• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Synthesis

검색결과 19,049건 처리시간 0.061초

Changes in Protein Synthesis Induced by Chilling in Tomato Chloroplasts

  • Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Park, Kwang-Lai;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2001
  • To find out the effect of low temperature on the regulation of tomato chloroplast genes, the optimization of the system in chloroplast protein synthesis and the identification of the changes in chloroplast protein synthesis induced by chilling were studied. Incorporation reaction occurred rapidly at the first 30 minutes and was constantly maintained after 60 minutes. A broad optimal temperature on protein synthesis was found around 20 to $30^{\circ}C$. No difference was shown in the chloroplast protein synthesis under high light intensity (1600 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) as well as under low light intensity (400 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) even darkness. $K^+$, $Mg^{++}$ and ATP at an optimal concentration act as an activator, while DTT, chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, $Ca^{++}$ and inorganic phosphate act as an inhibitor in the chloroplast protein synthesis. Synthesis of 15, 55 and 60 kd chloroplast encoded stromal proteins and 18, 24, 33 and 55 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane proteins were reduced by chilling, while 17 kd chloroplast encoded stromal protein and 16 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane protein was induced by chilling. It was expected that the 55 kd stromal protein would be the large subunit of rubisco and the 33 kd thylakoid membrane protein would be the D1 protein which was drastically reduced by chilling.

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Effect of Individual Fatty Acids on Synthesis and Secretion of Apolipoprotein and Lipoprotein in hep-G2 Cells

  • Ryowon Choue
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.910-923
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    • 1994
  • The effects of individual fatty acids, differing in their degree of unsaturation(18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3) on the biosynthesis and secretion and lipids were investigated in Hep-G2 cells. Synthesis of apolipoprotein was measured by the incorporation of 3H-leucine into apolipoprotein(d<1.21g/ml) and synthesis of lipids was measured by the incorporation of 3H-glycerol and 14C-acetate into various lipid classes. Inclusion of 1.0mM of each fatty acids into the culture medium significantly increased the synthesis of total apolipoprotein and Apo B(p<0.05). However, addition of fatty acid did not affect the synthesis of cellular and medium protein. Among different fatty acids tested, oleic acid had the greatest effect on Apo B synthesis. While stearic, linoleic and linolenic acid, all had similar effects. The secretion of triglyceride into the medium markedly increased in all fatty acid groups being 5-6 times over the albumin control. The triglyceride secretion was the highest int he oleic acid group. The secretion of phospholipid and cholesterol also increased with triglyceride output. A positive relationship existed between the output of lipoprotein-triglyceride and Apo B. Since the synthesis of Apo B was significantly increased when various fatty acids were included into the culture medium, part of the apparently stimulated synthesis of the apolipoprotein may be in response to the increased formation and secretion of lipoprotein lipids.

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Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide가 Prostaglandin 합성에 미치는 작용의 특성 (Characteristics of Prostaglandin Synthesis Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Rat Alveolar Macrophages)

  • 이수환;임종석;황동호;문창규
    • 한국식품위생안전성학회지
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 1993
  • It is well known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in various experimental system, but the mechanism and the detailed nature of its action are yet to be understood. Thus, this study was designed to characterize LPS induced PG synthesis in rat alveolar macrophage. Although results were not so much prominent, LPS stimulated PGE2 synthesis in macrophage with short term exposure, and this was thought to be mainly due to the activation of phopholipase A2+ But there was a burst in the PG synthesis 6 hours after the LPS treatment and this was accompanied with the increase of cyclooxygenase activity. This effect was not mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or platelet activating factor (PAF), and the existence of serum was prerequisite for its action. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) themselves did not stimulate PG synthesis and the showed stimulatory activities to some extent. Normal rat serum was more effective for the elicitation of the LPS action than growth factors. Thus, considering the amounts of growth fafctors contained in normal serum, it was suggested that another factors like LPS binding protein (LBP) might be involved in the serum effect on LPS action. Conclusively. it was thought that LPS could stimulate PG synthesis through interaction with serum factors such as EGF, PDGF and/or LBP.

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Alachlor의 제초기구(除草機構)에 관한 연구(硏究) - I.Alachlor가 귀리의 핵산(核酸), 아미노산 및 단백질합성(蛋白質合成)에 미치는 영향(影響) (A Study of Mode of Action of Alachlor - I. Effects of Alachlor on Nucleic acid, Amino acid and Protein Synthesis in Oat(Avena sativa L.))

  • 권성환;김재철
    • 한국잡초학회지
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 1990
  • The effects of alachlor [2-chloro-2', 6' diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide] treatment on nucleic acid, amino acid and protein synthesis were studied. The amide herbicide alachlor blocks the biosynthesis of the amino acids isoleucine, valine and aromatic amino acid in oat root tips. Nucleic acid was inhibited, but was not proportional to reduction in protein synthesis. $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ of alachlor treatment of oat roots inhibited 36% DNA synthesis, but DNA synthesis was not inhibited at $1{\times}10^{-5}M$. RNA synthesis was inhibited by $1{\times}10^{-5}M$ and $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ of alachlor 16 and 27%, respectively, while inhibition of protein synthesis did occur at same concentrations. Inhibition of protein synthesis also did not occur at concentration below $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ alachlor. It suggest that inhibition of protein sythesis caused significantly by alachlor($1{\times}l0^{-3}M$) result from secondary action.

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New Tactics for Stereospecificity in Metallocene-based Olefin Polymerization

  • Kim, Seong-Kyun;Park, Sung-Jin;Kim, Hwa-Kyu;Yoon, Seung-Woong;Lee, Jun-Seong;Park, Myung-Hwan;Do, Young-Kyu
    • 한국고분자학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.221-221
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    • 2006
  • The stereochemical control in polypropylenes and styrene-ethylene copolymers based on homogeneous single-site polymerization catalysts has received great attention since the stereocpecificity is one of the key factors in tailoring the polymer properties. Thus, we have developed new tactics for isospecificity in propylene polymerization with the unbridged metallocenebased systems and syndiospecific styrene-styrene sequence in styrene-ethylene copolymerization with the group 4 metallocene system. Brief details of the synthesis, structures and the polymerization behavior of a set of new metallocene catalysts will be presented.

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음향계의 해석을 위한 부분구조합성법의 적용 (Application of Substructure Synthesis Method for Analysis of Acoustic System)

  • 오재응;고상철;조용구
    • 소음진동
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.737-746
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    • 1997
  • The substructure synthesis method is used for making it easy to analyze vibration systems generally in vibration field. In the past, this method has been to be used mainly because of shortage of computer memory and CPU time. But recently this method is used for analyzing complex structure or identifying the characteristics of systems precisely. The purpose of this study is to develop acoustic substructure synthesis method that can be applied to acoustic modal analysis of complex acoustic systems. Acoustic modal analysis method to be introduced here is a method that analyze acoustic natural mode shape of the complex acoustic system by the principle of CMS(component mode synthesis method). This paper describes the acoustic modal analysis of the acoustic finite element model of simple expansion pipe by acoustic substructure synthesis method. The resutls of acoustic modal analysis analyzed by Acoustic substructure synthesis method and the results by FEM(finite element method) shows good agreement.

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