• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synchronous

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Sequential Pituitary Hormone Responses to Electroconvulsive Therapy (전기경련요법후 뇌하수체 호르몬의 순차적인 분비 반응)

  • Kim, Doh Kwan;Kim, Soo Jeong;Choi, Do Sun;Bok, Hae-Sook;Kim, Seungtai Peter
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.288-294
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    • 1996
  • Background : Most studies of the pituitary hormonal responses to electroconvulsive therapy(ECT) have used limited blood sampling schedules. Little is known about the precise sequence of neuroendocrine events immediately following en ECT application. or about the regulation of the hormonal responses. Methods : Blood was sampled at three minute intervals from eleven patients(two schizophrenics and nine affective disorder patients) undergoing ECT. Each sample was immunologically assayed for arginine vasopressin(AVP), adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), prolactin(PRL), and cortisol. Baseline hormone concentrations and several measures of response were determined for each hormone. The temporal and quantitative relationships among the hormonal responses were determined. Correlations were calculated between seizure duration and secretory responses. Results : All four hormones demonstrated significant secretory responses to ECT, with AVP increasing from 1.2 to 33.3pg/ml(P<0.001), ACTH from 5.4 to 32.3fmol/ml(P<0001). PRL from 21.8 to 102.2ng/ml(P<0.005) and cortisol from 20.1 to 31.1ug/dl(P<0.001). The three pituitary hormones showed consistent time courses of secretion with onset of responses by three minutes but clearly differing peak times of 3, 6, and 12-15 minutes for AVP, ACTH, and PRL, respectively. Cortisol began to rise after 6minutes and pecked between 20-30minutes. There ware no significant correlations between seizure duration and any of the secretory response measures. Conclusions : 1) The pituitary hormone response to ECT is sequential rather than synchronous 2) The AVP response was extremely rapid and more massive than those of any other hormones. 3) The ACTH response of this study was more rapid and mare robust than thai revealed by the mast of past studies. 4) The results strongly suggest that the pituitary hormones are released as a result of the seizure rather tho, the electrical stimulus. 5) The sequential pattern of responses suggests that neuroendocine feedback-regulatory mechanisms determine the response profile.

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Clinical Outcome of Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Patients with Pulmonary Metastasis (전이성 폐암에 대한 폐절제술의 성적)

  • Lee, Young-Ok;Lee, Eung-Bae;Ryu, Kyoung-Min
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.40 no.10
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    • pp.674-679
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    • 2007
  • Background: Surgical resection is accepted widely as the standard therapy for complete resectable pulmonary metastases. The number of cases of pulmonary metastasectomy and its survival rate is increasing due to the development of the therapeutic modalities. We attempted to analyze the survival rate and prognosis factors of pulmonary metastasectomy during the last 10 years. Material and Method: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 89 patients who underwent 96 procedures of pulmonary metastasectomy between January 1996 and December 2005. The factors that may influence the long term prognosis such as completeness of resection, the type of primary cancer, the disease-free interval, the number and size of metastasis and the laterality were investigated. Result: There was no operative mortality. The mean disease free interval (DFI) was $29.6{\pm}27.9$ months and there were 3 cases of synchronous metastasis (3.4%). The overall 3, 5 and 10 year survival rate was 52.5%, 32.1% and 20.7%, respectively. The median survival time was 38 months. The 5-year survival rate according to the IRLM appraisal was 63.5%, 33.3%, 22.1% and 0% for stage I, II, III and IV, respectively Univariate analysis showed a better prognosis for patients with a disease free interval of 36 months or more, unilateral metastasis and 4 or less metastases. Conclusion: The survival rate for completely resectable pulmonary metastasectomy was favorable. The disease free interval, laterality and the number of metastasis were the prognosis factors.

Evaluation of Incident Detection Algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster (돌발상황 검지알고리즘의 실증적 평가 (APID, DES, DELOS, McMaster를 중심으로))

  • Nam, Doo-Hee;Baek, Seung-Kirl;Kim, Sang-Gu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2004
  • This paper is designed to report the results of development and validation procedures in relation to the Freeway Incident Management System (FIMS) prototype development as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research and Development program. The central core of the FIMS is an integration of the component parts and the modular, but the integrated system for freeway management. The whole approach has been component-orientated, with a secondary emphasis being placed on the traffic characteristics at the sites. The first action taken during the development process was the selection of the required data for each components within the existing infrastructure of Korean freeway system. After through review and analysis of vehicle detection data, the pilot site led to the utilization of different technologies in relation to the specific needs and character of the implementation. This meant that the existing system was tested in a different configuration at different sections of freeway, thereby increasing the validity and scope of the overall findings. The incident detection module has been performed according to predefined system validation specifications. The system validation specifications have identified two component data collection and analysis patterns which were outlined in the validation specifications; the on-line and off-line testing procedural frameworks. The off-line testing was achieved using asynchronous analysis, commonly in conjunction with simulation of device input data to take full advantage of the opportunity to test and calibrate the incident detection algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster. The simulation was done with the use of synchronous analysis, thereby providing a means for testing the incident detection module.

A PN-code Acquisition method Using Array Antenna Systems for CDMA2000 1x (CDMA2000 1x용 배열 안테나 시스템에서 PN 동기 획득 방법)

  • Jo, Hee-Nam;Yun, Yu-Suk;Choi, Seung-Won
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a structure of the searcher using a diversity in array antenna systems operating in the cdma2000 1x signal environments. The new technique exploits the fact that the In-phase and quadrature components of interferers can respectively be viewed as an independent gaussian noise at each antnna element in most practical cdma signal environments. The proposed PN acquisition scheme is a singles-dwell PN acquisition system consisting of two stages, that is, the searching stage and the verification stage. The searching stage independently correlates the receiver multiple signals with PN generator of each antenna element for obtaining the synchronous energy at the entire region. Then, the searching results of each antenna element are non-coherently combinind. The verification stage compares the searching energy with the optimal threshold, which is predesigned in the lock detector, and decides whether the acquisition is successful or fail. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of tile diversity order to determine the mean acquisition time. In general, it is known that the mean acquisition time significantly decrease as the number of antenna elements increases. But, as the diversity order goes up, the enhancement of the performance is saturated. Therefore, to decrease the mean acquisition time of the searcher, we must design the optimal array antenna systems by considering the operating SNR range of the receiver, the probability of detection $P_D$ and that of false alarm $P_{FA}$ . The Performance of the proposed PN acquisition scheme is analyzed in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. In this paper, the effect of the number of antenna elements on PN acquisition scheme is shown according to the probability of detection $P_D$ and that of false alarm $P_{FA}$.

The Role of Primary Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Suprag1ottic Larynx (성문상부 상피세포암에서의 근치적 방사선치료의 역할)

  • Kim, Won-Taek;Kim, Dong-Won;Kwon, Byung-Hyun;Nam, Ji-Ho;Hur, Won-Joo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.233-243
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Methods and Material : Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months, Twenty-seven patients (84.4$\%$) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional iymphatics with shrinking field technique. Ail patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had Induction chemotherapy with cisplatln and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6$\%$): stage II, 10/32 (31.3$\%$); stage III, 8/32 (25$\%$): stage IV, 9/32 (28.1$\%$). Results :The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7$\%$. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80$\%$ in stage I, 66.7$\%$ in stage II, 42.9$\%$ in stage III, 25$\%$ in stage IV (p=0.0958). The S-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as fellows: stage I, 100$\%$; stage II, 60$\%$ stage III, 62.5$\%$; stage IV, 44.4$\%$ (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6$\%$, 100% In stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5$\%$ In stage III, 44.4$\%$ in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotllerapy, emergent tracheostomy was done. Four patients were died from distant metastsis, . three in lung, one in brain. Double primary tumor was found in 2 cases, one in lung (metachronous), another in thyroid (synchronous). Ulcerative lesions were revealed as unfavorable prognostic factor ( p=0.0215), and radiation dose (more or less than 70.2 Gy) was an important factor on survival (p=0.002). Conclusion : The role of radiotherapy treatment of supraglottic carcinoma is to important factor on survival and to preserve the laryngeal function. Based on our data and other studies, early and moderately advanced supragiottic carcinomas could be successfully treated with either consewative surgery or radiotherapy alone. Both modalities showed similar results in survival and vocal preservation. For the advanced cases, radiotherapy alone is Inadequate for curative aim and surgery combined with radiotherapy should be done in operable patients. When patients refuse operation or want to preserve vocal function, or for the patients with inoperable medical conditions, combined chemoradiotherapy (concurrent) or altered fractionated radiotherapy with or without radiosensitizer should be taken into consideration in future.

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Results of Curative Treatment for Cancer of the Tonsil (편도암의 근치적 치료 결과)

  • Park, Won;Ahn, Yong-Chan;Lim, Do-Hoon;Baek, Chung-Whan;Son, Young-Ik;Park, Keun-Chil;Kim, Kyoung-Ju;Lee, Jeung-Eun;Kang, Min-Kyu;Park, Young-Je;Nam, Hee-Rim;Huh, Seung-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To report the results of curative treatment for patients with tonsil cancer by retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: From Jan. 1995 till Dec. 2000, 27 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil received curative treatment at Samsung Medical Center. Therapeutic decision was made through multidisciplinary conference, and curative radiation therapy was favored when, (1) the patient's condition was not fit for general anesthesia and surgery, (2) the patient refused surgery, (3) complete resection was presumed impossible, or (4) too severe disability was expected after surgery. Surgery was the main local modality in 17 patients (S$\pm$RT group), and radiation therapy in 10 (RT$\pm$CT group). The median follow-up period was 41 months. Results: AJCC stages were I/II in four, III in two, and IV in 21 patients. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 73.3$\%$ in all patients, 70.6$\%$ in the S$\pm$RT group, and 77.8$\%$ in the RT$\pm$CT group. Treatment failure occurred in seven patients, all with stage III/IV, and all the failures occurred within 24 months of the start of treatment. Five patients among the S$\pm$CT group developed treatment failures; 2 local, 2 regional, and 1 distant (crude rate=29.4$\%$). Two patients among the RT$\pm$CT group developed failures; 1 synchronous local and regional, and 1 distant (crude rate=20.0$\%$). The 5-year overall survival rate was 77.0$\%$ in all patients, 80.9$\%$ in the S$\pm$RT group, and 70.0$\%$ in the RT$\pm$CT group. Conclusion: We could achieve favorable results that were comparable to previously reported data with respect to both the rates of local control and of survival by applying S$\pm$RT and RT$\pm$CT. RT$\pm$CT is judged to be an alternative option that can avoid the functional disability after surgical resection.

Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer (초기 유방암의 유방 보존수술 후 방사선 치료 결과)

  • Cho, Heung-Lae;Kim, Cheol-Jin;Park, Sung-Kwang;Oh, Min-Kyung;Lee, Jin-Yong;Ahn, Ki-Jung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range $43.8{\sim}129.4$ months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for T is and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had $1{\sim}3$ lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close (${\leq}2\;mm$) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy ($41.4{\sim}60.4\;Gy$) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0.0001) and higher relapse rates (p=0.0507). However, patients with close margins were at equal risk of relapse and disease-free survival as with negative margins (p=1.000). Patients younger than 40 years of age had higher relapse rates (9.3% vs. 0%) and lower disease-free survival periods, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.1255). The relapse rates for patients with tumors was 14% for tumor stage T2, compared to 0% for tumor stage T1 tumors (p=0.0284). A univariate analysis found that disease-free survival and relapse rates, T stage, positive resection margin and mutation of p53 were significant factors for clinical outcome. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that breast conservation surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer patients has proven to be a safe treatment modality with a low relapse rate and high disease-free survival rate. The patients with a positive margin, T2 stage, and mutation of p53 are associated with statistically higher relapse rates and lower disease-free survival.

Studies on the Utilization of Woodland for Livestock Farming II. Problem and Its Improvement Followed by the Join Cattle Grazing in king Won Do (임지의 축산적 이용에 관한 연구 제2보. 강원도의 새마을 "소" 임간공동방목사업의 문제점과 개선책)

  • 맹원재;윤익석;유제창;정승헌
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.100-111
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    • 1983
  • The research results reported herein had the objectives to understand and analyze the present problems of saemaeul woodland joint cattle grazing system in Kang Won Do and to take steps of improvement. The study results on actual management conditions, problems analyzed and improvement plan of total 208 joint cattle grazing area which was established 105 area in 1981 and 103 area in 1982 were summarized as follows: 1. the effectiveness of joint cattle grazing projects 1) Average daily weight gain of cattle during joint cattle grazing period was 0.4kg, showing higher daily than the conventional feeding of 0.33kg. 2) Increase of total farm income over the conventional feeding system were \1,031,357,320 during the grazing period from May to October in 1982 by adapting the 208 joint cattle grazing system, of which effectiveness of weight gain was \293,075,300 and labor saving was \543,838,750. 3) According to the results of questionaire investigation from 208 joint cattle grazing area, effectiveness of joint cattle grazing system over the conventional system were (1) labor saving, (2) feed cost saving, (3) reduced diseases, (4) increase of number of feeding, (5) inspiration of joint endeavor, (6) effect of more gain, (7) easiness of feeding and feed cost savings. 2. Problems of joint cattle grazing system. 1) Shortages of grass were a problem at second year of joint cattle grazing period due to the low regrowth rate of wild grass. 2) Proper land for woodland joint cattle grazing is belonging to land of Government ownership and it is very hard to get the permission from office of forestry for cattle grazing purpose. 3) It is also difficult to find a proper time of breeding in grazing area by the difficulty of estrus detection. 4) There are a difficulty to give a proper vaccination and medical examination for the grazing cattle. 3. Improvement plans for woodland joint cattle grazing projects. 1) Obtain sufficient roughages by hoof cultivation and oversowing pasture from the second year of joint cattle grazing period. 2) In order to increase the beef production and to use for a calf production area, Government should arrange that all proper grazing land of Government owned in Kang Won Do convert into woodland joint cattle grazing area. 3) Make a good reproductive record by mixed grazing with a excellent breeding cow in a remote area. And carry out the collective artificial insemination with synchronous puberty induced by injection of puberty stimulation hormone. 4) Make a preventive injection for blackleg, twice medication of fasciola hepatica in a year, and spray and medication of tick insecticide. 4. A policy towards upbringing of woodland joint cattle grazing area. 1) Government should thoroughly investigate about a proper land for woodland joint cattle grazing from all forests. 2) When the area is suitable for the woodland joint cattle grazing, though it is national forest or restricted area, government should make it possible to establish a grazing area. 3) On the proper land foe joint cattle grazing in the remote place, Government should support for the road construction and electric fence equipments by using of national funds. 4) There should be an administrative consideration for well promotion of the project that make woodland joint cattle grazing suitable to the characteristics of Kang Won Do. 5) In order to improve the reproduction record, Government should reform the insufficiency of artificial insemination in the joint cattle grazing area. 6) In order to maintain a proper price of cow, Government should carry out the price plan. 7) When there is any request for grassland formation in the woodland joint cattle grazing area, Government should permit it with preference.

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