• Title, Summary, Keyword: Surveillance program

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Current status of measles in the Republic of Korea: an overview of case-based and seroepidemiological surveillance scheme

  • Choe, Young June;Bae, Geun-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.12
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    • pp.455-461
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    • 2012
  • Following the Five Year Measles Elimination Program, measles has been declared eliminated from the Republic of Korea since 2006. However, there remain challenges related to the surveillance of measles in the postelimination phase. Even though the routine surveillance system has revealed a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases since 2002, 4 resurgences have occurred, notably due to outbreaks. Because vaccine-modified measles is becoming widespread due to high vaccination coverage, conducting laboratory confirmation in each case becomes important. Moreover, susceptible individuals with measles have been identified through seroprevalence studies. Lastly, the efforts to improve the timeliness of measles reporting have led to the establishment of an active laboratory-based surveillance network, which has shortened the interval between diagnosis and notification. In these circumstances, searching for more sensitive and effective surveillance measures is important for maintaining the elimination status and preventing future outbreaks of measles in Korea.

Economic Evaluation and Budget Impact Analysis of the Surveillance Program for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

  • Sangmala, Pannapa;Chaikledkaew, Usa;Tanwandee, Tawesak;Pongchareonsuk, Petcharat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8993-9004
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    • 2014
  • Background: The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. Materials and Methods: A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Results: Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451 THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Conclusions: Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible, but additional evidence is needed to support the whole prevention system before the implementation of a strategic plan.

Detection of Recurrence in a Surveillance Program for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Suprasert, Prapaporn;Chalapati, Wadwilai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7193-7196
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    • 2013
  • Ovarian cancer patients need a surveillance program for the detection of tumor progression after completion of treatment. The methods generally consist of history taking, physical examination, tumor marker monitoring and imaging. However, the details of recurrence detection with each method are not well defined. To clarify this issue, ovarian cancer patients who achieved complete or partial responses and developed tumor progression at the follow up time between January 2004 and December 2010 in University Hospital Chiang Mai, Thailand, were reviewed. Clinical data, CA 125 level and imaging results at the tumor progression time were recorded and analyzed. There were 144 ovarian cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria with the mean age of 51 years and 62.5% of them were in an advanced stage. Complete response was achieved in 89 patients (61.8%) after primary treatment. The median progression free survival and overall survival were 15.5 months and 37.5 months, respectively. Abnormal symptoms presented in 49.3% of the studied patients and 59.7% developed physical examination abnormalities. In addition, CA 125 was elevated in 89.6% while in 74.3% of tumor progression was identified by CT-scan. Short treatment time period and a high level of CA 125 were significant independent prognostic factors in these patients. In conclusion, careful history taking, physical examination and monitoring of CA 125 levels are important methods for tumor progression detection in a surveillance program for epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

Sample size for serological surveillance of Aujeszky's disease in Korea (국내 돼지오제스키병의 혈청학적 감시활동(surveillance)을 위한 표본크기)

  • Kim, Eu-Tteum;Pak, Son-Il;Park, Choi-Kyu;Kweon, Chang-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2007
  • Serological surveillance programs in animal populations are becoming increasingly important to estimate prevalence of a specific disease and subsequently to document disease-free status in a region or a country. For these purposes, the programs need to be based on both theoretical and economical aspects from the designing phase. From Aujeszky's disease (AD)-eradication program point of view, group of animals (aggregates, herds) not individual animal is the more important sampling unit of concern. In this study the authors therefore attempted to compute an appropriate sample size tailored to a current surveillance program against AD, assuming that the goal of this program is either herd-level prevalence estimation or documentation of AD-freedom. For prevalence estimation, assuming a finite population with imperfect sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of ELISA kit for AD diagnosis, the number of herds present, expected herd prevalence, and desired accuracy for a certain level of confidence, sample size was estimated at herd-level in the first stage and individual animal-level in the second stage. A two-stage sampling design was used to calculate a sample size to indicate AD-freedom. In this instance, the computation was based on the possible detection of a predetermined prevalence at a certain herd-level Se and Sp. This study indicated that the sample size varied with predetermined confidence, tolerance, Se and Sp at herd- and animal-level, and within- and among-herd prevalence. In general, smaller sample size was required to estimate AD prevalence than to document of AD-freedom. Compared to individual-based samples, two-stage sampling strategy requires a larger sample size to show disease-freedom. Statistical considerations including herd-level test characteristics when designing surveillance program also are further discussed.

Outcome of the Gynecologic Oncology Patients Surveillance Network Program

  • Suprasert, Prapaporn;Suwansirikul, Songkiat;Charoenkwan, Kittipat;Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong;Suwansirikul, Songkiat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4901-4903
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    • 2015
  • The gynecologic oncology patients surveillance network program was conducted with the collaboration of 5 provincial hospitals located in the north of Thailand (Chiang Rai, Lamphun Nan, Phayao and Phrae). The aim was to identify ways of reducing the burden and the cost to the gynecologic cancer patients who needed to travel to the tertiary care hospital for follow up. The clinical data of each patient was transferred to the provincial hospital by the internet via the website www.gogcmu.or.th. All the general gynecologists who participated in this project attended the training course set up for the program. From January 2011 to February 2014, 854 patients who were willing to have their next follow-up at the network hospitals close to their home were enrolled this project. Almost of them were residents in Chiang Rai province and the most common disease was cervical cancer. After the project had been running for 1 year, 604 of the enrolled patients and 21 health-care personnel who had participated in this project were interviewed to assess its success. Some 85.3% of the patients and 100% of the health-care personnel were satisfied with this project. However, 60 patients had withdrawn, the most common reason being the lack of confidence in the follow up at the local provincial hospital. In conclusion, it is possible to initiate a gynecologic oncology patients' surveillance network program and the initiation could reduce the problems associated with and the cost the patients incurred as they journeyed to the tertiary care hospital.

A Review on Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of U.S.A (미국의 청소년 건강위험행위 감시체계에 관한 고찰)

  • Park, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: This study reviews the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) in the United States. This review focuses on the purposes, questionnaires, survey methods, and use of survey results. The author also discussesthe establishment and use of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Results:The YRBSS was developed in 1990 to monitor priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The purpose of YRBSS is to determine the prevalence of health risk behaviors, to assess the trend of health risk behavior prevalence, provide comparable data, monitor progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2010. The questionnaires inquire about health-related behaviors, including tobacco use, unhealthydietary behaviors, inadequate physical activity, alcohol and drug use, sexual activity, behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence. The results of YRBS have been used to estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors among youth, to set goals for school health programs, for training and development of health program personnel, for the development of health education curriculum, to support enactment of health-related regulations, and to support funding for futher research. Conclusions: The YRBSS represents a potentially valuable program that can be applied in Korea. Assessment of risk behaviors among Korean youths will provide invaluable insight for many potential purposes.

A Sampling Strategy for Estimating Infection Rate in Vector Mosquitoes of Mosquito-borne Bovine Viral Diseases (소 모기매개 바이러스성 질병의 Vector 감염률 추정을 위한 표본추출 전략)

  • Pak, Son-Il
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2012
  • Mosquitoes are the vectors of a number of viral diseases in cattle, such as Akabane disease, bovine ephemeral fever, Ainovirus infection, Chuzan virus infection, and Ibaraki disease. These diseases are transmitted from an infected animal to a non-infected host via the blood feeding of the vector. In Korea, the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Services, Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is responsible for planning, implementation, laboratory investigations and reporting the results of the national surveillance program for mosquito-borne bovine diseases (MBD). The surveillance program, which was started in 1993, focused to determine the seroprevalence of each disease in cattle herds in space and time. From the epidemiological point of view, more important component of the surveillance program is to monitor infection rates in vectors for specific pathogens because this information is essential for a more precise understanding the dynamics of these diseases in a given environment and for determining risk of transmission. The aim of this study was to describe and compare methods for estimation of vector infection rates using maximum likelihood (MLE) and minimum infection rate in pooled samples. Factors affecting MLE such as number of pools, pooling size and diagnostic test performance are also discussed, assuming some hypothetical sampling scenarios for MBD.

The Evaluation of Crime Prevention Environment for Cultural Heritage using the 3D Visual Exposure Index (3D 시각노출도를 이용한 문화재 범죄예방환경의 평가)

  • Kim, Choong-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.68-82
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    • 2017
  • Strengthening surveillance, one of the most important factors in the crime prevention environment of cultural heritages, has difficulty in evaluating and diagnosing the site. For this reasons, surveillance enhancement has been assessed by modelling the shape of cultural heritage, topography, and trees digitally. The purpose of this study is to develop the evaluation method of crime prevention environment for cultural heritage by using the 3D visual exposure index (3DVE) which can quantitatively evaluate the surveillance enhancement in three dimensions. For the study, the evaluation factors were divided into natural, organizational, mechanical, and integrated surveillance. To conduct the analysis, the buildings, terrain, walls, and trees of the study site were modeled in three dimensions and the analysis program was developed by using the Unity 3D. Considering the working area of the person, it is possible to analyze the surveillance point by dividing it into the head and the waist position. In order to verify the feasibility of the 3DVE as the analysis program, we assessed the crime prevention environment by digitally modeling the Donam Seowon(Historic Site No. 383) located in Nonsan. As a result of the study, it was possible to figure out the problems of patrol circulation, the blind spot, and the weak point in natural, mechanical, and organizational surveillance of Donam Seowon. The results of the 3DVE were displayed in 3D drawings, so that the position and object could be identified clearly. Surveillance during the daytime is higher in the order of natural, mechanical, and organizational surveillance, while surveillance during the night is higher in the order of organizational, mechanical, and natural surveillance. The more the position of the work area becomes low, the more it is easy to be shielded, so it is necessary to evaluate the waist position. It is possible to find out and display the blind spot by calculating the surveillance range according to the specification, installation location and height of CCTV. Organizational surveillance, which has been found to be complementary to mechanical surveillance, needs to be analyzed at the vulnerable time when crime might happen. Furthermore, it is note that the analysis of integrated surveillance can be effective in examining security light, CCTV, patrol circulation, and other factors. This study was able to diagnose the crime prevention environment by simulating the actual situation. Based on this study, consecutive researches should be conducted to evaluate and compare alternatives to design the crime prevention environment.

An Embedded Multifunctional Media System for Mobile Devices in Terrestrial DTV Relaying

  • Huang, Jun;Yin, Haibing
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.1272-1285
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    • 2018
  • The paper presents a novel embedded multifunctional media sever (EMMS) for mobile devices to receive various media programs. Being different from other contemporary system research, the paper mainly studies how to design a reception solution for terrestrial digital television (DTV) on mobile devices and how to enable mobile devices can receive DTV program, enjoy video-on-demand (VOD), achieve video surveillance and relay Internet video program via local Wi-Fi simultaneously. In the system design, we integrate broadcasting-terrestrial DTV tuner, streaming media re-transmission system, VOD disk, video camera and access interface to the Internet into EMMS, which can either receive terrestrial DTV radio signals and demodulate out digital transport stream (TS), or can read streaming media bit-stream from VOD disk, surveillance camera or access interface to the Internet. The experimental results show the proposed system is stable and quality-efficient. Comparing with the other systems, the proposed system has the least packet loss rate and response time.