• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synthesis

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INFLUENCE OF PHENYLALANINE IN THE MEDIUM ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS OF CHICKEN EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS

  • Kita, K.;Miyazaki, M.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.701-703
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    • 1996
  • The influence of phenylalanine (Phe) in the medium on protein synthesis of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was examined. CEF was derived from 9-d-old embryos by trypsin-EDTA digestion. To examine the deficiency of Phe in the medium, CEF was cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with or without Phe. CEF was also cultured in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (PBS ($Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$)) with or without $400{\mu}m$ Phe in order to examine the effect of Phe supplementation. All media were supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. After incubation for 6, 30 and 54 h, protein synthesis was measured by the incorporation of L-[2, $6-^{3}H$] Phe into CEF for further 18 h. Protein synthesis of CEF cultured in DMEM was higher than that in PBS ($Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$). High specific radioactivity of Phe due to the low concentration of Phe in the medium resulted in the apparent increase in protein synthesis of CEF. Protein synthesis cultured in PBS ($Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$) with Phe did not increase during 72 h of cell culture.

Recyclable single-stranded DNA template for synthesis of siRNAs

  • Ali, Mussa M.;Obregon, Demian;Agrawal, Krishna C.;Mansour, Mahmoud;Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.732-737
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    • 2010
  • RNA interference is a post-transcriptional silencing mechanism triggered by the bioavailability and/or exogenous introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into cells. Here we describe a novel method for the synthesis of siRNA in a single vessel. The method employs in vitro transcription and a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) template and design, which incorporates upon self-annealing, two promoters, two templates, and three loop regions. Using this method of synthesis we generated efficacious siRNAs designed to silence both exogenous and endogenous genes in mammalian cells. Due to its unique design the single-stranded template is easily amenable to adaptation for attachment to surface platforms for synthesis of siRNAs. A siRNA synthesis platform was generated using a 3' end-biotinylated ssDNA template tethered to a streptavidin coated surface that generates stable siRNAs under multiple cycles of production. Together these data demonstrate a unique and robust method for scalable siRNA synthesis with potential application in RNAi-based array systems.

A simulation study on synthesis gas process optimization for FT(Fischer-Tropsh) synthesis (FT(Fischer-Tropsh) 합성유 제조를 위한 합성가스 공정 최적화 연구)

  • Kim, Yong-Heon;Lee, Won-Su;Lee, Heoung-Yeoun;Koo, Kee-Young;Song, In-Kyu
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.888-888
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    • 2009
  • A simulation study on SCR (Steam Carbon dioxide Reforming) process in gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) process was carried out in order to find optimum reaction conditions for GTL (gas-to-liquid) process reaction. Optimum SCR operating conditions for synthesis gas to FT (Fischer-Tropsch) process were determined by changing reaction variables such as feed temperature and pressure. During the simulation, overall synthesis process was assumed to proceed under steady-state conditions. It was also assumed that physical properties of reaction medium were governed by RKS (Redlich-Kwong-Soave) equation. SCR process was considered as reaction models for synthesis gas in GTL proess. The effect of temperature and pressure on SCR process $H_2$/CO ratio and the effect of reaction pressure on SCR reaction were mainly examined. Simulation results were also compared to experimental results to confirm the reliability of simulation model. Simulation results were reasonably well matched with experimental results.

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SYNTHESIS OF NANO-SIZED IRON FOR REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION. 1. Comparison of Aerobic vs. Anaeriobic Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles

  • Song, Ho-Cheol;Carraway, Elizabeth R.;Kim, Young-Hun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.165-173
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    • 2005
  • Nano-sized iron particles were synthesized by reduction of $Fe^{3+}$ in aqueous solution under two reaction conditions, aerobic and anaerobic, and the reactivity of iron was tested by reaction with trichloroethene (TCE) using a batch system. Results showed that iron produced under anoxic condition for both synthesis and drying steps gave rise to iron with higher reduction reactivity, indicating the presence of oxygen is not favorable for production of nano-sized iron deemed to accomplish reactivity enhancement from particle sized reduction. Nano-sized iron sample obtained from the anoxic synthesis condition was further characterized using various instrumental measurements to identity particle morphology, composition, surface area, and particle size distribution. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image showed that synthesized particles were uniform, spherical particles (< 100 nm), and aggregated into various chain structures. The effects of other synthesis conditions such as solution pH, initial $Fe^{3+}$ concentration, and reductant injection rate on the reactivity of nano-sized iron, along with standardization of the synthesis protocol, are presented in the companion paper.

Effect of Orally Administered Branched-chain Amino Acids on Protein Synthesis and Degradation in Rat Skeletal Muscle

  • Yoshizawa, Fumiaki;Nagasawa, Takashi;Sugahara, Kunio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2005
  • Although amino acids are substrates for the synthesis of proteins and nitrogen-containing compounds, it has become more and more clear over the years that these nutrients are also extremely important as regulators of body protein turnover. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) together or simply leucine alone stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein breakdown in skeletal muscle. However, it was only recently that the mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of protein turnover by BCAAs has begun to be defined. The acceleration of protein synthesis by these amino acids seems to occur at the level of peptide chain initiation. Oral administration of leucine to food-deprived rats enhances muscle protein synthesis, in part, through activation of the mRNA binding step of translation initiation. Despite our knowledge of the induction of protein synthesis by BCAAs, there are few studies on the suppression of protein degradation. The recent findings that oral administration of leucine rapidly reduced $N^{\tau}$-methylhistidine (3-methylhistidine; MeHis) release from isolated muscle, an index of myofibrillar protein degradation, indicate that leucine suppresses myofiblilar protein degradation. The details of the molecular mechanism by which leucine inhibits proteolysis is just beginning to be elucidated. The purpose of this report was to review the current understanding of how BCAAs act as regulators of protein turnover.

An accurate substructural synthesis approach to random responses

  • Ying, Z.G.;Zhu, W.Q.;Ye, S.Q.;Ni, Y.Q.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.47-75
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    • 2011
  • An accurate substructural synthesis method including random responses synthesis, frequency-response functions synthesis and mid-order modes synthesis is developed based on rigorous substructure description, dynamic condensation and coupling. An entire structure can firstly be divided into several substructures according to different functions, geometric and dynamic characteristics. Substructural displacements are expressed exactly by retained mid-order fixed-interfacial normal modes and residual constraint modes. Substructural interfacial degree-of-freedoms are eliminated by interfacial displacements compatibility and forces equilibrium between adjacent substructures. Then substructural mode vibration equations are coupled to form an exact-condensed synthesized structure equation, from which structural mid-order modes are calculated accurately. Furthermore, substructural frequency-response function equations are coupled to yield an exact-condensed synthesized structure vibration equation in frequency domain, from which the generalized structural frequency-response functions are obtained. Substructural frequency-response functions are calculated separately by using the generalized frequency-response functions, which can be assembled into an entire-structural frequency-response function matrix. Substructural power spectral density functions are expressed by the exact-synthesized substructural frequency-response functions, and substructural random responses such as correlation functions and mean-square responses can be calculated separately. The accuracy and capacity of the proposed substructure synthesis method is verified by numerical examples.

A study on the regulatory control structure synthesis in chemical processes (화학공정의 제어구조 합성에 관한 연구)

  • 심문호;윤인섭;송형근
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.205-208
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    • 1986
  • The synthesis of control structure involves the selection of controlled variable (or measured variable), and the structure interconnecting measured and manipulated variables (control loops). This paper deals with the synthesis job by using the structural analysis and block relative gain. This synthesis tool is very useful because they require minimal information, and the results show that this is a systematic and efficient metholodgy.

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CONJUGATED MOLECULES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES

  • Chuah, Beng-Sim;Li, Xiao-Chang;Cacialli, Franco;Davies, John-E.;Feeder, Neil;Friend, Richard-H.;Garnier, Francis;Holmes, Andrew-B.;Moratti, Stephen-C.;Sirringhaus, Henning
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.69.4-69
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    • 1998
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Novel Asymmetric Synthesis of Unsaturated 1,2-Amino Alcohols

  • Kim, Ji-Duck;Jung, Young-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.231.2-232
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    • 2002
  • The synthesis of chiral 1,2-amino alcohols has been an area of intense study in the synthetic and industrial fields, because of their important roles in organic synthesis as fundamental building blocks and their occurrence in a number of natural products. drugs. and chiral auxiliaries or ligands. General methods for the synthesis of these compounds can be divided into two large categories: functional group transformations and the C-C or the C-N bond formations. (omitted)

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