• Title, Summary, Keyword: Swamp Buffaloes

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A Y-linked SNP in SRY Gene Differentiates Chinese Indigenous Swamp Buffalo and Introduced River Buffalo

  • Zhang, Yi;Sun, Dongxiao;Yu, Ying;Zhang, Yuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1240-1244
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    • 2006
  • The complete coding region sequence of the SRY gene in Chinese swamp buffalo was determined by PCR product sequencing. Comparison of swamp and river buffalo SRY gene sequences revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, C/G) at the 202 bp site of the coding region. Further, a total of 124 male domestic buffaloes were genotyped at this SNP site using the PCR-SSCP method, and it was found that all Chinese indigenous swamp buffaloes had a guanine (G) at this site, while introduced river buffaloes and crossbred buffaloes showed a cytosine (C). Our findings suggested that this Y-linked SNP displayed type-specific alleles differentiating swamp and river buffaloes, and could be used as an effective marker to detect crossbreeding of swamp buffaloes with introduced river buffaloes in native buffalo populations, and thereby assess genetic diversity status and make proper conservation decisions for indigenous swamp buffaloes. In addition, this SNP can be potentially applied in the study of Asian water buffalo phylogeny from a male perspective.

Renal and Salivary Excretions of Plasma Purine Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes and Zebu Cattle

  • Pimpa, O.;Liang, J.B.;Balcells, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1201-1207
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    • 2007
  • This study compared the recovery rate of intrajugular-administered allantoin in the urine and saliva between swamp buffaloes and zebu cattle to examine whether it could explain the lower excretion rate of urinary purine derivatives (PD) in the buffaloes. Three male swamp buffalo yearlings, with an average body weight of $349{\pm}40.35$ kg, and three Thai native cattle ($154{\pm}3.26$ kg) of similar age and sex were used in the study. Animals were kept in individual pens and fed at a maintenance energy level with a diet containing 65% monk bean husk (Vigna radiata) as roughage and 35% concentrates. Allantoin solution was infused into the jugular vein in four incremental rates equivalent to 0, 5, 10 and 15 mmol/d and urine was collected daily in acidified form. Daily PD excretion was linearly correlated with intrajugular allantoin infusion in both species. The relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) and intrajugular allantoin infused (X, mmol/d) was $Y=0.75{\pm}0.318X+22.45{\pm}2.98$ ($r^2$ = 0.36, n = 12, MSE = 38.02, CV = 21.9, p<0.01) for swamp buffaloes and $Y=0.96{\pm}0.10X+15.93{\pm}0.92$ ($r^2$ = 0.91, n = 12, MSE = 3.60, CV = 8.27, p<0.01) for zebu cattle. The salivary PD concentration was not correlated with intrajugular allantoin infusion in both species, with values for buffaloes numerically lower than those for cattle. The present study reconfirmed previous studies that buffaloes have a lower plasma PD excretion rate via the renal route and a significant proportion (22%) of the plasma PD loss is via the saliva. However, results of our present and previous studies suggest that differences in purine base (PB) metabolism between buffaloes and zebu cattle occur before the purine compounds reach the plasma pool.

STUDIES IN FIBRE DIGESTION AND PASSAGE RATE OF LIQUID AND SOLID IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES

  • Abdullah, N.;Ho, Y.W.;Mahyuddin, M.;Jalaludin, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.137-141
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    • 1991
  • Rumen liquor characteristics and disappearance rate of dry matter were studied in Kedah-Kelantan cattle and swamp buffaloes fed grass of rice straw-based diet. Cobalt-EDTA and chromium mordented fibres prepared from the faecal material were used to determine the liquid and solid particles movement in both animal species fed with rice straw. Swamp buffaloes showed a more intense rumen fermentation activity than Kedah-Kelantan cattle when both species were fed straw-based diet. The buffaloes also demonstrated faster rates of grass and straw degradation in situ. The fluid outflow rate from the rumen of buffalo ($1.06{\pm}0.19l/h$) was observed to be slower than that of cattle ($1.55{\pm}0.01l/h$). No significant differences between cattle and buffaloes were observed in rumen fluid volume and passage rate of small particles from the rumen.

A Comparative Study on the Rumen Microbial Population of Cattle and Swamp Buffalo Raised under Traditional Village Conditions in the Northeast of Thailand

  • Wanapat, M.;Ngarmsang, A.;Korkhuntot, S.;Nontaso, N.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Beakes, G.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.918-921
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    • 2000
  • A comparative study on rumen bacterial and protozoal population and fungal zoospores in cattle (Brahman$\times$Native) and swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was conducted. Forty animals, twenty of each, with same sex and similar age which were raised under similar condition in the Northeast of Thailand, were used. Rumen digesta were sampled immediately post slaughtering for total microscopic counts of bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores. It was found that total bacterial population were higher in swamp buffalo that those in cattle (1.6 vs $1.36{\times}10^{8}cells/ml$) having more population of cocci, rods and ovals. Lower rumen protozoal pupulation in swamp buffalo with lower numbers of Holotrichs and Entodiniomorphs were found as compared to those in cattle. Significant higher fungal zoospore counts were in swamp buffalo than those in cattle being 7.30 and $3.78{\times}10^6$, respectively. Study under electron microscope, revealed Anaeromyces sp. with acuminate apex were more predominant in the rumen of swamp buffalo. With these findings, cattle and swamp buffaloes showing differences in rumen bacterial, protozoal population and fungal zoospore counts, offer new additional information as why swamp buffaloes exhibit conditionally better than cattle especially during long dry season without green grass.

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Cassava Hay Supplementation in Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Cattle (Bos indicus)

  • Granum, G.;Wanapat, Metha;Pakdee, P.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Toburan, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1389-1396
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    • 2007
  • Twelve swamp buffaloes and Brahman cattle heifers (6 animals each) were randomly assigned to two treatments, control (grazing only) and supplementation of cassava hay (CH) at 1-kg dry matter per head per day (DM/hd/d), in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement according to a cross-over design. The cassava hay contained a high level of protein (19.5% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (4.0% of DM). As a result it was revealed that supplementation of CH at 1-kg DM/hd/d significantly (p<0.05) improved the nutrition of both swamp buffaloes and Brahman cattle in terms of DM, organic matter (OM), protein and energy intake and digestibility, ruminal NH3-N and rumen ecology. Supplementation significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight losses in both species and improved the health, in terms of reduced number of parasite eggs in feces (p<0.05), of both buffaloes and cattle. There tended to be a difference in term of response to CH between the two species. The DM, OM, protein intake and digestibility and total digestible energy intake tended to be higher for buffaloes as compared to cattle. Moreover, the percentage reduction of parasite eggs tended to be higher for buffaloes as compared to cattle (57.6 and 45.0%, respectively). However, there were no significant interactions between species and treatments.

Effect of Ruminal NH3-N Levels on Ruminal Fermentation, Purine Derivatives, Digestibility and Rice Straw Intake in Swamp Buffaloes

  • Wanapat, M.;Pimpa, O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.904-907
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    • 1999
  • The experiment was aimed at studying the effect of ruminal $NH_3-N$ levels on ruminal fermentation, microbial population, urinary purine derivative excretion, digestibility and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. Five, 3 to 4 years old, rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design to rceive five different intraruminal infusions of $NH_4HCO_3$ (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/d) on a continuous daily basis. Rice straw as a roughage was offered ad libitum while concentrate was given at 0.8% BW daily. The results were that as levels of $NH_4HCO_3$ increased, ruminal $NH_3-N$ concentrations increased from 7.1 to 34.4 mg%. The highest digestibility and voluntary straw intakes were found at 13.6 to 17.6 mg% ruminal $NH_3-N$ levels; straw intake was highest at 13.6 mg%. Total bacterial and protozoal counts linearly increased as the ruminal $NH_3-N$ increased and were highest at 17.6 mg%. Total urinary purine derivatives and allantoin excretion were highest (44.0, 37.4 mM/d) at 17.6 mg% ruminal $NH_3-N$. Highest total VFAs (115 mM) were obtained a 13.6 mg% ruminal $NH_3-N$ while blood urea nitrogen significantly increased as ruminal $NH_3-N$ increased. The results from this experiment suggest that optimum ruminal $NH_3-N$ in swamp buffaloes is higher than 13.6 mg%, for improving rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis, digestibility and straw intake.

Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

  • Thao, N.T.;Wanapat, M.;Cherdthong, A.;Kang, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.46-54
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of $420{\pm}15.0$ kg, were randomly assigned according to a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals.

Thermoregulatory Responses of Swamp Buffaloes and Friesian Cows to Diurnal Changes in Temperature

  • Koga, A.;Kurata, K.;Furukawa, R.;Nakajima, M.;Kanai, Y.;Chikamune, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1273-1276
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    • 1999
  • Several reports have indicated that a rectal temperature of buffaloes is easily influenced by their surroundings. To clarify an effect of changing environmental temperature on thermoregulatory responses of buffaloes, an environment with diurnal temperature changes of $25^{\circ}C$ to $35^{\circ}C$ was created using an artificial climate laboratory. Three swamp buffaloes and three Friesian cows were exposed to three different experimental periods as follows: Period 1 (constant temperature of $30^{\circ}C$, Period 2 (diurnally changing temperature) and Period 3 (diurnally changing temperature and fasting). Heat production, rectal temperature, respiration rate, heart rate and respiration volume were measured during each period. Rectal temperature of the buffaloes fluctuated diurnally with the changing temperature (Periods 2 and 3), but remained constant in cows. Mean heat production was significantly lower in buffaloes than in cows in Period 2 and 3. However, the maximum rectal temperature and the increment of heat production were not always lower in buffaloes than in cows during Period 2. These results show that a rectal temperature and heat production in buffaloes are markedly influenced by the diurnal changes in temperature. Compared with Bos Taurus cows, the differences may be attributed to the physiological features of buffaloes including a high heat conductivity of their bodies and an lower heat production.

PRESENT STATUS OF BUFFALOES AND THEIR PRODUCTIVITY IN BANGLADESH

  • Faruque, M.O.;Hasnath, M.A.;Siddique, N.U.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 1990
  • 1.86 million (Indigenous river, swamp, and swamp X river type) buffaloes are distributed mainly in the plain land, sugarcane belt and coastal area of Bangladesh and are raised by the small farm holders. Buffaloes per house-hold ranges from 5.79 to 2.12. Height at wither is $123{\pm}3.09$ and $112.5{\pm}2.15cm$ for buffaloes of central and eastern region respectively. Growth rate of buffalo calves ranges from 360 to 340 g/day. Late maturity ($1411.58{\pm}43.01d$) along with long life span facilitates farmers to use buffaloes longer period. Average daily milk yield is $2.32{\pm}0.63L$ with average lactation yield of $730{\pm}90l$ for $328{\pm}28.76d$. Both male and female individuals are used for draught purpose. A pair of buffalo can prepared $0.23{\pm}0.06ha$ of land daily and can work for $6.1{\pm}0.78hr$.

Effects of Various Levels of Cassava Hay on Rumen Ecology and Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

  • Chanjula, P.;Wanapat, M.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.663-669
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    • 2004
  • Four, mature rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes with an average initial weight of $426{\pm}25kg$ were randomly allocated to receive dietary treatments according to a $4{\times}4$Latin square design. Four dietary treatments with varying proportions of ureatreated rice straw (UTRS) and cassava hay (CH) were offered (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 0:100). Each feeding period lasted 21 days, the first 14 days for feed adjustment and intake measurement and the final 7 days for rumen fluid and faecal collections. The results demonstrated the potential use of both UTRS and CH as roughage sources. As levels of CH increased in the diets pH values were maintained (6.5-7.0). Ruminal $NH_3-N$ concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) raised as higher levels of CH were incorporated into the diets. Moreover, cellulolytic and proteolytic bacterial populations were enhanced while total protozoal counts were decreased (p<0.05). In addition, DM, OM and CP digestibilities and their digestible intakes as well as estimated energy increased with increasing levels of CH in the diets. The results suggest a favorable effect of CH substituting for UTRS.