• Title, Summary, Keyword: Swamp Buffalo

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A Y-linked SNP in SRY Gene Differentiates Chinese Indigenous Swamp Buffalo and Introduced River Buffalo

  • Zhang, Yi;Sun, Dongxiao;Yu, Ying;Zhang, Yuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1240-1244
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    • 2006
  • The complete coding region sequence of the SRY gene in Chinese swamp buffalo was determined by PCR product sequencing. Comparison of swamp and river buffalo SRY gene sequences revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, C/G) at the 202 bp site of the coding region. Further, a total of 124 male domestic buffaloes were genotyped at this SNP site using the PCR-SSCP method, and it was found that all Chinese indigenous swamp buffaloes had a guanine (G) at this site, while introduced river buffaloes and crossbred buffaloes showed a cytosine (C). Our findings suggested that this Y-linked SNP displayed type-specific alleles differentiating swamp and river buffaloes, and could be used as an effective marker to detect crossbreeding of swamp buffaloes with introduced river buffaloes in native buffalo populations, and thereby assess genetic diversity status and make proper conservation decisions for indigenous swamp buffaloes. In addition, this SNP can be potentially applied in the study of Asian water buffalo phylogeny from a male perspective.

Genetic Variation and Divergence among Swamp Buffalo, River Buffalo and Cattle: A Microsatellite Survey on Five Populations in China

  • Zhang, Yi;Sun, Dongxiao;Yu, Ying;Zhang, Yuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1238-1243
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    • 2008
  • Domestic buffalo and cattle are two extremely important livestock species in worldwide agricultural production. In this paper, to investigate genetic diversity and divergence among swamp buffalo, river buffalo and cattle, 30 microsatellite markers were screened on 168 individuals sampled from five populations. Substantial differences were observed among the three groups of animals with respect to allele frequency distribution, allele size and polymorphism. The cattle sample (Mongolian) showed significantly higher genetic variability (0.674 of gene diversity, p<0.01), and the swamp and river buffalo samples displayed similar degree of genetic variation (0.536 in swamp and 0.546 in river, p = 0.92). Results of both phylogenetic tree and multivariate analysis could distinguish three groups of animals, suggesting their deep evolutionary divergence. Additionally, using $({\delta}{\mu})^2$ genetic distance, we estimated a divergence time of 1.7 million years between swamp and river buffalo that strongly supported distinct genetic origins for the two buffalo types.

A Comparative Study on the Rumen Microbial Population of Cattle and Swamp Buffalo Raised under Traditional Village Conditions in the Northeast of Thailand

  • Wanapat, M.;Ngarmsang, A.;Korkhuntot, S.;Nontaso, N.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Beakes, G.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.918-921
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    • 2000
  • A comparative study on rumen bacterial and protozoal population and fungal zoospores in cattle (Brahman$\times$Native) and swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was conducted. Forty animals, twenty of each, with same sex and similar age which were raised under similar condition in the Northeast of Thailand, were used. Rumen digesta were sampled immediately post slaughtering for total microscopic counts of bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores. It was found that total bacterial population were higher in swamp buffalo that those in cattle (1.6 vs $1.36{\times}10^{8}cells/ml$) having more population of cocci, rods and ovals. Lower rumen protozoal pupulation in swamp buffalo with lower numbers of Holotrichs and Entodiniomorphs were found as compared to those in cattle. Significant higher fungal zoospore counts were in swamp buffalo than those in cattle being 7.30 and $3.78{\times}10^6$, respectively. Study under electron microscope, revealed Anaeromyces sp. with acuminate apex were more predominant in the rumen of swamp buffalo. With these findings, cattle and swamp buffaloes showing differences in rumen bacterial, protozoal population and fungal zoospore counts, offer new additional information as why swamp buffaloes exhibit conditionally better than cattle especially during long dry season without green grass.

Comparative Study between Swamp Buffalo and Native Cattle in Feed Digestibility and Potential Transfer of Buffalo Rumen Digesta into Cattle

  • Wanapat, M.;Nontaso, N.;Yuangklang, C.;Wora-anu, S.;Ngarmsang, A.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.504-510
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    • 2003
  • Rumen ecology plays an important role in the fermentation process and in providing end-products for ruminants. These studies were carried out to investigate variations in rumen factors namely pH, $NH_3-N$ and microorganisms in cattle and swamp buffaloes. Furthermore, studies on diurnal patterns of rumen fermentation and the effect of rumen digesta transfer from buffalo to cattle was conducted. Based on these studies, diurnal fermentation patterns in both cattle and buffaloes were revealed. It was found that rumen NH3-N was a major limiting factor. Rumen digesta transfer from buffalo to cattle from buffalo to cattle was achievable. Monitoring rumen digesta for 14d after transfer showed an improved rumen ecology in cattle as compared to that of original cattle and buffalo. It is probable that buffalo rumen digesta could be transferred. However, further research should be undertaken in these regards in order to improve rumen ecology especially for buffalo-based rumen.

Comparative Feeding of Male Dairy, Beef Cattle and Swamp Buffalo I. Economics of Beef Production

  • Skunmun, P.;Chantalakhana, C.;Pungchai, R.;Poondusit, T.;Prucsasri, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.878-883
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    • 2002
  • Due to rising trend of beef demand in Asia in the next two decades it is necessary to find additional sources of beef supply. In most Southeast Asian countries, male dairy and swamp buffalo have not yet been raised for a primary purpose of quality beef production. This study was aimed to compare growth and feeding performances as well as economic returns from feeding male dairy, beef cattle and swamp buffalo for quality beef. Thirty-six animals, 12 of each breed group, were used in feeding trial to compare the cost of beef production. Two levels of concentrate feeding, 1.75% of body weight (BW) and 1.00% of BW, were used for each breed group in order to compare feeding methods i.e. high and low levels. Within each breed group two animals of similar initial BW were randomly assigned to the two levels of feeding. The animals were fed from about 150 kg BW until reaching the final weight of about 400 kg. The results from this study showed that under the prevailing economic conditions in Thailand the cost of beef production from buffalo was lowest due to very low cost of feeder stocks, followed by dairy and beef. However, the cost of feeding per kg of BW gain was lowest in beef and highest in buffalo i.e. when disregarding the differences in cost of feeder stocks. Beef calves grew faster than dairy and buffalo, with better feed efficiencies. The results indicated that beef cattle could be more suitable for beef production for high-quality beef market, while buffalo could be more suitable for small farms where high roughage feeding is common. Male dairy calves appeared to require higher level of concentrate feeding than 1% BW in order to maintain good body conditions.

Use of Cattle Microsatellite Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Thai Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

  • Sraphet, Supajit;Moolmuang, Benchamart;Na-Chiangmai, Ancharlie;Panyim, Sakol;Smith, Duncan R.;Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.177-180
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    • 2008
  • In this study, cattle microsatellite markers recommended for diversity studies of cattle by the EU AIRE 2066 Concerted Action Group were used to study the genetic diversity of 105 Thai swamp buffalo which were randomly selected from eight different research stations of the Department of Livestock Development, Thailand. Of 34 primer pairs, 16 were successfully amplified while the rest showed non-specific amplification. The lowest number of alleles was two while the highest was nine, with an average of 4.7 alleles per locus. The average unbiased heterozygosity for all eight populations was 0.5233, with a low of 0.4772 (Samui) and a high of 0.5616 (Burirum). The genetic distance ranged from 0.0574 to 0.2575. Populations from Lopburi and Burirum showed the closest relationship, whereas Srisagat and Samui were the most divergent. The results generated with the primers recommended by the EU AIRE 2066 Concerted Action Group are at a slight variance from our previous study, possibly as a result of the number of specific amplification products obtained, suggesting that cattle markers may not be optimal for studies of the genetic diversity of the Thai swamp buffalo.

Analysis of Genetic Diversity of the Thai Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Using Cattle Microsatellite DNA Markers

  • Triwitayakorn, K.;Moolmuang, B.;Sraphet, S.;Panyim, S.;Na-Chiangmai, A.;Smith, Duncan R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.617-621
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    • 2006
  • Recently the numbers of the Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), a native species of Thailand, have been rapidly declining, leading to a requirement for conservation programs for this breed. Such studies of the genetic diversity of this species are essential for conservation decisions and to assist the rational implementation of breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity of 80 Thai swamp buffalo, randomly selected from seven different research stations of the Thai Department of Livestock Development, were studied using ten cattle microsatellite markers. Polymorphic PCR products were observed at all microsatellite loci, with percentages of polymorphic loci ranging from 80.00 to 100.00%. The population from Payao showed the lowest level of polymorphism. The mean number of alleles per locus was 4.7 with the highest number of alleles being eight (ETH152) and the lowest being three (HAUT27 and ILSTS030). The average unbiased heterozygosity for all seven populations was 0.61 and varied between 0.5314 (Samui) and 0.6798 (Surin). The genetic distance according to NEI's (1972) ranged from 0.0722 to 0.4427. The populations from Surin and Burirum are the closest populations, while populations from Samui and Payao are the most divergent. The information generated by this study will greatly aid in the establishment of effective breeding and conservation programs for the Thai swamp buffalo.

PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION OF UREA-TREATED RICE STRAW IN SWAMP BUFFALO

  • Hart, F.J.;Wanapat, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.617-622
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    • 1992
  • Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes steers were used in a change-over experiment. This experiment was designed to provide a comparison of the effect of urea-ammonia treatment of rice straw with untreated rice straw. Nitrogen, mineral and trace elements were supplied at adequate levels to both diets in order to overcome deficiencies which may have otherwise confounded a direct comparison. There was a 46% increase in the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) with the urea-ammonia treated diet. This was contributed by a 17% increase in the digestibility of OM and a 25% increase in the voluntary intake of OM. Of the cell wall fraction, the digestibility of hemicellulose increased by the greatest amount (26%). There was an increased rate of passage of particulate matter out of the rumen for the treated straw, along with the increased rate of OM fermentation resulted in a 9% decrease in the amount of digesta dry matter (DM) contained in the rumen. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) pool in the rumen was 24% higher for the treated diet.

Nutritional Management for Buffalo Production

  • Sarwar, M.;Khan, M.A.;Nisa, M.;Bhatti, S.A.;Shahzad, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.1060-1068
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    • 2009
  • The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important contributor to milk, meat, power, fuel and leather production in many developing countries. Buffaloes can be categorized into Asian and Mediterranean buffaloes. Asian buffalo includes two subspecies known as Riverine and Swamp types. Riverine (water buffalo) and Swamp buffaloes possess different genetics (50 vs. 48 chromosomes, respectively), morphology (body frame, body weight, horn shape and skin color) and behavior (wallowing in mud or water) and thus, are reared and used for different purposes. Low per head milk yield, poor reproductive performance (seasonal breeding behavior, anestrous, and longer calving interval) and low growth rate in buffaloes have been attributed to insufficient supply of nutrients. In many parts of Asia, where the buffalo is an integral part of the food chain and rural economy, irregular and inadequate availability of quality feedstuffs and their utilization are hampering the performance of this unique animal. Balanced nutrition and better management can enhance buffalo productivity. Many efforts have been made in the last few decades to improve nutrient supply and utilization in buffaloes. Recent research on locally available feed resources such as crop residues, and industrial by-products, dietary addition of micronutrients, use of performance modifiers and use of ruminally protected fat and protein sources have shown significant potential to improve growth, milk yield and reproductive performance of buffaloes. However, a number of issues, including establishment of nutrient requirements for dairy and beef, development of buffalo calf feeding systems, nutritional management of metabolic and reproductive anomalies, and understanding and exploitation of the buffalo gut ecosystem, need to be addressed. Extensive coordinated research and extension efforts are required for improved buffalo nutrition in developing countries.

RENAL REGULATION OF UREA EXCRETION IN SWAMP BUFFALO FED WITH HIGH PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION

  • Chaiyabutr, N.;Chanpongsang, S.;Loypetjra, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 1995
  • The effect of supplemented high protein diet intake on renal urea regulation in swamp buffalo was carried out in the present experiment Five swamp buffalo heifers weighing between 208-284 kg were used for this study. The animals were fed with a supplementary high protein diet and renal function and kinetic parameters for urea excretion were measured. This was compared to a control period where the same animals had been fed only with paragrass and water hyacinth. For 2 months the same animals were fed a mixed of paragrass, water hyacinth plus 2 kgs of a high protein supplement (protein 18.2% DM basis) per head per day. In comparison to the control period, there were no differences in the rate of urine flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), plasma urea concentration and filtered urea. In animals supplemented with high protein intake mean values of urea clearance, excretion rate and the urea urine/plasma concentration ratio markedly increased (p < 0.05) while renal urea reabsorption significantly decreased from 40% to 26% of the quantity filtered. In this same study group urea space distribution and urea pool size increased which coincided with an increase in plasma volume (p < 0.05). Plasma protein decreased while plasma osmolarity increased (p < 0.05). Both urea turnover rate and biological half-life of $^{14}C$-urea were not affected by a supplementary high protein intake. The results suggest that animals supplemented with high protein diets are in a state of dynamic equilibrium of urea which is well balanced between urea excreted into the urine and the amount synthesized. The limitation for renal tubular urea reabsorption would be a change in extra-renal factors with an elevation of the total pool size of nitrogenous substance.