• Title, Summary, Keyword: Surface Tension

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF POSTERIOR RESIN-BASED COMPOSITES (구치부 복합레진의 인장강도에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Gon;Lee, Yong-Hee;Yang, Cheol-Hee;Baik, Byeong-Ju
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.464-470
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of light-cured restorative posterior resin-based composites. Five commercially available light-cured composites(Denfil : DF, P60 : PS, Unifil S : US, Z100 : ZH, Z250 : ZT) were used. Rectangular tension test specimens were fabricated in a teflon mold giving 5mm in gauge length and 2mm in thickness. Specimens were subjected to the 5,000 thermal cycles between $5^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$ and the immersion time in each bath was 15 second per cycle. Tensile testing was carried out with Instron at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and fractured surface were observed with scanning electron microscope. The obtained results were summarized as follows; 1. The tensile strength of PS was highest. PS was significantly higher than DF, US and ZH(p<0.05) but in the case of ZT was similar to PS(p>0.05). 2. The tensile strength DF was lowest. DF was significantly lower than PS, US, ZH and ZT(p<0.05). 3. The tensile strength of US and ZH were significantly lower than PS and ZT(p<0.05). but were significantly higher than DF(p<0.05). The tensile strength of US and ZH were similar(p>0.05).

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Comparison of Cleaning Performance of CFC 113 and the Alternatives (CFC 113과 대체세정제의 세정성능 비교)

  • Row, Kyung Ho;Choi, Dai-Ki;Lee, Youn Yong
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.521-530
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    • 1993
  • According to the Montreal Protocol, CFC 113, one of the ozone-depleting substances, will be prohibited to use as a cleaning solvent essentially in the electronic industry. Therefore, the development of the alternative cleaning solvents to CFC 113 is being accelerated. A number of the alternative cleaning solvents are avialable on the market. The alternatives of Axarel 32(DuPont), Cleanthru 750H(KAO Chemical), and EC-Ultra(Petroferm) are chosen for the comparison of cleaning performance with CFC 113. The test methods for measuring the cleaning performance were composed of the measurement of the physical properties, the experiments on the material compatibility with cleaning solvents, the measurement of the evaporation rate, and finally the experiments of the removal efficiency. Normally the basic physical properties of the alternatives had higher boiling points, viscosity and surface tension, which were quite different to those of CFC 113. In terms of solubility of rosin-based flux, the solubilities of abietic acid (nonpolar organic) were similar, but those of the activator (polar organic) in the alternatives were better than CFC 113. The evaporation of the alternatives was very slow, compared to CFC 113, which had much lower boiling point. All the cleaning solvents showed the good material compatibility with FR4 and Cu-coated PCB. The better removal efficiencies of abietic acid were obtained when using the ultrasonic mechanical energy over the dipping method. The experiments also indicated the very slow-eavaporating solvent was not desirable with the dipping cleaning method, and the differences in the removal efficiency of the alternatives with the ultrasonic cleaning method were negligible. Among the alternatives, the overall cleaning performances were obsorved as almost similar. Before selecting the ultimate cleaning solvent, the application of cleaning machine, environmental issues, and economics are simultaneously considered with the cleaning performance.

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THE EFFECTS OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-$\beta$ ON THE VIABILITY OF HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT CELL AND ON THE EXPERIMENTAL TOOTH MOVEMENT IN RAT (Transforming growth factor-$\beta$가 인체 치주 인대세포 활성 및 백서의 실험적 치아 이동에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Yun-Kyung;Kim, Sang-Cheol
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.311-327
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Transforming Growth Factor-${\beta}$ (TGF-${\beta}$) on the viability of human periodontal ligament cells, in-vitro and on the experimental tooth movement in rat, in-vivo. Human periodontal ligaments were cultured from the first premolar tooth extracted for the purpose of the orthodontic treatment. 0.1, 1, 5 and 10ng/m1 of TGF-${\beta}$ was given to the cultured wells, respectively and the viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 experimental groups(4 rats in each) where 100g of force was applied from helical spring across the maxillary incisors. TGF-${\beta}$ was injected via Hamilton syringe into the periodontal ligament at the mesial and the distal surface of a maxillary incisor of 2 rats in each experimental group. Phosphate buffer saline(PBS) was injected in 2 other rats as controls. Experimental groups were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after force application, respectively. The obtained tissues were evaluated histologically. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The viability of periodontal ligament cells in 0.1ng/ml of TGF-${\beta}$ was not significantly different from that of control at 1-, 2- and 3-day of cultivation. 2. The viability of periodontal ligament cells was significantly increased at 3-day in 1ng/ml or 5ng/ml of TGF-${\beta}$, and at 2-,3-day in 10ng/ml of of TGF-${\beta}$. 3. The zone of hyalinization in periodontal ligament in pressure side was smaller in TGF-${\beta}$ injection group than that in control group at 3-day after the application of experimental force in rat. But no difference was seen after 7-day. 4. Osteoclastic activity and capillary prolieferation in pressure side were greater in TGF-${\beta}$ injection group than that in control group at 3-day to 7-day. 5. Osteoblastic activity and new bone fomation in tension side were greater in TGF-${\beta}$ injection group than that in control group at 3-day to 14-day.

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Removal of NAPL from Aquifer Using Surfactant-enhanced Air Sparging at Elevated Temperature (승온조건의 SEAS(surfactant-enhanced air sparging) 기술을 이용한 대수층 NAPL(n-decane)의 휘발제거)

  • Song, Young-Su;Kwon, Han-Joon;Kim, Heon-Ki
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2009
  • Surfactant-enhanced air sparging (SEAS) was developed to suppress the surface tension of groundwater prior to air sparging resulting in higher air saturation and larger contact area between NAPL and gas during air sparging. Larger contacting interface between NAPL and gas means faster mass transfer of contaminants from NAPL to gas phase. This new technique, however, is limited to relatively volatile contaminants because vaporization is its basic mechanism of mass transfer. In this study, SEAS was tested at an elevated temperature for a semi-volatile n-decane, which is expected not to be a good candidate of SEAS application due to its low vapor pressure at ambient temperature. Three sparging experiments were conducted using 1-dimensional column (5 cm id, 80 cm length) packed with sand; (1) ambient temperature ($23^{\circ}C$), column saturated with distilled water, (2) SEAS at ambient temperature ($23^{\circ}C$), for n-decane contaminated sand, (3) SEAS at elevated temperature ($73^{\circ}C$), for n-decane contaminated sand. Higher air saturation was achieved by SEAS compared to that by air sparging without surfactant application. The n-decane removal efficiency of SEAS at elevated temperature was significantly higher(> 10 times) than that of ambient SEAS. The n-decane concentrations in the gas effluent from column during SEAS at $73^{\circ}C$ are found to be 10 times of those measured at ambient temperature. Thus, SEAS technique can be applied for removal of semi-volatile contaminants provided that an appropriate technique for elevating aquifer temperature is available.

Taxonomical Classification of Namweon Series, Black Volcanic Ash Soils (흑색 화산회토인 남원통의 분류)

  • Song, Kwan-Cheol;Hyun, Byung-Geun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Lim, Han-Cheol;Lee, Shin-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to reclassify Namweon series, black volcanic ash soils, in Jeju Island based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy : A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Namweon series were investigated and physicochemical properties were analyzed according to Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. The typifying pedon of Namweon series has black (10YR 2/1) silt loam Ap horizon (0~11 cm) and black (10YR 2/1) silt loam BA horizon (11~72 cm). Bw horizon (72~100 cm) is very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam. That occurs on lava plain derived from volcanic ash materials. The typifying pedon contains 5.2~6.4% oxalate extractable (Al + 1/2 Fe), over 85% phosphate retention, and lower bulk density than $0.90Mg\;m^{-3}$. Ap, BA, and Bw horizons of the pedon have andic soil properties. That can be classified as Andisol. The typifying pedon has an udic soil moisture regime and has a 1,500 kPa water retention of 15% or more on air-dried samples throughout all horizons, and can be classified as Udand. Ap and BA horizons (0~72 cm) have a color value, moist, and chroma of 2 or less, melanic index of 1.70 or less, and 6% or more organic carbon. That meets the requirements of melanic epipedon. That keys out as Melanudand. That has more than 6.0% organic carbon and the colors of mollic epipedon throughout a layer 50 cm or more thick within 60 cm of the mineral soil surface.. Thus, that keys out as Pachic Melanudand. The pedon has a fine-earth fraction that has a water content at 1,500 kPa tension of 12% or more on air-dried samples and has less than 35% (by volume) rock fragments. Thus, the substitute for particle-size class is medial. That has a sum of 8 times the Si (percnt by weight extracted by acid oxalate) plus 2 times the Fe (percnt by weight extracted by acid oxalate) of 5 or more, and 2 times the Fe is more than 8 times the Si. Thus, the mineralogy class is ferrihydritic. Namweon series can be classified as medial, ferrihydritic, thermic family of Pachic Melanudands, not as ashy, thermic family of Typic Melanudands.

Lung Preservation Study for Above 20 Hours of LPDG Solution in Canine Lung Allotransplactation (폐이식 실험견에서 LPDG용액을 이용한 20시간 이상 폐보존효과 관찰)

  • Park, Chang-Gwon;Gwon, Geon-Yeong;Yu, Yeong-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.949-960
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    • 1997
  • Background. Limited ischemic tolerance of the lung has remained one of the factors that limits the expansion of pulmonary transplantation as a treatment for end-stage pulmonary disease. Numerous studies on safe long term preservation for lung transplantation has been performed for the purpose of developing ideal preservation solution with extracellular type or intracellular type solutions. In this. study, we examined the efficacy of L DG solution in lung preservation longer than 20 hours by comparison with modified Euro-Collins solution. Iwethods. Thirty-(our adult mongrel dogs were divided into two groups. Donor lungs were flushed with LPDG solution(n=9) or modified Euro-Collins(MEC) solution(n=8) and stored for 24 hours at 1$0^{\circ}C$. All donor lungs were perfused through the pulmonary arteries with solutions containing prostaglandin El and verapamil. Left canine lung allotransplantations wereperformed. Assessment(hemodynamic indices and arterial blood gas analysis) of left implanted lung was made by occluding the right pulmonary artery for ten minutes using pulmonary artery Cuff. Assessment was repeated at the interval of 30 minutes, one hour, and two hours later after reperfusion and then chest X-ray, computed tomogram and lung perfusion scan were obtained. In survival dogs follow-up studies were done with assessment with chest X-ray, computed tomogram of the chest and lung perfusion scan on 7th day postoperatively. After preservation above 20 hours, pathological examinations for ultrastructural findings on right lung were performed in each group. Results. With respect to arterial oxygen tension, LPDG group was superior to MEC but there was no statistical significance for 2 hours after reperfusion. Mean pulmonary artery pressure was less increased(p < 0.05) and cardiac output higher(p <0.05) than MEC group until 2 hours after reperfusion. After 2 hours of reperfusion, both groups showed transplanted lung function deteriorated gradually. Perfusion scan of the transplanted lung in LPDG group showed better perfusion rate in immediate post-reperfusion, 3 days and 7 days later respectively but there was no statistical significance and corelation with PaO2 and computed tomoRravhic views. In scanning electron microscopy of pulmonary artery after preservation, LPDG group relatively shows less irregular protrusion of the inner surface of endothelial cell of poulmonary artery than MEC group. Conclusions, e concluded that LPDG solution can offer safe lung preservation above 20 hours with adequate immunosuppressive therapy and prevention of the infection.

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The Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the Viability of Periodontal Ligament Cells and the Experimental Tooth Movement in Rats (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3가 치주인대세포활성 및 실험적 치아이동에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Woo;Park, Dong-Kwon;Kim, Sang-Cheol
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.335-347
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    • 1997
  • Vitamin D is known to exert its action by activating DNA and RBA within target cells to produce proteins and enzymes that can be used in bone resorption process. Particularly, the active form of vitmain D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol $[1,25-(OH)_2D_3]$, is considered to be one of the most potent stimulators of osteoclatic acitivity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ on the avtivity of periodotal ligament cells and, the experimental tooth movement. Human periodontal ligament cells were collected from the first premolar tooth extracted for the orthodontic treatment, and were incubated in the environment of $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ and 95% humidity. Microtitration(MIT) assay was done at 10, 25, 50 and 100ng/ml of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$. 21 Sprague-Daft rats were divided into a control gmup(3), and experimental groups(18) where 100g of force from helical spring was applied across the maxillary incisors 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ was injected into periodontal ligament at the mesial or distal surface of maxillary incisors so that we can compare the control side and the experimental side. Expreimental groups were sac rifled at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72hours and 7 days after force application, respectively. And the obtained tissues were evaluated histologically. The observed results were as follows. 1. The activity of periodontal ligament cells in l0ng/ml or 25ng/ml of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ was not significantly different to the control at the cultivation of 1, 2 and 3 days. 2. The activity of periodontal ligament cells was significantly increased at 3 days in 50 ng/ml of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ and 2, 3 days in 100g/ml of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$. 3. Up to 7 days after force application, there was no difference in osteoblastic activity, tearing of periodontal ligament and proliferation of capillary at tension side between 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ injection side and the control side. 4. The osteoclastic activity and the resorption of alveolar bone was greater in 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ injection side than the control side at 36 hours after force application.

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Investigation of Rock Slope Failures based on Physical Model Study (모형실험을 통한 암반사면의 파괴거동에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Tae-Chin;Suk, Jae-Uk;Lee, Sung-Am;Um, Jeong-Gi
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.447-457
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    • 2008
  • Laboratory tests for single plane sliding were conducted using the model rock slope to investigate the cut slope deformability and failure mechanism due to combined effect of engineering characteristics such as angle of sliding plane, water force, joint roughness and infillings. Also the possibility of prediction of slope failure through displacement monitoring was explored. The joint roughness was prepared in forms of saw-tooth type having different roughness specifications. The infillings was maintained between upper and lower roughness plane from zero to 1.2 times of the amplitude of the surface projections. Water force was expressed as the percent filling of tension crack from dry (0%) to full (100%), and constantly increased from 0% at the rate of 0.5%/min and 1%/min upto failure. Total of 50 tests were performed at sliding angles of $30^{\circ}$ and $35^{\circ}$ based on different combinations of joint roughness, infilling thickness and water force increment conditions. For smooth sliding plane, it was found that the linear type of deformability exhibited irrespective of the infilling thickness and water force conditions. For sliding planes having roughness, stepping or exponential types of deformability were predominant under condition that the infilling thickness is lower or higher than asperity height, respectively. These arise from the fact that, once the infilling thickness exceeds asperities, strength and deformability of the sliding plane is controlled by the engineering characteristics of the infilling materials. The results obtained in this study clearly show that the water force at failure was found to increase with increasing joint roughness, and to decrease with increasing filling thickness. It seems possible to estimate failure time using the inverse velocity method for sliding plane having exponential type of deformability. However, it is necessary to estimate failure time by trial and error basis to predict failure of the slope accurately.

Effect of Long Term Waterlogging on the Growth and Nutrient Contents of 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' Grapevine Cultivars (장기 침수가 포도 '캠벨얼리'와 '거봉' 품종의 생육과 양분함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Seok-Beom;Lee, In-Bog;Jang, Han-Ik;Park, Jin-Myeon;Moon, Doo-Khil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 2008
  • This work was carried out to investigate the effect of waterlogging on the growth and nutrient contents of 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' grapevines under the vinyl house condition from June 14 to July 20, 2005. For the trial, seedlings of two-year-old grapevine were transplanted to 40 L pot with a sandy loam soil. Irrigation point of non-waterlogging(control) treatment was controlled at -40 kPa of soil water tension using tensiometer and waterlogging treatments were imposed for 35 days at the water levels of above 10 cm from the soil surface using tap water. The growth of aerial(shoot length, leaf number and stem diameter) and underground(root) parts of 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' grapevines tended to be wholly reduced by waterlogging, while the growth of aerial parts were more severely impaired in 'Kyoho' than in 'Campbell Early' cultivar. The different responses for waterlogging between two grapevines seem to be related with the capacity for absorbing mineral nutrients, because nitrogen content of 'Campbell Early' cultivar leaves was significantly higher than that of 'Kyoho' cultivar although the contents of phosphorus and potassium in leaves of two grapevine cultivars were similarly declined. There was no significant different of fruit quality, such as contents of soluble solid, titratable acidity and weight of berry in 'Campbell Early' between waterlogging and control. In 'Kyoho' cultivar, however, berry weight and titratable acidity were decreased and soluble solid content was increased by waterlogging. It was assumed that waterlogging stress for grapevines promotes maturation and coloring processes of berries by stimulating maturation hormone such as ethylene. In conclusion, 'Campbell Early' cultivar seems to be more tolerable than 'Kyoho' cultivar when comparing the growth responses and nutrient contents between two grapevine cultivars under waterlogging.

The Deposition of Tear Protein according to Soft Lens Materials and The Cleaning Efficacy of Multi-purpose Solution according to the Surfactant Types (소프트렌즈 재질 별 누액단백질 침착 및 계면활성제 종류에 따른 다목적용액의 세척효율)

  • Park, Mijung;Kwon, Young Dae;Lee, Wang Jae;Kim, So Ra
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions containing different types and content of surfactants and their effect on the visible light transmittance of soft lens. Methods: Soft lenses made of different materials (etafilcon A and hilafilcon B) were deposited tear proteins by using the artificial tear and then compared the resulting cleaning efficacy and visible light transmittance after cleaning the lens with 6 types of multi-purpose solutions containing different content of surfactants. Results: The cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions was variously shown as approximately 23~43% according to the active concentration of surfactants and surface tension in multi-purpose solution when etafilcon A lens cleaned with rubbing. The highest cleaning efficacy was detected when cleaned with the multi-purpose solution containing hydrogen peroxide besides surfactant however, the amount of remaining protein was still high on the lens. After washed with multi-purpose solution, the visible light transmittance of lens was in 89.8 to 90.8%. The amount of protein deposited on hilafilcon B lens was very small compared with it on etafilcon A lens even though it was incubated in artificial tears for 7 days, which showed 5~10% of protein amount in etafilcon A lens and the decrease of visible light transmittance was also not significant. In case of rubbing with multi-purpose solution, the cleaning efficacy on hilafilcon B lens was in 45.4 to 67.4% however, the order of cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solution was different from it on etafilcon A lens. The visible light transmittance of hilafilcon B lens has been restored to the level of new lens. Conclusions: From the result, it is concluded that the appropriate multi-purpose solution should be selected according to the lens material and the amount of protein deposit on the basis of understanding surfactants and active principle for proper care of protein deposit on soft lens and the cleaning with rubbing is more efficient for lens care regardless of manufacturer's guideline.