• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synbiotics

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Effects of Dietary Synbiotics from Anaerobic Microflora on Growth Performance, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Pathogenic Bacteria Population in Weaning Pigs

  • Lee, Shin Ja;Shin, Nyeon Hak;Ok, Ji Un;Jung, Ho Sik;Chu, Gyo Moon;Kim, Jong Duk;Kim, In Ho;Lee, Sung Sill
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1202-1208
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    • 2009
  • Synbiotics is the term used for a mixture of probiotics (live microbial feed additives that beneficially affects the host animal) and prebiotics (non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the organism). This study investigated the effect of probiotics from anaerobic microflora with prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in weaning pigs. 150 pigs with an initial BW of 6.80${\pm}$0.32 kg (20 d of age) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments as follows: i) US, basal diet+0.15% antibiotics (0.05% oxytetracycline 200 and 0.10% tiamulin 38 g), ii) BS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from bacteria), iii) YS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from yeast), iv) MS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from mold), v) CS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (from compounds of bacteria, yeast and mold). The probiotics were contained in $10^{9}$ cfu/ml, $10^{5}$ cfu/ml and $10^{3}$ tfu/ml of bacteria, yeast and molds, respectively. The same prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharide, lactose, sodium acetate and ammonium citrate) was used for all the synbiotics. Pigs were housed individually for a 16-day experimental period. Growth performance showed no significant difference between antibiotic treatments and synbiotics-added treatments. The BS treatment showed higher (p<0.05) dry matter (DM) and nitrogen digestibility while ether extract and crude fiber digestibility were not affected by the dietary treatment. Also, the BS treatment decreased (p<0.05) fecal ammonia and amine gas emissions. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was also decreased (p<0.05) in BS, YS and MS treatments compared to other treatments. Moreover, all the synbioticsadded treatments increased fecal acetic acid concentration while the CS treatment had lower propionic acid concentration than the US treatment (p<0.05) gas emissions but decreased in fecal propionate gas emissions. Total fecal bacteria and Escherichia coli populations did not differ significantly among the treatments, while the Shigella counts were decreased (p<0.05) in synbiotics-included treatment. Fecal bacteria population was higher in the YS treatment than other treatments (p<0.05). The BS treatment had higher yeast concentration than YS, MS and CS treatments, while US treatment had higher mold concentrations than MS treatment (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that synbiotics are as effective as antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora composition in weaning pigs. Additionally, synbiotics from anaerobic microflora can decrease fecal noxious gas emission and synbiotics can substitute for antibiotics in weaning pigs.

Synbiotics (mixture of probiotics and prebiotics) ameliorates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in vivo.

  • Jeon, Yong-Deok;AYE, AYE;Song, Young-Jae;Kang, Sa-Haeng;Soh, Ju-Ryun;Kim, Dae-Ki;Myung, Hyun;Jin, Jong-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.107-107
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    • 2019
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic inflammatory response and dysregulation of immune function. The severity of US has been influenced by environmental factors and food habit. The immune modulatory, anti-inflammatory and steroidal medicine have been used for the treatment of UC. However, long-term administration of those medicine is accompanied with side-effect. So, it is necessary to develop the non side-effect medicine using natural product. Prebiotics influences intestinal condition and food consumption. The heredity, immunity and environmental condition are related with occurrence of UC. In recent study, UC patients had lower level of prebiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium compared with healthy people. Also, previous study announced that imbalance of enteric flora aggravates the severity of UC. The effectiveness of probiotics might affect colon ability and viable bacteria also could promote the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacteria. Prebiotics, such as herbal medicine, could lead to balance of intestinal bacteria or increase beneficial bacteria. So, proper choice of herbal medicine could control the intestinal condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mixture of probiotics and prebiotics (synbiotics) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in vivo. The synbiotics consist of Lactobacillus buchneri, Polymnia sonchifolia and Glycine max Merr. in this study. To evaluate the effect of synbiotics, 3% DSS was administered in BALB/c mice and synbiotics was daily administered for experimental days. The administration of synbiotics regulated colon length shortening, body weight change and disease activity index effectively. Also, extract of synbiotics upregulated survival ability of Lactobacillus buchneri in gut condition. These results suggest that mixture of probiotics and prebiotics, called as synbiotics, could influence intestinal condition also regulate the colon disease. Synbiotics might be a therapeutic agent for treatment of UC.

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Studies on the Biological Activity of Synbiotics: A Review (신바이오틱스의 생리활성에 관한 연구 고찰)

  • Yoon, Jin A;Shin, Kyung-Ok
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2018
  • This paper defines the common features of synbiotics based on the definition of probiotics and prebiotics, and reviews the effectiveness of synbiotic food. The concept of synbiotics is defined as 'a mixture of prebiotics and probiotics that have a beneficial effect on the host, as a dietary supplement that alters living organisms in the gastrointestinal tract and improves their survival.' Synbiotic food contains ingredients with beneficial microbes that are expected to improve interactions between microbial and useful substances. Synbiotic foods may have anti-cancer and immune system-boosting effects. Improved digestion, healthier bowel movements, and overall increased intestinal health has been reported were reported after increasing the healthy microorganisms within the intestinal tract. In addition, depending on the type of food containing the symbiotic ingredients, more consistent weight control, improvement of cardiovascular health, and lower blood glucose levels may also be expected. Unlike previous studies, this review of synbiotics has shown that it is necessary for synergistic effects to take place among microorganisms and components to be further studied. Further research is needed on the safety and ingestion of microorganisms contained in synbiotics.

Evaluation of synbiotics as gut health improvement agents against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from the pig

  • Kim, Bo-Ra;Cho, Kyung Jin;Kim, Doowan;Cho, Jin Ho;Lee, Jun Hyung;Guevarra, Robin B.;Lee, Sun Hee;Kang, Jung Sun;Cho, Won Tak;Wattanaphansak, Suphot;Kang, Bit Na;Kim, Jong Nam;Song, Minho;Kim, Hyeun Bum
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2019
  • Colibacillosis is one of the major health problems in young piglets resulting in poor health and death caused by Escherichia coli producing F18 pili and Shiga toxin 2e. It is pivotal to reduce colibacillosis in weaned piglets to enhance production performance. In this study, we evaluated synbiotics as the gut health improvement agents in the mouse model challenged with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated from piglets. Prebiotic lactulose was formulated with each $5.0{\times}10^6CFU/mL$ of Pediococcus acidilactici GB-U15, Lactobacillus plantarum GB-U17, and Lactobacillus plantarum GB 1-3 to produce 3 combinations of synbiotics. A total of 40 three weeks old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10): a control group and 3 synbiotics treated groups. Each treatment groups were daily administrated with $5.0{\times}10^6CFU/mL$ of one synbiotics for the first week, and every 3 days during the second week. All the mice were challenged with $8.0{\times}10^8CFU/mL$ of STEC 5 days after animals began to receive synbiotics. Mice treated with synbiotics based on Pediococcus acidilactici GB-U15 and Lactobacillus plantarum GB-U17 significantly improved daily weight gain compared to mice in other groups. While mice treated with GB-U15 showed better fecal index, no significant differences were observed among groups. Gross lesion and histopathological evaluations showed that mice treated with GB-U15 moderately improved recovery from STEC infection. In conclusion, our results suggest that the synbiotics formulated with lactulose and Pediococcus acidilactici GB-U15 have potential benefits to prevent and improve colibacillosis in weaned piglets.

Effects of Supplemental Synbiotics Composed of Anaerobic Bacteria, Yeast and Mold on the Change of Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Total Mixed Ration for Cattle (혐기성 박테리아, 효모 및 곰팡이로 제조된 synbiotics 첨가 축우용 완전혼합사료의 성분 변화 및 발효 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;Jung, Ho-Sik;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2009
  • In order to investigate the effects of synbiotics on change of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of total mixed ration (TMR), eight TMRs fermented by synbiotics composing the anaerobic microbes (bacteria, yeast, mold) were alloted to the experimental treatments. Treatments were composed of untreated synbiotics(US), bacterial synbiotics (BS), yeast synbiotics (YS), mold synbiotics (MS), bacterial and mold synbiotics (BMS), yeast and mold synbiotics (YMS), bacterial and yeast synbiotics (BYS), and bacterial, yeast and mold synbiotics (BYMS). After 7 days of anaerobic fermentation, fermented-TMRs were exposed to air during 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. One hundred forty four (8 treatments ${\times}$ 6 exposing days ${\times}$ 3 replications) fermented- TMRs were manufactured by vinyl bag sized of 43 cm by 58 cm. The results obtained were as follows. Moisture contents of the fermented TMRs anaerobically ranged from 41% to 45%, and was similar to those of basal TMRs. As results of anaerobic fermentation, the concentration of crude protein was decreased by 11.7% to 14.8% in the untreated sample, while was rather increased by 11% when the TMR was fermented with BMYS. And also BMYS treatment showed decreases by 32% for crude fiber, 15.5% for NDF and 26.1% for ADF. Internal temperature of fermented-TMRs was highest at 7 day of exposing in the air. The pH of fermented-TMR juice was significant difference betweentreatments after 7 day of exposing in air, and that of BMS was highest at 14 day after exposing in air (P<0.05). Acid buffering capacity was increased in proportion to the exposing day of TMR, and peaked at 7 or 14 days after exposing. Ammonia concentration of fermented-TMRs was highest at 5 day after exposing in the air. Individual volatile fatty acid of fermented-TMR juice was very low level in all treatments. Although BMYS treatment to TMR inclined to increase in crude protein and decrease in fibers, but there were no positive effects on the fermentation characteristics after exposing in the air by supplementation of anaerobic synbiotics to TMR.

Effects of Supplemental Synbiotics Composed of Anaerobic Bacteria, Yeast and Mold on the Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration for Cattle (혐기성 박테리아, 효모 및 곰팡이로 제조된 synbiotics의 첨가가 축우용 완전혼합사료의 호기적 안전성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;Jung, Ho-Sik;Hyun, Jong-Hwan;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1426-1434
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of synbiotics manufactured with anaerobic bacteria, yeast and mold on preservation of total mixed ration (TMR) by exposing days. Eight treatments were composed of untreated synbiotics(US), bacterial synbiotics (BS), yeasty synbiotics (YS), moldy synbiotics (MS), bacterial and mouldy synbiotics (BMS), yeasty and moldy synbiotics (YMS), bacterial and yeasty synbiotics (BYS), and bacterial, yeasty and moldy synbiotics (BYMS). After 7 days of anaerobic fermentation, fermented-TMRs were exposed to the air during 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. One hundred forty four (8 treatments${\times}$6 days${\times}$3 replications) fermented-TMRs were manufactured by vinyl bag ($43\;cm{\times}58\;cm$). Although no significant differences in the activities of carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase and amylase were observed among treatments, theirs acivities were seemed to increase by treatment of BYS or YMS containing yeast. Total bacterial and mold counts also decreased in the treatments containing yeast. Potential pathogenic bacteria were less detected in BYS and BMYS for E. coli, BMYS and YS for Salmonella, and BMS and BMYS for Shigella than those of the other treatments, MS was, however, contaminated easier than US by pathogenic bacteria. From above results, synbiotics containing facultative anaerobic yeast have effects for preservation of TMR fermented anaerobically. Particularly, BMYS treatment having good results in nutrient contents, dry matter loss and pathogenic bacteria amounts was a resonable synbiotics for preservation of the fermented-TMR.

Trends in studies on probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics (프로바이오틱스, 프리바이오틱스 및 신바이오틱스 연구동향)

  • Moon, Gi-Seong
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.208-219
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    • 2019
  • Probiotics are very closely related to gut microbiome and recognized as beneficial microorganisms for our health. They have various biological effects such as inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, activation of beneficial bacteria, prevention of diarrhea and constipation, enhanced immune activity etc. Prebiotics, non-digestible carbohydrates such as galactooligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide, are utilized by beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, resulting in production of short chain fatty acids which inhibit pathogenic bacteria in the gut and function for human health. Synbiotics are introduced for synergistic effects when probiotics are combined with prebiotics and now commercially available. At the moment many functional ingredients are developed and commercialized. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics might be hot items in the functional food market and the values will increase according to the results of human gut microbiome researches. To meet the situation, systematic and scientific studies as well as marketing effects should be accompanied.

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Effects of Supplementation of Synbiotic Co-cultures Manufactured with Anaerobic Microbes on In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and In Situ Degradability of Fermented TMR (혐기성 미생물로 제조한 synbiotics 혼합배양물의 첨가가 발효 TMR의 발효특성과 소실률에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;Hyun, Jong-Hwan;Kang, Tae-Won;An, Jung-Jun;Jung, Ho-Sik;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1538-1546
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to estimate the in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ degradabilities of total mixed rations fermented by the synbiotic co-cultures composed of various anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen of cow. Seventy two TMR bags (4 treatments $\times$ 6 fermentation days $\times$ 3 replications) were manufactured for in vitro and in situ experiments. The experiment was composed of four treatments including the control, the mould and bacteria synbiotics (T1), the mould and yeast synbiotics (T2) and the bacteria and yeast synbiotics (T3). Each treatment had six fermentation days (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 day) with three replications. Two rumen cannulated Holstein cows (550 ㎏ of mean body wt) were used for in situ trial, and a total of 96 nylon bags were retrieved from the rumen according to eight fermentation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The mean fermentation temperatures of TMRs by supplementation of anaerobic micoorganism co-cultures ranged from $22.97^{\circ}C$ to $26.07^{\circ}C$, and tended to increase steadily during the entire period. pH values of the F-TMRs ranged from 4.39 to 4.98 and tended to decrease with the extension of the fermentation period, and decreased by supplementation of synbiotics (p<0.05). The ammonia concentrations of F-TMRs were not affected by addition of synbiotic co-cultures during the early fermentation period (within 7 days), but was lowest (p<0.05) in T3 during the late fermentation periods (after 14 days). Lactic acid concentration of F-TMR was lowest in T3 at 1 day of fermentation, but was not different from treatments in the other fermentation days. Microbial growth rates of F-TMR reached a peak at 7 days of fermentation, and afterward tended to decrease. In in situ experiment, the DM disappearance rates were higher in T1 than the control during early fermentation times (within 3 hours), but was vice versa at 48 hours of fermentation (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in effective DM degradability among treatments. NDF and ADF disappearance rates in situ were similar to those of DM. From the above results, the supplementation of synbiotics, particularly the mould and bacteria synbiotics, resulted in improving the pH and concentration of lactic acid of F-TMR as parameters of fermentation compare to the control, and also had higher in situ disappearance rates of DM, NDF and ADF than the control at early fermentation time. However, effective DM degradability was not affected by supplementation of synbiotics.

Glycine max Merr enhances the viability and adhesion ability of Lactobacillus buchneri in gastrointestinal condition in vitro.

  • Seo, Jae-Bin;Park, Bog-Im;Myung, Hyun;Sim, Hyeon-Jae;Lee, Hoon-Yeon;Kim, Seong-Oh;Song, Kyoung-Ha;Lee, So-Jin;Cho, Jung Hee;Jeon, Yong-Deok;Jin, Jong-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.127-127
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    • 2018
  • Probiotics are microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the health of the host. The health promoting effect by probiotics influences suppressing harmful bacteria, prevention of constipation, blood cholesterol reduction and regulation of blood pressure. Prebiotics are used to promote the growth or activity of microorganisms. Synbiotics, which are a mixture of probiotics and prebiotics, synergize in the intestines by complementing each other. Synbiotics not only improves the viability of the probiotics while passing through the gastrointestinal tract, maintain intestinal homeostasis, but also regulate balance of harmful and useful bacterial growth. Glycine max Merr (GMM) has been widely used in Asian countries to treat cancer, obesity, oxidative stress and imbalanced immune diseases. In addition, it has been reported that dietary fiber-rich grains promote bowel movements and prevent constipation. In this study, we investigated the viability of LactobacillIus buchneri (L.buchneri) strains, known as lactic acid bacteria under conditions of gastric fluid and intestinal fluid to determine the suitability of L.buchneri as probiotics. The adhesion ability of L.buchneri to caco-2 cells was also confirmed. The present studies showed that GMM extract promoted the growth and activity of L.buchneri strains as prebiotics. Also, this results suggested that the mixture of L.buchneri and GMM extract can helps maintain intestinal health and healthy body as synbiotics and health functional food material.

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Effect of Synbiotic on the Treatment of Jaundice in Full Term Neonates: A Randomized Clinical Trial

  • Ahmadipour, Shokoufeh;Baharvand, Parastoo;Rahmani, Parisa;Hasanvand, Amin;Mohsenzadeh, Azam
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.453-459
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Jaundice accounts for most hospital admissions in the neonatal period. Nowadays, in addition to phototherapy, other auxiliary methods are used to reduce jaundice and the length of hospitalization. This study aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics on the treatment of hyper-bilirubinemia in full-term neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 83 full-term neonates, who were admitted to the hospital to receive phototherapy in the first 6 months of 2015, were randomly divided into two groups: synbiotic (SG, n=40) and control (CG, n=43). Both groups received phototherapy but the SG also received 5 drops/day of synbiotics. Serum bilirubin, urine, stool, feeding frequency, and weight were measured daily until hospital discharge. A p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean total serum bilirubin in the SG was lower than that in the CG ($9.38{\pm}2.37$ and $11.17{\pm}2.60mg/dL$, respectively). The urine and stool frequency in the SG was significantly higher than that in the CG (p<0.05). The duration of hospitalization in the SG was shorter than that in the CG. Conclusion: Use of synbiotics as an adjuvant therapy had a significant treatment effect on jaundice in full-term neonates. Further studies including larger samples with long follow-up periods are essential to confirm the benefits of routine use of synbiotics in neonatal patients with jaundice.