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Comparative effect of dietary borage oil and safflower oil on anti-proliferation and ceramide metabolism in the epidermis of essential fatty acid deficient guinea pigs (필수지방산 결핍이 유도된 기니피그에서 보라지유와 홍화유 섭취의 표피 과증식 억제 및 세라마이드 대사에 미치는 효과 비교)

  • Lee, Se Ryung;Cho, Yunhi
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Borage oil (BO) and safflower oil (SO) are efficacious in reversing epidermal hyperproliferation, which is caused by the disruption of epidermal barrier. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative effect of dietary BO and SO. Altered metabolism of ceramide (Cer), the major lipid of epidermal barrier, was further determined by measurement of epidermal levels of individual Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and sphingomyelin (SM) species, and protein expression of Cer metabolizing enzymes. Methods: Epidermal hyperproliferation was induced in guinea pigs by a hydrogenated coconut diet (HCO) for 8 weeks. Subsequently, animals were fed diets of either BO (group HCO + BO) or SO (group HCO + SO) for 2 weeks. As controls, animals were fed BO (group BO) or HCO (group HCO) diets for 10 weeks. Results: Epidermal hyperproliferation was reversed in groups HCO + BO (67.6% of group HCO) and HCO + SO (84.5% of group HCO). Epidermal levels of Cer1/2, GlcCer-A/B, and ${\beta}$-glucocerebrosidase (GCase), an enzyme of GlcCer hydrolysis for Cer generation, were higher in group HCO + BO than in group HCO, and increased to levels similar to those of group BO. In addition, epidermal levels of SM1, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), and acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase), enzymes of de novo Cer synthesis and SM hydrolysis for Cer generation, but not of Cer3-7, were higher in group HCO + BO than in group HCO. Despite an increase of SPT and aSMase in group HCO + SO to levels higher than in group HCO, epidermal levels of Cer1-7, GlcCer-A/B, and GCase were similar in these two groups. Notably, acidic ceramidase, an enzyme of Cer degradation, was highly expressed in group HCO + SO. Epidermal levels of GlcCer-C/D and SM-2/3 did not differ among groups. Conclusion: Dietary BO was more prominent for reversing epidermal hyperproliferation by enhancing Cer metabolism with increased levels of Cer1/2, GlcCer-A/B, and SM1 species, and of GCase proteins.

Construction of cDNA Library for Using Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) Vector with the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) (담배가루이(Bemisia tabaci, Aleyrodidae, Hemiptera)에서 Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) Vector를 이용하기 위한 cDNA Library 제작)

  • Ko, Na Yeon;Lim, Hyoun Sub;Yu, Yong Man;Youn, Young Nam
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2015
  • The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is the major insect pest that transmitted over 100 plant viruses including tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) of tomato plant as virus vector in the world. In this study, cDNA library of whitefly was constructed using Gateway system for selecting target gene in order to control of B. tabaci using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector with RNAi. First of all, when using oligo d(T) rimer, the calculated titer of cDNA library was confirmed with $1.4{\times}10^4$ clones and average insert sizes was confirmed with 1 kb. However, insert size was very big for construction of cDNA. Otherwise, when using attB-N25 random primer and sonication for 6 sec, the calculated titer of cDNA library was confirmed with $1.04{\times}10^5$ clones. But mostly insert band wasn't identified on the electrophoresis, because it seemed that insert size is too small (${\leq}100bp$), also the size of identified insert was somewhat big. Finally, when using oligo d(T) primer and sonication for 1 sec, cDNA insert of whitefly was appropriated for VIGS with 300-600 bp. However, cDNA sequence included a poly A and titer was very low to $5.2{\times}10^2$ clones. It was supposed that heat shock transformation was used instead of electro-transformation. It is considered that when constructing cDNA library for using VIGS vector, (1) random primer should be used for First strand cDNA synthesis in order to remove poly A and (2) sonication for 1 sec should be performed in order to get appropriated insert size and (3) electro-transformation should be performed in order to improve transformation efficiency.

An Initiative Study on Relationship between Algal Blooms and Asian Dust for Regulation of Algal Blooms (조류 성장 억제를 위한 녹조 및 적조 발생과 황사의 상관관계 초기적 연구)

  • Kim, Tai-Jin;Jeong, Jaechil;Seo, Rabeol;Kim, Hyung Moh;Kim, Dae Geun;Chun, Youngsin;Park, Soon-Ung;Yi, Sehyoon;Park, Jun Jo;Lee, Jin Ha;Lee, Jay J.;Lee, Eun Ju
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.285-296
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    • 2014
  • Although the problems of the algal blooms have been world-widely observed in freshwater, estuary, and marine throughout the year, it is not yet certain what are the basic causes of such blooms. Consequently, it is very difficult to predict when and where algal blooms occur. The constituents of the Asian dust are in a good agreement with the elements required for the algal growth, which suggests some possible relationship between the algal blooms and the Asian dust. There have been frequently algal blooms in drinking water from rivers or lakes. However, there is no any algal blooms in upwelling waters where the Asian dust cannot penetrate into the soil due to its relatively weak settling velocity (size of particles, $4.5{\pm}1.5{\mu}m$), which implies the possible close relationship of the Asian dust with algal blooms. The present initiative study is thus intended firstly in Korea to illustrate such a relationship by reviewing typical previous studies along with 12 years of weekly iron profiles (2001~2012) and two slant culture experiments with the dissolved Asian dust. The result showed bacterial suspected colonies in the slant culture experiment that are qualitatively in a good agreement with the recent Japanese studies. Since the diatoms require cheap energy (8%) compared to other phytoplankton (100%) to synthesize their cell walls by silicate, the present results can be used to predict algal blooms by diatoms if the concentrations of iron and silicate are available during spring and fall. It can be postulated that the algal blooms occur only if the environmental factors such as light, nutrients, calm water surface layer, temperature, and pH are simultaneously satisfied with the requirements of the micronutrients of mineral ions supplied by the Asian dust as enzymatic cofactors for the rapid bio-synthesis of the macromolecules during algal blooms. Simple eco-friendly methods to regulate the algal blooms are suggested for the initial stage of blooming with limited area: 1) to cover up the water surface with black curtain and inhibit photosynthesis during the day time, 2) to blow air (20.9%) or pure oxygen into the bottom of the water and inhibit rubisco for carbon uptake and nitrate reductase for nitrogen uptake activities in algal growth during the night, 3) to eliminate the resting spores or cysts by suction of bottom sediments as deep as 5 cm to prevent the next year germinations.

RNA Interference of Chitinase Gene in Spodoptera litura (담배거세미나방(Spodoptera litura) Chitinase gene의 RNA interference)

  • Jeon, Mi Jin;Seo, Mi Ja;Youn, Young Nam;Yu, Yong Man
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2014
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is the method which controls phenotypes of gene in live cells. Chitinase is the enzyme helping digestion and absorption of old cuticles during the ecdysis of insects. In order to investigate molting-inhibition effect with the chitinase related gene in Spodoptera litura, RNA was extracted from the $5^{th}$ instars. cDNA was synthesized and then we obtained about 700 bp size chitinase. After PCR products were cloned into a pGEM T-easy vector, colonies were picked. DNA was extracted from the colony cultures. EcoR I enzyme was used to check whether PCR products were inserted or not. And then we confirmed vector band of about 3 kb and insert band of about 700 bp. To synthesize the dsRNA, each DNA was cut with Spe I and Nco I enzymes (Circular DNA became lineared DNA). After synthesis of dsRNA, approximately 5 ul dsRNA was injected into the $3^{rd}$ abdominal segment of S. litura $4^{th}$ larvae. The concentration of dsRNA was about $10{\mu}g/{\mu}l$. We confirmed larval-larval molting : there were phenotypically abnormal individuals - for instance malformation, molting inhibition and change of integument color. Pupaadult molting : there were phenotypically abnormal individuals - for instance molting inhibition, change of wings and malformation. Also we could investigate the pupation, emergence and variation about noninjection, treated with DW and dsRNA. Each pupation was non-injection 83.3%, DW 78.3% and dsRNA 66.7%. Each emergence was non-injection 90.0%, DW 72.3% and dsRNA 65.0%. So we considered that chitinase dsRNA induced molting inhibition effect. But each variation was non-injection 8.9%, DW 2.9% and dsRNA 19.2%. Therefore dsRNA group showed the highest variation value. When 18 hours after injecting dsRNA, we could obtain abnormal individual.

A Review of Service Innovation Research: A Comparison of Domestic and International Research Papers (서비스혁신 연구 동향: 국내 및 해외 주요 학술지를 중심으로)

  • Ryu, Hyun-Sun
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.577-610
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    • 2014
  • Although service innovation is not a new concept, innovation research in general tends to focus on technological innovation by manufacturing firms. With this view, innovation studies focus on product(e.g., goods) and process(e.g., product systems) innovation, ignoring service innovation and its inherent opportunities. Since major economy has been transformed to service economy, service innovation is considered a new effective way to sustain and gain a competitive advantage. Service innovation is no longer regarded merely as a side activity to product innovation; it has become a main research topic in its own right, accompanied by an increasing focus on services. While the number of service innovation studies has increased dramatically in the past 30 years in international research, few studies have been performed in domestic studies because domestic service innovation research began from the middle of 2000. In addition, there are no comprehensive literature reviews describing the evolution of service innovation research in both international and domestic studies because of the heterogeneities of service industry and multidiscipline characteristics of service innovation studies. To bridge this research gap, the purpose of this paper is to perform an extensive literature review and synthesis to enable a critical review of extant research on service innovation and trace its evolution, which will establish a foundation for further studies. By reviewing 169 articles (136 international papers; 33 domestic papers) published between 2000 and 2014 (in past 15 years), primarily in leading service, innovation and management information systems journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to the four aspects such as number of studies, topics, methodologies and target industries. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing concept that entails several functions, both within and outside the firms. The results showed that domestic research still stays at the formation phase of service innovation studies although international research is in the maturity or multidimensional phase. We found increasing recent activities pertaining to service innovation, resulting from the increasing interest in services innovation across various industries and the links of new topics to the service innovation concept in both international and domestic studies. However, the main focus of service innovation research showed a different propensity between international and domestic studies: the former mainly focuses on a much more diversified pattern, emphasizing the linkages between service innovation and business strategy while the latter mainly focuses on the service innovation process(system) and service design. In addition, there are many case studies in domestic studies while many empirical studies in international studies. Domestic studies should increases the understanding of the interplay between service innovation and product innovation within manufacturing firms. Furthermore, rather than focusing on intrinsic distinctions between service innovation and product innovation, researchers should strive to develop and conceptualize service innovation in domestics studies. The present research also provides useful implications for practitioners. First, this study contributes to expand the current understanding of service innovation research by performing an extensive literature review. Second, tracing and comparing the progression and trends of service innovation research between international and domestic studies, this study showed the similarities and differences between them, which provide practical guidance on future research directions and research agenda. Third, this study performed literature review establishing the analysis system in the initial stage and using them to analyze articles, which is leading to explain the research review of service innovation more systematically and objectively. Finally, this study suggests the domestic researchers their future interests and topics of service innovation research.

Effect of Hot-water Dipping on Inhibiting Red Discoloration of Basal Part in Chicon (열수 침지 처리가 치콘 절단면의 적변 억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hyun Jin;Kang, Ho-Min
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2014
  • Hot water dipping test was conducted for chicon to restrict red discoloration of its basal part which impairs the product value during sales. Hot water dipping treatment was given to chicon for 4 min and for 8 min at $38^{\circ}C$ and for 2 min and 4 min at $42^{\circ}C$, and for 1 min and 2 min at $45^{\circ}C$, along with control (for one min at $20^{\circ}C$). The red discoloration indices of basal part of chicon during sensory evaluation on the sixth day of storage under the storage temperature at $10^{\circ}C$ was lower at $42^{\circ}C$ for 2 min, $42^{\circ}C$ for 4 min and $45^{\circ}C$ for 1 min treatments. The color change value of the basal part in chicon measured by colorimeter showed that the lowest ${\Delta}a^*$ and ${\Delta}h$ were maintained in the basal part of chicon treated at $42^{\circ}C$ for 2 min. Whereas, color changes in $42^{\circ}C$ for 2 min and $45^{\circ}C$ for 1 min treatments were significantly low as compared with that of control. The contents of total phenolic compounds which are the substances that cause red discoloration of basal part in chicon were lowest at $42^{\circ}C$ for 2 min, $42^{\circ}C$ for 4 min and $45^{\circ}C$ for 1 min treatments. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) resposible for in the synthesis of phenolic substances was the least in $42^{\circ}C$ for 2 min treatment. Whereas, PAL activity of the chicons treated a t $42^{\circ}C$ for 2 min and at $45^{\circ}C$ for 1 min were significantly lower than that of control. However, red discoloration was progressed as similar level with that of control in the basal part of chicon at $45^{\circ}C$ for 2 min. The contents of total phenolic compounds and PAL activity in this treatment were not significantly different from those in control. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity which causes red discoloration of cut tissues was low in all the treatments including $42^{\circ}C$ and $45^{\circ}C$ treatment at which no inhibition effects of the red discoloration of basal part of chicon were observed. When the correlation coefficient between each investigated index was tested, most of them showed high correlation except the PPO activity and particularly and the red discoloration index and sensory evaluation ${\Delta}h$ values, and PAL activity and total phenolic compounds content were $r=0.927^{**}$, and $r=0.942^{**}$, respectively.

Analysis of Pine Nut Oil Composition and Its Effects on Obesity (잣기름 성분분석 및 비만 예방효과 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung Kon;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Dae Jung;Kim, Tae Woo;Choe, Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.630-635
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    • 2014
  • Pine nut oil (PNO) is well known to impart beneficial effects in overweight individuals, but the mechanisms underlying PNO-mediated weight loss remain unclear. To investigate how PNO promotes weight loss, its composition was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the effects of PNO on cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, expression of lipid metabolism-related biomarkers, and leptin secretion were assessed in 3T3-L1 cells. GC-MS analyses revealed that PNO contains several components, including linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. Moreover, PNO did not have a cytotoxic effect on 3T3-L1 cells. However, it inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). Finally, PNO significantly increased leptin secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results support the notion that PNO is useful for weight management in overweight individuals.

Synthesis and Biological Activities of Myomodulin E and its Analogs (Myomodulin E 및 유도체들의 합성 및 생리활성)

  • Go, Hye-Jin;Seo, Jung-Kil;Seo, Hae-Jeom;Lee, Min-Jeong;Park, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Gun-Do;Park, Nam-Gyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.499-507
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    • 2012
  • Previous work has characterized myomodulin A (MMA, PMSMLRLamide) and myomodulin E (MME, GLQMLRLamide) purified from the central nervous systems of the sea hare, $Aplysia$ $Kurodai$, using the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of the mussel, $Mytilus$ $edulis$. The amino acid sequences of MMA and MME were the same as those of the myomodulin family peptide found in other mollusks. In this study, we synthesized MME, its derivatives, and other neuropeptides to investigate the relationship between the structure and biological activity of MME. The primary structures of MME's derivatives, Des[$Gly^1$]-MME, Des[$Gly^1,Leu^2$]-MME, and Des[$Gly^1,Leu^2,Gln^3$]-MME, were LQMLRLamide, QMLRLamide, and MLRLamide, respectively. MMA and synthetic peptides were tested on ABRM in $M.$ $edulis$ as well as muscle preparations in $Achatina$ $fulica$. MME displayed an inhibitory effect on phasic contraction of the ABRM at $1{\times}10^{-9}$ M or higher. MME also had a relaxing effect on the catch-tension of AMRM at $1{\times}10^{-8}$ M. Both MMA and its analogs stimulated a contractile response on the crop and relaxed the catch-relaxing response on the penial retractor muscle of $A.$ $fulica$. These results suggest that MME and its analogs have modulatory effects on various muscles of mollusks. This study has also laid the groundwork for future neural and circuit modulation studies during animal behavioral changes.

Antioxidant and Anti-wrinkling Effects of Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus extract (눈개승마 추출물의 항산화 및 주름개선 효과)

  • Youn, Jin-Suk;Shin, Seung-Yong;Wu, Yongxiang;Hwang, Ju-Young;Cho, Jae-Ho;Ha, Yong-Geun;Kim, Jin-Ki;Park, Min-Jeong;Lee, Seon-Ho;Kim, Tae-Hoon;Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.393-399
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects of extracts from Aruncus diocius var. kamtschaticus (ADV) were investigated. According to the results, the ethanol extract has better antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects than the water extract. The amounts of total polyphenol and flavonoid compounds in the ethanol extract were 122 and 36 mg/g, respectively, while those in the water extract were 87 and 26 mg/g. The antioxidant activities of the ethanol and water extracts were 395 and 4,682 ${\mu}g/mL$ as the $RC_{50}$ values for the DPPH radical scavenging activity, and 227 and 366 ${\mu}g/mL$ for the $ABTS^+$ radical scavenging activity, respectively. The reducing power of the ethanol extract (1.58 at 2 mg/mL) was higher than that of the water extract (0.88 at 2 mg/mL). The astringent activities of the ethanol and water extracts were 91.27 and 16.35% at 10 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the ADV ethanol extract treatment of the fibroblast cell after UV irradiation resulted in increased cell viability (10% at 100 ${\mu}g/mL$) and collagen biosynthesis (33% at 100 ${\mu}g/mL$), with a lowering in the MMP-1 expression level (16.8 % at 100 ${\mu}g/mL$). These results demonstrate that AVD provides a remarkable and significant tensor and anti-wrinkling effect on the skin, which could be of a great use in anti-aging skin care products.

Synthesis and antifungal activities of 4-[5-(2-cyclopropylaminopyrimidin-4-yl)-4-arylthiazol-5-yl]piperidine derivatives on Phytophthora capsici (4-[5-(2-cyclopropylaminopyrimidin-4-yl)-4-arylthiazol-5-yl] piperidine 유도체들의 합성과 고추역병균에 대한 살균활성)

  • Nam, Seok-Woo;Lee, Gyung-Rak;Kim, Tae-Joon;Chung, Bong-Jin;Choi, Won-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2012
  • Fungicidal activities against phytopathogenic fungi of diarylthiazole compound of 4-[5-(2-cyclopropylaminopyrimidin-4-yl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)thiazol-5-yl]-1-methylpiperidine (I) have been determined to be excellent and compound I was used as the leading compounds in this study. Furthermore, the compound was synthesized by reacting them with five functional groups, 4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenyl, 4-chloro-2-fluorophenyl, 4-bromo-3-methylphenyl and 2,4-dichlorophenyl groups instead of 4-fluorophenyl group. Also, 2-amino-, 2-(N-ethoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl-, and 2-piperidin-4-yl-thiazole were introduced as the leads instead of 2-N-methylpiperidine-4-yl-thiazol of compound I. VIII-1~VIII-5 and XIII-1~XV-5 compounds were newly synthesized and their structures were confirmed by $^1H$-NMR-spectrum. The fungicidal activities of all the synthesized compounds against Phytophthora capsici were examined using the whole plant method. Among the VIII-1~VIII-5 and XIII-1~XV-5 chemicals, XIV-3 showed the most potent antifungal activity in vivo. While the $EC_{50}$ and $EC_{90}$ values of the commercial fungicide dimethomorph and I were $4.26{\pm}0.02$, $14.72{\pm}0.05$ and $1.01{\pm}0.11$, $6.31{\pm}0.09mM$, those of 4-[5-(2-cyclopropylaminopyrimidin-4-yl)-4-(4-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)thiazol-5-yl]-1-methylpiperidine (XIV-3) was $0.98{\pm}0.21$ and $5.85{\pm}0.05mM$. Therefore, XIV-3 can be considered as a viable candidate for the control of plant diseases caused by P. capsici, and further studies will be conducted on the mode of action XIV-3.