• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synthesis

Search Result 19,049, Processing Time 0.07 seconds

THE EFFECT OF NATURAL EXTRACTS ON CELL GROWTH AND CYTOKINE PRODUCTION (생약 추출물이 세포성장 및 cytokine 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, In-Cheol;Son, Seong-Heui;Chung, Chong-Pyoung;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.37-47
    • /
    • 1993
  • The native connective tissue attachment of the periodontium is known to be a complex consisting of gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament cells, gingival epithelial cells, cementum, alveolar bone and extensive extracellular matrix (collagen, glycoprotein and proteoglycans). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural extracts on DNA, collagen and protein synthesis and inhibition of cytokine production in the gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival epithelial cells. Healthy gingival tissue was obtained from orthodontic treatment patients, and gingival epithelial cells, gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells were isolated and cultured from the samples. After treated with Ginseng protein, Pluronic F-68, Scutellariae Radix, centella asiatica, PDGF, IGF, DNA synthesis, total protein and collagen synthesis, and cytokine production of gingival epithelial cell, gingival fibroblast and periodontal ligamentcells were measured. MTT method for DNA synthesis, Peterkofsky and Dingerman method for total protein and collagen synthesis, and IL-1 ELISA kit for cytokine production were used. The proliferation of epithelial cells was enhanced in Centella asiatica, Ginseng protein, Pluronic F-68 and Scutellariae Radix. The activities of PDL cells were increased in PDGF, IGF, and Pluronic F-68. Higher collagen synthesis was observed in Scutellariae Radix and total protein synthesis was increased in Scutellariae Radix and PDGF. The inhibitory effects on IL-1, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$ were observed in all exrracts.

  • PDF

A Study on the A nalysis and Synthesis in Mathematics Education Based on Euclid's 'The Data' and 'On Divisions' (유클리드의 자료론(The Data)과 분할론(On Divisons)에 기초한 수학교육에서 분석과 종합에 대한 고찰)

  • Suh, Bo-Euk
    • Education of Primary School Mathematics
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.27-41
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study is the consideration to 'The Data' and 'On Divisions' of Euclid which is the historical start of analysis and synthesis. 'The Data' and 'On Divisions' compared to Euclid's Elements is not interested. In this study, analysis and synthesis were examined for significance. In this study, means for 'analysis' and 'synthesis' were examined through an analysis of 'The Data' and 'On Divisions'. First, the various terms including analysis and synthesis were examined and the concepts of the terms were analyzed. Then, analysis was divided into 'external analysis' and 'internal analysis'. And synthesis was divided into 'theoretical synthesis' and 'empirical synthesis'. On the basis of this classification problem presented in elementary textbooks and the practical applications were explored.

Efficient Design Methodology based on Hybrid Logic Synthesis for SoC (효율적인 SoC 논리합성을 위한 혼합방식의 설계 방법론)

  • Seo, Young-Ho;Kim, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.571-578
    • /
    • 2012
  • In this paper, we propose two main points. The first is the constraint for logic synthesis, and the second is an efficient logic synthesis method. Logic synthesis is a process to obtain the gate-level netlist from RTL (register transfer level) codes using logic mapping and optimization with the specified constraints. The result of logic synthesis is tightly dependent on constraint and logic synthesis method. Since the size and timing can be dramatically changed by these, we should precisely consider them. In this paper, we present the considering items in the process of logic synthesis by using our experience and experimental results. The proposed techniques was applied to a circuit with the hardware resource of about 650K gates. The synthesis time for the hybrid method was reduced by 47% comparing the bottom-up method and It has better timing property about slack than top-down method.

Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

  • Xia, Xiaojing;Che, Yanyi;Gao, Yuanyuan;Zhao, Shuang;Ao, Changjin;Yang, Hongjian;Liu, Juxiong;Liu, Guowen;Han, Wenyu;Wang, Yuping;Lei, Liancheng
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.39 no.5
    • /
    • pp.410-417
    • /
    • 2016
  • During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma ($IFN-{\gamma}$) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether $IFN-{\gamma}$ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether $IFN-{\gamma}$ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of $IFN-{\gamma}$ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that $IFN-{\gamma}$ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that $IFN-{\gamma}$ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor $2{\alpha}$ ($eIF2{\alpha}$) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate $IFN-{\gamma}$-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the $IFN-{\gamma}$-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for $IFN-{\gamma}$-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans.

X-ray Induced Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Relation to Chromosome Exchange and Mitotic Activity in Established Mammalian Cells (哺乳動物細胞에 있어서 X-線에 의한 回復複製와 染色體交換 및 分裂活動과의 聯關性)

  • Park, Sang-Dai
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.95-100
    • /
    • 1972
  • Dose response and time dependence of unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by X-rays were measured to determine if any correlation exists between unscheduled DNA synthesis, modal chromosome number, chromosome exchange and mitotic activity in four mammalian cell strains. Unscheduled DNA synthesis occurred in all strains studied. The rate was dose-dependent and strain-specific. Only HeLa $S_3$ showed a staturated dose response after 4, 000 R, other cells were linearly proportional to dose increases. Time dependence of unscheduled DNA synthesis was completed within 2 hours after irradiation regardless of cell strains. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was not directly related to modal chromosome number, total exchange rate and mitotic activity. Mitotic activity and chromosome exchange were both dose-dependent, but the rates of them were inversely related.

  • PDF

pH-Controlled Synthesis of Cephalexin by a Purified Acetobacter turbidans Ampicillin Acylase

  • Nam, Doo-Hyun;Ryu, Yeon-Woo;Dewey D.Y Ryu
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.329-332
    • /
    • 2001
  • It has been known that, in enzymatic synthesis of cephalexin, the conversion yield was reduced by high loading of ampicillin acylase. In order to elucidate this phenomena, pH-controlled synthesis of cephalexin was examined using a purified Acetobacter turbidans acylase. When the pH of the reaction mixture was maintained at $6.20{\pm}0.04$, the reduction of the maximal conversion rate was not observed even with high enzyme loading. The kinetic parameters also suggest that pH drop during the enzymatic synthesis of cephalexin was mainly attributed to the rapid hydrolysis of D-${\alpha}$-phenylglycine methyl ester to D-${\alpha}$-phenylglycine, rather than the disappearance of 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid for cephalexin synthesis. At higher molar ratio of two substrates, [D-${\alpha}$-phenylglycine methyl ester]/[7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid], the conversion rate was also elevated under pH-controlled enzymatic synthesis, which implies that the main reason for the pH drop is due to the production of D-${\alpha}$-phenylglycine methyl easter, the effect of a water-methanol cosolvent system on the ester, the effect of a water-methanol cosolvent system on the conversion profile was also examined. Even the though the conversion rate was increased in 10% methanol solution, a higher than 16% methanol in the reaction mixture caused an inactivation of enzyme.

  • PDF

Unit Generation Based on Phrase Break Strength and Pruning for Corpus-Based Text-to-Speech

  • Kim, Sang-Hun;Lee, Young-Jik;Hirose, Keikichi
    • ETRI Journal
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.168-176
    • /
    • 2001
  • This paper discusses two important issues of corpus-based synthesis: synthesis unit generation based on phrase break strength information and pruning redundant synthesis unit instances. First, the new sentence set for recording was designed to make an efficient synthesis database, reflecting the characteristics of the Korean language. To obtain prosodic context sensitive units, we graded major prosodic phrases into 5 distinctive levels according to pause length and then discriminated intra-word triphones using the levels. Using the synthesis unit with phrase break strength information, synthetic speech was generated and evaluated subjectively. Second, a new pruning method based on weighted vector quantization (WVQ) was proposed to eliminate redundant synthesis unit instances from the synthesis database. WVQ takes the relative importance of each instance into account when clustering similar instances using vector quantization (VQ) technique. The proposed method was compared with two conventional pruning methods through objective and subjective evaluations of synthetic speech quality: one to simply limit the maximum number of instances, and the other based on normal VQ-based clustering. For the same reduction rate of instance number, the proposed method showed the best performance. The synthetic speech with reduction rate 45% had almost no perceptible degradation as compared to the synthetic speech without instance reduction.

  • PDF

EFFECT OF TRYPSIN-DIGESTED BOVINE GROWTH HORMONE ON WHOLE-BODY PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN VITRO IN CHICKEN EMBRYOS

  • Kita, K.;Hatano, S.;Okumura, J.;Muramatsu, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.319-323
    • /
    • 1993
  • The effect of bovine growth hormone digested with trypsin on whole-body protein synthesis in vitro of chicken embryos was investigated by using a whole-embryo culture system. Bovine growth hormone at 5.3 and 530 ng/ml was digested partially and completely with trypsin for 4 min and 18 h, respectively. After culturing chicken embryos with a synthetic medium containing $L-[4-^3H]$ pheylalanine, whole-embryo protein synthesis was determined from the ratio of specific radioactivities of free and protein-bound pheylalanine. Whole-embryo protein synthesis of the control group cultured with no bovine growth hormone was $49.5{\pm}2.2%/d$. There was no significant interaction between digestion time and the concentration of trypsin-digested bovine growth hormone. Tryptic digestion of bovine growth hormone increased fractional synthesis rates of whole-body protein compared to the 0-min groups, and there was no significant difference between the 4-min and 18-h groups. The higher concentration (530 ng/ml) of trypsin-digested bovine growth hormone was more effective in enhancing whole-embryo protein synthesis than the lower concentration (5.3 ng/ml).

MODULATION OF INSULIN-STIMULATED DNA SYNTHESIS BY CHOLERA TOXIN IN BOVINE MAMMARY FIBROBLASTS

  • Yuh, I.S.;Park, C.K.;Han, J.Y.;Sheffield, L.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.4
    • /
    • pp.483-489
    • /
    • 1993
  • Bovine fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and then treated with control, insulin (I, $1{\mu}g/ml$), cholera toxin (CT, 0.1-100 ng/ml) or CT (0.1-100 ng/ml) + I ($1{\mu}g/ml$). Cholera toxin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, significantly decreased insulin induced DNA synthesis (p<0.05). The modulation of DNA synthesis apparently involves events occurring in early stage of cell growth, at least between the first 4 and 8 hour of CT treatment. Insulin induced collagen as well as noncollagen synthesis in cell layer, however, these syntheses were reduced by addition of cholera toxin (p<0.05) but were not completely reduced. It is not clear whether the reduction of insulin-induced cell layer collagen or noncollagen proteins by CT is involved in the inhibitory effect on insulin-induced DNA synthesis. However, we could rule out the hypothesis that insulin-induced DNA synthesis is reduced by CT-induced cellular differentiation.