas burner is suitable for better radiation heat transfer.

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A Study on the Pitch Alteration Technique by Subband Scaling in Speech Signal (서브밴드 스케일링에 의한 음성신호의 피치변경법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Kyu;Bae, Myung-Jin
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.137-147
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    • 2003
  • Speech synthesis can classify by synthesis way, that is waveform coding, source coding and mixture coding. Specially, waveform coding is suitable for high quality synthesis. However, it is not desirable by synthesis techniques of syllable or phoneme unit because it do not separate and handles excitation and formant part. Therefore, there is a need for pitch alteration method applied in synthesis by the rule in waveform coding. This study propose about pitch alteration method that use spectrum scaling after do to flatten spectra by subband linear approximation to minimize spectrum distortion. This paper show evaluation whether show excellency of some measure compared with LPC, Cepstrum, lifter function and method that propose. estimation method seeks distribution of each flattened signal and measured degree of flattened spectra Signal flattened is normalized, So that highest point amounts to zero, and distribution of signal ,whose average is zero, is calculated. this show result that measure the spectrum distortion rate to estimate performance of method that propose. The average spectrum distortion rate was kept below the average 2.12%, so the method that propose is superiors than existent method.

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