• Title, Summary, Keyword: Surface Coil

Search Result 298, Processing Time 0.067 seconds

Flow Analysis and an Experimental Study on Formation of Slurry Ice in the Reversing Flow Layer (역전 유동층 내의 유동해석 및 슬러리아이스 생성에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Cheol;Choi, Young-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.421-428
    • /
    • 2011
  • Thermal energy storage(TES) cooling system using cheaper electricity of off-peak time has been applied to relieve a significant portion of the peak demand of electricity during the daytime in summer. Slurry ice type thermal energy storage cooling system is one kind of more efficient ice-thermal energy storage cooling system than Ice-on-Coil type or Encapsulated type TES cooling system, even though, which are more popular TES system. This experimental study was carried out to observe flow pattern and formation of slurry ice in reversing flow layer to improve efficiency of heat transfer between fluid and freezing tube and to disturb ice adhesion on tube surface. The reversing flow layer was made by using reversing materials in heat exchanger section(test section) to disturb ice adhesion. At this experiment, styrofoam balls and poly propylene balls were used as reversing materials, and a 20wt% solution of ethylene glycol was used as reversing flow layer. The experimental apparatus was constructed of the test section for making/storing slurry ice, the brine tank, pumps for circulating of a 20wt% solution of ethylene glycol and brine, a flow-meter, a data logger for measuring the temperature. The experiments were carried out under various conditions, with volumetric flow rate, ball filling rate and air filling rate.

Effects of Dohongsamul-Tang on the Gene Expression of Photothrombotic Ischemia Mouse Model (도홍사물탕(桃紅四物湯)이 광화학적 뇌경색 마우스의 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Kwon-Il;Kim, Hye-Yoon;Ko, Seok-Jae;Lee, Seong-Geun;Shin, Sun-Ho;Moon, Byung-Soon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.645-661
    • /
    • 2009
  • The water extract of Dohongsamul-Tang(DHSMT) has been traditionally used to stroke and brain injuries in Oriental Medicine. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of DHSMT on the gene expression profile of cerebral infarction by cDNA microarray in photothrombotic ischemia mouse model. Photothrombotic ischemia was induced in stereotactically held male BALB/c mice using rose bengal and cold light. MRI was performed 24 hours after inducing photothrombosis using 1.5 T MRI and 47 mm surface coil to obtain T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced images. After MRI test, animal was sacrificed and the brain sections were stained for hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry. MRI and histological analysis revealed that lesion of thrombotic ischemia was well induced in the cortex with the evidence of biological courses of infarction. The target area of thrombotic infarction was 1 mm anterior to bregma and 3 mm lateral to midline with 2 mm in diameter, which were decreased by administration of DHSMT. To assess gene expression pattern of cerebral infarction, mRNA was isolated and reacted with microarray chip(Agilant's DNA Microarray 44K). Scatter and MA plot analysis were performed to clustering of each functional genes. M value [M=log2(R/G), A={log2(R ${\times}$ G)}/2] was between -0.5 and +0.5 with 40% difference. After pretreatment with DHSMT, the expression levels of mRNA of many genes involved in various signaling pathway such as apoptosis, cell cycle, cell proliferation, response to oxidative stress, immune response, angiogenesis, and inflammatory cytokine were markedly inhibited in photothrombotic ischemia lesion compared to the control group. These results suggest that DHSMT prevent ischemic death of brain on photothrombotic ischemia model of mice through modulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level.

Ag Ion Substituted HAp Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate by IBAD and It's Bactericidal Effect (Ti 합금표면의 항균성 HAp Coating에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Moon-Young;Kim, Taik-Nam;Kim, Yun-Jong;Yim, Hyuk-Jun;Kim, Jong-Ock;Lim, Dae-young;Kim, Sun-Ok
    • The Journal of Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.189-197
    • /
    • 1998
  • Hyeroxyapatite(HAp) which has good biocompatibility was made by Wet Chemical Process. The surface of Ti-6Al-4V, coated with HAp by lon Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD), was treated with 5ppm, 10ppm, 20ppm, and 100ppm of $AgNO_3$ solution. In this Ag impregnation process, $Ca^{2+}$ of HAp was substituted with $Ag^+$ of $AgNO_3$. In this study, the antimicrobial effect and biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy which was coated with Ag-HAp were examined. The antimicrobial test was carried out with two kinds of bacteria(P. Aeruginosa, S. Epidermidis), which are highly infectious in a transplanting operation of implant materials. As a result of the test, it was observed that Ti-6Al-4V alloy which was treated by 20ppm of $AgNO_3$ solution has good biocompatibility. In order to observe the antimicrobial mechanism of $Ag^+$, E. coli which is the most common bacterium was treated by Ag-HAp. Then cell morphology of E. coli was observed by the transmission electron microscope(TEM). The destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of E. coil were observed. A black spot appeared in the cytoplasm was analyzed by energy dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX) and it showed a small amount of $Ag^+$. Thus, it was proved that $Ag^+$ destroys bacteria effectively and Ti-6Al-4V alloy which was impregnate with Ag ion show antimicrobial effect on infection bacteria.

  • PDF

Effect of Mixed Ga Metal for AlN Growth by Using Hydride Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (HVPE AlN 에피층 성장을 위한 혼합 Ga의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Injun;Bae, Sung Geun;Yang, Min;Yi, Sam Nyung;Ahn, Hyung Soo;Jeon, Hunsoo;Kim, Kyoung Hwa;Lee, Jae Hak;Kim, Suck-Whan
    • New Physics: Sae Mulli
    • /
    • v.67 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1058-1065
    • /
    • 2017
  • The effect of Ga metal mixed with Al metal was investigated in the source zone for the growth of AlN epilayers by using a mixed-source HVPE (hydride vapor phase epitaxy). A mixed source with Al metal and a little Ga metal was used as source materials for the growth of AlN epilayers, and it was heated to $700^{\circ}C$ by using an RF heating coil. When only Al metal was used as source materials, nitridation occurred on the surface of the Al source when the source temperature was high, which prevented the Al from reacting with HCl. When Al+Ga mixed metal was used as source materials, nitridation of the Al metal was prevented due to the presence of the mixed Ga metal, and AlN epilayers were grown by using Al+Ga mixed-source HVPE in a nitrogen atmosphere.

Carbonization Patten and Operation Characteristics of a 1Φ 2 W MCCB Damaged by PCITS (PCITS에 의해 소손된 1Φ 2 W MCCB의 탄화 패턴 및 작동 특성)

  • Lee, Jae-Hyuk;Choi, Chung-Seog
    • Fire Science and Engineering
    • /
    • v.28 no.5
    • /
    • pp.8-13
    • /
    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the damage pattern when overcurrent is applied to a thermal magnetic type molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) using a Primary Current Injection Test System (PCITS). When an overcurrent of 150 A was applied to the PCITS for 5 seconds with the trip bar of an MCCB being damaged, it was found that the surface of the temperature control device (bimetallic strip) positioned at the right was significantly carbonized. When an overcurrent of 300 A was applied to the PCITS for 5 s under the same conditions, the entire temperature control device was deteriorated, becoming flattened and in close contact with the MCCB. When an overcurrent of 450 A was applied to the PCITS for 5 s, the coil of the temperature control device was melted and disconnected. In addition, it was observed that the contacts, the enclosure and upper cover were deformed and there was a trace of carbonization on them. When approximately 3 s had elapsed after an overcurrent of 600 A was applied, white smoke occurred inside the MCCB and a flame was radiated out, after which the overcurrent supply stopped with "phutt" (whomp) sound. It was observed that when the same type of MCCB is damaged by a general flame, the surfaces of its handle, terminal, arc divider (extinguisher) and temperature control device were carbonized uniformly. In addition, it was found that the trip bar of the operating mechanism was melted down and the metal operation pin was moved while being tripped.

Study on Effect of Anchor Bolt by Thermal Expansion of Sulfur Storage Tank under High Temperature (고온을 받는 유황저장탱크의 열팽창에 의한 앵커볼트 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Wook-Hwan;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Tae-Min;Kim, Moon-Kyum
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.483-490
    • /
    • 2016
  • In plant industry, sulfur storage tank is made of steel and annular plate is connected with concrete foundation of ring wall type by anchor bolt. Due to keep sulfur at high temperature in tank by coil, sulfur storage tank is expanded larger than another tank stores fluid at room temperature. Generally, structural design of tank foundation is performed analysis with loading of temperature gradient between inner and outer surface, this method can't consider the phenomenon that load is intensively transferred to concrete foundation at anchor bolt. This means that temperature load is underestimated and causes crack of concrete near anchor bolt. In this study, evaluation formula considering temperature load transfer mechanism through anchor bolt is proposed and load acting on concrete foundation is rationally decided. For this purpose, it is analyzed variation of thermal load per various anchor bolt number using finite element model including tank annular plate and anchor bolt. Solution is proposed as specified term combining result of analysis and theoretical solution for evaluating load transferred by anchor bolt. For confirmation of validation of proposed formula, it is applied in design of sulfur storage tank at plant site, it shows that the formula can be practically applied.

Numerical Analysis of Resin Filling Process for a Molded Dry-type Potential Transformer (몰드형 건식 계기용 변압기 제작을 위한 수지 충진 해석 연구)

  • Kim, Moosun;Jang, Dong Uk;Kim, Seung Mo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.17 no.12
    • /
    • pp.511-517
    • /
    • 2016
  • Current oil-type potential transformers for trains are filled with insulating oil, which could have problems like explosions due to rising inner pressure during train operation. Therefore, mold and dry-type potential transformers are being developed to prevent explosions. One problem in manufacturing mold-type transformers is preventing void formation around the coiled core inside the mold during epoxy filling, which could cause an electrical spark. Micro voids can remain in the resin after filling, and macro voids can occur due to the structure shape. A transformer that is being developed has a cavity at the junction of the core and the coil for better performance, and when highly viscous epoxy flows inside the cavity channel, macro voids can form inside it. Therefore, in this study, the free-surface flow of the mold filling procedure was analyzed numerically by applying the VOF method. The results were used to understand the phenomena of void formation inside the cavity and to modify the process conditions to reduce voids.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2014 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2014년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
    • /
    • v.27 no.7
    • /
    • pp.380-394
    • /
    • 2015
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2014. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the flow inside building rooms, and smoke control on fire. Research issues dealing with duct and pipe were reduced, but flows inside building rooms, and smoke controls were newly added in thermal and fluid engineering research area. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results for thermal contact resistance measurement of metal interface, a fan coil with an oval-type heat exchanger, fouling characteristics of plate heat exchangers, effect of rib pitch in a two wall divergent channel, semi-empirical analysis in vertical mesoscale tubes, an integrated drying machine, microscale surface wrinkles, brazed plate heat exchangers, numerical analysis in printed circuit heat exchanger. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, non-uniform air flow, PCM applied thermal storage wall system, a new wavy cylindrical shape capsule, and HFC32/HFC152a mixtures on enhanced tubes, were actively studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on solar water storage tank, effective design on the inserting part of refrigerator door gasket, impact of different boundary conditions in generating g-function, various construction of SCW type ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for closed cooling water heat recovery were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried out in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration and modelling and controls including energy recoveries from industrial boilers and vehicles, improvement of dehumidification systems, novel defrost systems, fault diagnosis and optimum controls for heat pump systems. It is particularly notable that a substantial number of studies were dedicated for the development of air-conditioning and power recovery systems for electric vehicles in this year. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, seventeen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the evaluation of work noise in tunnel construction and the simulation and development of a light-shelf system. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving of office building applied with window blind and phase change material(PCM), a method of existing building energy simulation using energy audit data, the estimation of thermal consumption unit of apartment building and its case studies, dynamic window performance, a writing method of energy consumption report and energy estimation of apartment building using district heating system. The remained studies were related to the improvement of architectural engineering education system for plant engineering industry, estimating cooling and heating degree days for variable base temperature, a prediction method of underground temperature, the comfort control algorithm of car air conditioner, the smoke control performance evaluation of high-rise building, evaluation of thermal energy systems of bio safety laboratory and a development of measuring device of solar heat gain coefficient of fenestration system.