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Post-Infarction Ventricular Septal Rupture : 10 Years of Experience (급성 심근경색증 후 심실중격 결손: 10년 경험)

  • Jung, Yo-Chun;Cho, Kwang-Ree;Kim, Ki-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.351-355
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    • 2007
  • Background: Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture is associated with mortality as high as $85\sim90%$, if it is treated medically. This report documents our experience with postinfarction ventricular septal rupture that was treated surgically, Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 11 patients who were operated on due to postinfarction ventricular septal rupture between August 1996 and August 2006. There were 4 men and 7 women, with a mean age of $70{\pm}11$ years (age range: $50\sim84$ years). The location of the rupture was anterior in 7 cases and posterior in 4 cases. The interval between the onset of acute myocardial infarction and the occurrence of the ventricular septal rupture was $2.0{\pm}1.3$ days (range: $1\sim5$ days). Operation was performed at an average of $2.4{\pm}2.7$ days (range: $0\sim8$ days) after the diagnosis of septal rupture. Preoperative intraaortic balloon pump therapy was performed in 10 patients. Result: The infarct exclusion technique was used in all cases. Coronary artery bypass grafting was done in 8 cases, with the mean number of distal anastomosis being $1.0{\pm}0.8$. There was one operative death. In 2 patients, reoperation was performed due to a residual septal defect. The postoperative morbidities were transient atrial fibrillation (n=7), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (n=1), low cardiac output syndrome (n=3), bleeding reoperation (n=2), delayed sternal closure (n=2), acute renal failure (n=2), pneumonia (n=1), intraaortic balloon pump-related thromboembolism (n=1), and transient delirium (n=2). Nine patients have been followed up for a mean of $38{\pm}40$ months except for one follow-up loss. There have been 3 late deaths. At the latest follow-up, all 6 survivors were in a good functional class. Conclusion: We demonstrated satisfactory operative and midterm results with our strategy of preoperative intraaortic balloon pump therapy, early repair of septal rupture by infarct exclusion and combined coronary revascularization.

In-Hospital Outcomes of Acute Renal Failure Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients with On-pump CABG (심폐기 가동하 관상동맥우회술 후 발생한 급성신부전 환자들에 있어 지속적 신대체요법의 병원 내 결과)

  • Kim, Young-Du;Park, Kuhn;Kang, Chul-Ung;Yoon, Jeong-Seob;Moon, Seok-Whan;Wang, Young-Pil;Jo, Kuhn-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2007
  • Background: Although acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is relatively rare, but devastating complication with high mortality. Our study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of early application of CRRT in patients with ARF which developed after on-pump CABG. Material and Method: Two hundred and eighty seven patients underwent isolated on-pump CABG between May 2002 and Feb. 2006 at our institution, of whom 15 (5.2%) needed CRRT (11 patients for postoperatively developed ARF and the remaining 4 patients with preexisting dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure (CRF) for postoperative hemodynamic and metabolic control). Criteria for early application of CRRT were as follows; decreased urine output less than 0.5cc/h/kg for 2 consecutive hours and elevated serum creatinine level greater than 2.0 mg/dL. Result: The incidence of ARF requiring CRRT after on-pump CABG was 3.9% (11/283) and the overall hospital mortality of patient with CRRT was 33.3% (5/15). Of 5 deaths, 4 were patients with postoperatively developed ARF, and 1 was a patient with pre-existing dialysis-dependent CRF patient. The mean time between the operation and the initiation of CRRT was $25.8{\pm}5.8$ hours and the mean duration of CRRT was $62.1{\pm}41.2$ hours. Of the 7 survivors who were not on dialysis-dependent preoperatively, 6 patients fully recovered renal function during hospital stay and 1 patient required permanent renal supportive treatment after discharge from hospital. Conclusion: Early application of CRRT could maintain stable postoperative hemodynamic status and make outcomes better than those of previous reports in patients with ARF which developed after on-pump CABG.

Long Term Clinical Results of Triple Valve Replacement (삼중 판막 대치술의 장기 결과)

  • Yu, Song-Hyeon;Hong, You-Sun;Chang, Byung-Chul;Kang, Meyun-Shick;Lim, Sang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.675-679
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    • 2005
  • Background: Clinical reports on replacement of all three (AV + MV + TV) valves are rare. Material and Method: From January 1992 to December 2003, 38 patients received triple valve replacement (aortic, mitral, tricuspid) at Yonsei Cardiovascular Center. Mean age of patients was $49.5\pm10.7 (28\~69)$ years, and 24 patients $(63.1\%)$ were female. Rheumatic valve disease was the most common cause of operation (n=37). Preoperative New York Heart Association functional class were II in 4, III in 24 and IV in 10. Fifteen patients (group 1) received triple valve replacement at their first operation. Twenty three patients (group 2) received one or more operations before tricuspid valve replacement (TVR). Seven patients received tricuspid valve annuloplasty at first operation and received TVR later. Result: Six patients died at hospital after operation $(15.8\%)$ and all these patients were in group 2. All patients in group I survived and were discharged. Three patients $(9.4\%)$ died during follow up periods. Most of the survivors had improved functional class (I in 22, II in 8, III in 1, IV in 1). During follow up period, there were 4 valve related complications. The 10-year survival rate was $68.8\%$ and survival rate for free from valve related event at 10 years was $85.5\%$. Conclusion: After triple valve replacement, most patients showed improvement of symptoms. And during follow up period, valve related complications and survival were acceptable. Therefore, if indicated, triple valve replacement is recommended before the patients' conditions get worse.

Hybrid Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Combined with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Indications and Early Results (심폐바이패스 없이 시행하는 관상동맥우회술과 경피적 관상동맥중재술의 병합요법 : 적응증 및 조기성적)

  • Hwang Ho Young;Kim Jin Hyun;Cho Kwang Ree;Kim Ki-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.733-738
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    • 2005
  • Background: The possibility of incomplete revascularization and development of flow competition after revascularization of the borderline lesion made the hybrid strategy as an option for complete revascularization. Material and Method: From January f998 to July 2004, 25 $(3.2\%)$ patients underwent hybrid revascularization among 782 total OPCAB procedures. Clinical results and angiographic patencies were evalulated. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was peformed before CABG in 8 patients and after CABG in 47 patients. Result: The causes of PCIs before CABG were to achieve complete revascularization with minimally invasive surgery (n=7) and emergent PCI for culprit lesion (n=1). The indications of PCIs after CABG were high possibility of flow competition in the borderline lesion of right coronary artery territory (n=8), diffuse atheromatous lesion preventing anastomosis of graft (n=5), severe calcified ascending aorta with no more arterial grafi available (n=3), and intramyocardial coronary lesion (n=1). Mean number of distal anastomoses was $2.3\pm1.0$. Mean number of lesions treated by PCI was $1.2\pm0.4$. There was no operative or procedure-related mortality. PCI-related complication was periprocedural myocardial infarction in one patient, and complications related to CABG were transient atrial fibrillation (n=5), perioperative myocardial infarction (n=1), and transient renal dysfunction (n=1). Early postoperative coronary angiography $(1.8{pm}1.6days)$ revealed $100\%$ patency rate of grafts (57/57). The stenosis occurred in one patient performed PCI before CABG, which was successfully treated with re-ballooning. During midterm follow-up (mean; $25{\pm}26$ months), 1 patient died of congestive heart failure. All survivors (n=24) accomplished follow-up coronary angiographics, which showed .all grafts (56/57) were patent except one string sign. In-stent restenosis was developed in 2 patients who received bare metal stents. Conclusion: In selected patients, complete revascularization was achieved with low risk by taking the hybrid strategy.

Changes of Ventricular Function and Mitral Regurgitation after Repair of Anomalous Origin of Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (관상동맥 폐동맥 이상 기시증의 외과적 치료 후 좌심실 및 승모판 기능의 변화)

  • Lee Jeong Ryul;Oh Sea Jin;Kim Woong Han;Kim Yong Jin;Rho Joon Ryang;Bae Eun Jung;Noh Chung II;Yun Yong Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2005
  • Background: Investigation of the change of ventricular function and mitral regurgitation after surgical repair of patient with anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is key issue for the better surgical outcome. Material and Method: From April 1986 to July 2002, 12 patients presented with ALCAPA. The median age at repair was 4 months. Surgical methods included left coronary artery transfer to the aorta (10), Takeuchi procedure (1), saphenous vein free graft bypass (1). Mitral valve was repaired in 1. Result: There were 2 hospital death $(16.7\%)$. The mean follow-up period was $7.1\pm4.1$ years (range, 7 months to 13 years). Four patients required postoperative circulatory assist for $2.2\pm1.1$ days and one needed left ventricular assist device (LVAD) for 1day. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated significant improvements in mean fractional shortening $(33.4\pm9.1\%\;vs\;17.7\pm9.6\%,\;n=10,\;p<0.05);$ left ventricular end diastolic dimension $(33.4\pm7.3\;mm\;vs\;44.8\pm7.0\;mm,\;n=10,\;p<0.05)$ and systolic dimension $(22.2\pm7.5\;mm\;vs\;33.4\pm7.9\;mm,\;n=10,\;p<0.05)$. Severities of mitral regurgitation decreased in all survivors at 1st and 4th year follow-up echocardiography. There were 2 reoperation due to residual MR and right ventricular outflow obstruction (Takeuchi case). Conclusion: Anatomic repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery offered an excellent surgical results, especially in terms of the recovery of left ventricle function and mitral regurgitation. However, preoperative indications for mitral procedure is to be evaluated.

Eating patterns and use of nutritional information in breast cancer survivors treated with radiation therapy in South Korea (일반인과 유방암 환자간의 식행동 및 영양정보에 관한 인식조사)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ok;Park, Hyunjin;Chun, Mison;Lee, Eun Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.250-260
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    • 2013
  • The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate eating behaviors and patterns in breast cancer patients using a newly developed food frequency questionnaire and 2) to examine perception and use of nutritional information about breast cancer treatment among cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Sixty breast cancer patients (case group) undergoing radiation therapy in Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, South Korea and 79 healthy women (control group) participated in this study. Mean age of subjects in the control group was $46.00{\pm}7.88$ years and BMI was $23.12{\pm}2.85kg/m^2$, and that of the case group was $50.06{\pm}11.64$ years and $22.32{\pm}3.24kg/m^2$. The results of eating behaviors showed several significant differences between control and case groups. Breast cancer patients ate meals on a more regular basis, on time, and more frequently compared to control subjects. In addition, they preferred more salty or spicy and bland food compared to healthy women. According to answers from the food frequency questionnaire, breast cancer patients consumed significantly lower amounts of boiled white rice, meats and processed food, fish and shellfish, coffee, milk, and cheese, whereas they consumed a significantly large amount of boiled multigrain rice, vegetable, seaweeds, soybean and processed food, and yoghurt compared to healthy women. This study also observed the way in which cancer patients and healthy control subjects obtain information about breast cancer treatment and its reliabilities. Results showed that healthy women did not hesitate to obtain information from mass media, while breast cancer patients would obtain nutritional information from specialists rather than mass media. Results of this survey confirmed that breast cancer patients avoided intake of red meat protein, even though they already recognized the importance of dietary protein intake for recuperation and treatment of the disease. These results could be used for future diet and nutrition guidelines for breast cancer patients.

Decitabine in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Which Combined with Complex Karyotype Respectively

  • Gao, Su;Li, Zheng;Fu, Jian-Hong;Hu, Xiao-Hui;Xu, Yang;Jin, Zheng-Ming;Tang, Xiao-Wen;Han, Yue;Chen, Su-Ning;Sun, Ai-Ning;Wu, De-Pei;Qiu, Hui-Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6627-6632
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    • 2015
  • Background: We conducted a study exploring the clinical safety and efficacy of decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), combined with a complex karyotype. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to September 2013, a total of 35 patients with AML/MDS combined with a complex karyotype diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included for retrospective analysis. All patients were treated with decitabine alone ($20mg/m^2$ daily for 5 days) or combination AAG chemotherapy (Acla 20mg qod*4d, Ara-C $10mg/m^2$ q12h*7d, G-CSF $300{\mu}g$ qd, the dose of G-CSF adjusted to the amount in blood routinely). Results: In 35 patients, 15 exhibited a complete response (CR), and 6 a partial response (PR), the overall response rate (CR+PR) being 60% (21 of 35). Median disease-free survival was 18 months and overall survival was 14 months. In the 15 MDS patients with a complex karyotype, the CR rate was 53.3% (8 of 15); in 20 AML patients with complex karyotype, the overall response rate was 65% (13 of 20). The response rate of decitabine alone (22 cases) was 56.5% (13 of 22), while in the combination chemotherapy group (13 cases), the effective rate was 61.5% (8 of 13)(P>0.05). There are 15 patients with chromosome 7 aberration, after treatment with decitabine, 7 CR, 3 PR, overall response rate was 66.7% (10 of 15). Of 18 patients with 3 to 5 kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, 66.7% demonstrated a response; of 17 with more than 5 chromosomal abnormalities, 52.9% had a response. In the total of 35 patients, with one course (23 patients) and ${\geq}$two courses (12 patients), the overall response rate was 40.9% and 92.3% (P<0.05). Grade III to IV hematological toxicity was observed in 27 cases (75%). Grade III to IV infections were clinically documented in 7 (20%). Grades I to II non-hematological toxicity were infections (18 patients), haematuria (2 patients), and bleeding (3 patients). With follow-up until September 2013, 7 patients were surviving, 18 had died and 10 were lost to follow-up. In the 6 cases who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) all were still relapse-free survivors. Conclusions: Decitabine alone or combination with AAG can improve outcome of AML/MDS with a complex karyotype, there being no significant difference decitabine in inducing remission rates in patients with different karyotype. Increasing the number of courses can improve efficiency. This approach with fewer treatment side effects in patients with a better tolerance should be employed in order to create an improved subsequent chance for HSCT.

Radiotherapy in Medically Inoperable Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (내과적 문제로 수술이 불가능한 조기 비소세포성 폐암에서의 방사선치료)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyoung;Park, Charn-Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: For early stage non-small-cell lung cancer, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. But when the patients are not able to tolerate it because of medical problem and when refuse surgery, radiation therapy is considered an acceptable alternative. We report on the treatment results and the effect of achieving local control of primary tumors on survival end points, and analyze factors that may influence survival and local control. Materials and Method : We reviewed the medical records of 32 patients with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution from June, 1987 through June, 1997. All patients had a pathologic diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer and were not candidate for surgical resection because of either patients refusal (4), old age (2), lung problem (21), chest wail invasion (3) and heart problems (3). In 8 patients, there were more than 2 problems. The median age of the patients was 68 years (ranging from 60 to 86 years). Histologic cell type included souamous (24), adenocarcinoma (6) and unclassiried squamous cell (2). The clinical stages of the patients were 71 in 5, 72 in 25, 73 in 2 patients. Initial tumor size was 3.0 cm in 11, between 3.0 cm and 5.0 cm in 13 and more than 5.0 cm in 8 patients. Ail patients had taken chest x-rays, chest CT, abdomen USG and bone scan. Radiotherapy was delivered using 6 MV or 10 MV linear accelerators. The doses of primary tumor were the ranging from 54.0 Gy to 68.8 Gy (median; 61.2 Gy). The duration of treatment was from 37 days through 64 days (median; 0.5 days) and there was no treatment interruption except 1 patient due to poor general status. In 12 patients, concomitant boost technique was used. There were no neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy. The period of follow-up was ranging from 2 months through 93 months (median; 23 months). Survival was measured from the date radiation therapy was initiated. Results : The overall survival rate was 44.6$\%$ at 2 years and 24.5$\%$ at 5 years, with the median survival time of 23 months. of the 25 deaths, 7 patients died of intercurrent illness, and cause-specific survival rate was 61.0$\%$ at 2 years and 33.5$\%$ at 5 years. The disease-free survival rate was 38.9$\%$ at 2 years and 28.3$\%$ at 5 years. The local-relapse-free survival rate was 35.1$\%$, 28.1$\%$, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor size was significant variable of overall survival (p=0.0015, 95$\%$ C.1.; 1.4814-5.2815), disease-free survival (P=0.0022, 95$\%$ C.1., 1.4707-5.7780) and local-relapse-free survival (p=0.0015, 95$\%$ C.1., 1.2910- 4.1197). 7 stage was significant variable of overall survival (p=0.0395, 95$\%$ C.1.; 1.1084-55.9112) and had borderline significance on disease-free survival (p=0.0649, 95$\%$ C.1.; 0.8888-50.7123) and local-relapse-free survival (p=0.0582, 95$\%$ C,1.; 0.9342-52.7755). On multivariate analysis, tumor size had borderline significance on overall survival (p=0.6919, 955 C.1., 0.9610-5.1277) and local-relapse-free survival ( p=0.0585, 95$\%$ C.1.; 0.9720-4.9657). Tumor size was also significant variable of disease-free survival (p=0.0317, 95% C.1.; 1.1028-8.4968). Conclusion : Radical radiotherapy is an effective treatment for small (71 or f3 cm) tumors and can be offered as alternative to surgery in elderly or infirmed patients. But when the size of tumor is larger than 5 cm, there were few long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy alone. The use of hypefractionated radiotherapy, endobronchial boost, radisensitizer and conformal or IMRT should be consider to improve the local control rate and disease-specific survival rate.

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Clinical Course of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (통상성 간질성 폐섬유증의 임상경과)

  • Park, Joo-Hun;Kitaichi, M.;Yum, Ho-Kee;Shim, Tae-Sun;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Won-Dong;Kim, Dong-Soon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.601-613
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    • 2000
  • Background : Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal progressive fibrous disease of the lung of unknown etiology. Recently it has been classified into several distinct entities on the basis of pathologic and clinical characteristics, ie : usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). IPF is now applied only for UIP, which has the worst prognosis. The previous reports of 3-5 year median survival appears to be overoptimistic because other types with better prognosis like NSIP or BOOP might have been included. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the clinical course and the prognostic factors of UIP as diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy. Methods : The subjects were 72 UIP patients (age $58.2{\pm}11.6$ years, M : F=45 : 27, median follow up period : 18.1 months (0.7-103.6) diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy at the Asan Medical Center (68 patients) and the Paik Hospital in Seoul (4 patients). Clinical scores (level of dyspnea : 1-20 points), radiologic score (honeycombing : HC score 0-5 points, ground glass : GG score 0-5 points), and physiologic scores (FVC : 1-12 points, $FEV_1$ : 0-3 points, TLC : 0-10 points, $D_{LCO)$ : 0-5 points, $AaDO_2$ : 0-10 points) were summed into a total CRP score. Results : 1) The one year survival rate was 78.3%, while the rate for three year survival was 58.1%, and the median survival period was 42.5months. 2) Short term (1 year) prognosis : The patients who died within one year of diagnosis (14 patients) had the higher initial total CRP score ($28.6{\pm}8.3$ vs. $16.6{\pm}9.7$) than those who lived longer than one year (46 patients). The difference in the total CRP score was attributed to the symptom score ($8.4{\pm}2.1$ vs. $5.7{\pm}3.9$) and the physiologic score ($15.7{\pm}7.1$ vs. $6.7{\pm}5.7$) including FVC, $D_{LCO)$ and $AaDO_2$. 3) Long-term (3year) prognosis : The total CRP score ($12.2{\pm}6.7$ vs. $28.7{\pm}7.9$ : including symptom score, FVC, $D_{LCO)$ and $AaDO_2$) at the time of diagnosis were also different for the long-term survivors and those who lived less than 3 years. 4) Cox regression analysis showed $D_{LCO)$ (${\geq}$60%) (Hazard ratio : 4.56, 95% CI : 2.30-16.04) was the independent prognostic factors of UIP (P<0.05). Conclusion : These results suggest that $D_{LCO)$ at the time of diagnosis seem to be a prognostic markers of biopsy-proven UIP.

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Surgical Results and Risk Facor Analysis of the Patients with Single Ventricle Associated with Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (총폐정맥연결이상증을 동반한 단심증 환아의 수술결과 및 위험인자 분석)

  • 이정렬;김창영;김홍관;이정상;김용진;노준량
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.862-870
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    • 2002
  • The surgical results of the patients with single ventricle(SV) associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection(TAPVC) has been reported with high mortality and morbidity due to their morphologic and hemodynamic complexity. A retrospective review was undertaken to report the outcome of the first-stage palliative surgery in our institution and to determine the factors influencing early death. Material and Method: Between January 1987 and June 2002, 39 patients with SV and TAPVC underwent surgical intervention with or without TAPVC repair. Age at operation ranged from 1day to 10.7months (median age, 2.4month), and 29 patients were male. Preoperative diagnosis included 20 right-dominant SV, 15 SV with endocardial cushion defect, 3 left-dominant SV, and 1 tricuspid atresia. The pulmonary venous connection was supracardiac in 22, cardiac in 5, infracardiac in 11, and mixed in 1, Obstructed TAPVC was present in 11. First-stage palliative surgery was performed in 37. Repair of TAPVC, either alone or in association with other procedures, was performed during the initial operation in 31. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the risk factors influencing the operative death. Result: A mean follow-up period of survivors was 34.3 $\pm$ 43.0(0.53 ~ 146.2)months. Overall early operative mortality was 43.6%(17/39). The causes were low cardiac output in 8, failure of weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in 3, sepsis in 2, pulmonary hypertensive crisis in 1, pulmonary edema in 1, pneumonia in 1, and postoperative arrhythmia in 1. Risk factors influencing early death in univariate analysis were body weight, surgical intervention in neonate, obstructive TAPVC, preoperative conditions including metabolic acidosis, and need for inotropic support, TAPVC repair in initial operation, operative time, and cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) time. In multivariable analysis, body weight, age at initial operation, surgical intervention in neonate, preoperative conditions including metabolic acidosis, need for inotropic support and CPB time were the risk factors. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the patients with SV and TAPVC had high perioperative mortality. Preoperative poor condition, young age, the length of operative and CPB time, the presence of obstructive TAPVC had been proven to be the risk factors. This fact suggests that the avoidance of unnecessarily additional procedures may improve the surgical outcomes of the first-stage palliative surgery. However further observation and collection of the data is mandatory to determine the ideal surgical strategy.