• Title, Summary, Keyword: Support of production costs

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Study on Activity, Type and Establishment of Community Supported Agriculture in USA and Japan (미국과 일본의 CSA운동의 등장, 유형 및 활동사례)

  • 정진영;손상목;김영호
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2001
  • With increasing global concern that intensively synthetic-chemical based farming systems accelerated the decline in environmental quality, the sustainability of modem agriculture became the subject of great concern. It is well known that the movement of Community Supported Agriculture(CSA) has been contributed significantly to the development of organic agriculture in USA and Japan. It was supposed that CSA could be one of the best way to promote the movement of organic agriculture since there is little reliability on the organically grown food by consumer. In this paper it was focussed to study the movement of CSA in USA and Europe in order to provide an idea for establishment and movement of CSA in Korea to support the organic agriculture. In a CSA system, the farmer grows food for a group of shareholders who pledge to buy a portion of the farm's crop that season. This arrangement gives growers up-front cash to finance their operation and higher prices for produce, since the middleman has been eliminated. For most shareholder for CSA saving money is a secondary consideration, but fresh safe products and environmentally sound farming system. People become shareholder of CSA since they expect an organic farming which can ; \circled1protect the environment, minimize pollution, promote health, \circled2replenish and maintain long-term soil fertility by providing optimal conditions for soil biological activity, \circled3maintain diversity within the farming system and its surroundings and protect plant and wildlife habit, \circled4recycle materials and resources to the greatest extent possible within the farm and its surrounding community, \circled5maintain the integrity of organic food and processed products through each step of the process from planting to consumption, \circled6develop and adopt new technologies with consideration for their long range social and ecological impact. In all CSAs, the farmer develops a crop plan and a budget, which details costs for a growing season, including fair wages for the farmers. Experienced Information on increasing shareholder retention, the future of CSA, and getting started such as ideas for ongoing marketing, printed materials that set realistic expectations, working members, production, pick-up and delivery, setting prices, and receiving feedback were also briefly introduced.

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REAL-TIME COLLISION RESPONSE BETWEEN CLOTH AND SPHERE OBJECT IN UNITY (유니티 게임 엔진에서의 구형 물체와 천 시뮬레이션간의 실시간 충돌 및 반응 처리 연구)

  • Kim, Min Sang;Song, Wook;Choi, Yoo-Joo;Hong, Min
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2018
  • As the performance of computer hardware has been increased in recent years, more realistic computer generated objects can be created and presented in personal computers and portable digital devices as well. For this reason, digital contents, including computer graphics, require virtual objects that are more realistic and representable in real-time on various devices, thus it requires more computational costs. In order to support the production of contents including computer graphics, games, and animations on multi-platform, Unity or unreal engines are mainly used. To represent more realistic behavior of virtual objects in a simulation, a virtual object must collide with other virtual objects and present the plausible interaction, as in the real world. However, such dynamic simulation requires a large amount of computational cost, and most portable devices cannot provide these dynamic simulations in real-time. In this paper, we proposed a GPGPU computation based dynamic cloth simulation to represent collision and response with spherical object in real-time. We believe that the proposed method can be useful for readily producing realistic digital contents.

Usability Evaluation of Massively Multi-player Online Game Design and Key Design Factors (MMO게임 디자인의 사용성 평가와 핵심디자인 요인)

  • Song, Seung-Keun;Kim, Soo-Jeoung;Lee, Joo-Hyeon
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.195-206
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    • 2006
  • The computer game industry has managed to become the fastest growing segment of the entertainment industry nowadays. However, only a very low number of computer game products manage to cover the costs of production and generate earnings. According to traditional marketing wisdom, customers' preferences are a core issue in creating successful products, and the design process in game is crucial for guaranteeing garners' satisfaction. This research aimed to explore key design factors for the game design based on the new framework of the usability evaluation. We examined the usability in Massively Multi-player Online Role-playing Games (MMORPGs) and reviewed literatures related to games simultaneously. We identified eighteen usability issues in MMORPG and presented its recommendation relevant to the issues. Moreover, the results of the study showed fifty four key design factors composed of game interface, game play, game narrative, and game mechanics for the game design. The research is concluded with key implications to support the early stage of the design process in game.

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A Study on Costs of Digital Preservation (디지털 보존의 비용요소에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Hye-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.47-64
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    • 2005
  • To guarantee the long-term access to digital material, digital preservation needs to be systemized, and detailed investigation on cost elements of digital preservation should be done for the continued support of budget. To meet the needs in this area, this paper categorized the digital preservation cost into direct and indirect cost through deriving common elements used in prior research on this issue. For case analysis, two institutions, representing domestic University Library and National Library of Korea under large-scale digitization currently, are selected to analyze the current status of digital preservation and estimate the preservation cost. The case analysis shows the systematic preservation function should be performed to guarantee the long-term access digital material, even though a basic digital preservation is currently conducted. It was projected that the digital preservation cost for the two libraries, accounting for $11.8\%$ and $8.6\%$ of digitization cost, respectively, should be injected every year. However, the estimated figures are very conservative, because the cost for estimating the preservation function, such as installing digital repository and producing meta data, was excluded in the estimation. This proves that digital preservation is a synthetic activity linked directly and indirectly to various activities from production to access of digital object and an essential costs that should be considered from the beginning stage of digitization project.

Studies on Development of Optimum Laying Hen Diet during Summer Period (산란계에 대한 하절기 사료 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 오세정;강경래
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.229-246
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    • 1988
  • These studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein and metabolizable energy(ME) levels on layer performance during summer period. Total 480 ISA Brown egg-type layers ageing 49 weeks housed 2 birds per cage with 4 replictes of 20 birds were employed in this study. Mean environmental temperature over experimental period ranged from 22.3$^{\circ}$to 29.5$^{\circ}C$. The treatments consisted of dietary ME levels of 2500, 2700, 2900kcal/kg of diet containing 15% and 17% protein, respectively, to provide $3{\times}2$factorial design. As metabolizable energy level increased form 2500 to 2900 kcal/kg of diet, daily feed and protein intake, egg production. egg weight, egg mass decreased, but the reverse was true for the daily energy intake, energy requirement and feed costs per kg egg. Feed conversion(kg feed/kg egg) and viability were not affected by the dietary energy levels. However, there were no significant difference in egg production, protein requirement per kg egg, and egg weight between those hens fed 2500 kcal ME/kg diets and those fed 2700 kcal ME/kg diets, and no difference was found in egg weight between those fed 2700 kcal ME/kg and those fed 2900 kcal ME/kg, either. In addition, no specific trend was observed in protein requirement per egg by the different level of metabolizable energy in diets. On the other hand, as dietary protein level increased from 15 to 17%, daily protein in-take, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and protein requirement and feed costs per kg egg increased, but feed and energy requirement per kg egg decreased, and no significant difference in the daily feed and energy intake and viability were observed among dietary protein levels. It was concluded that metabolizable energy level of 2500 kcal/kg of diet and 17% dietary protein level were considered to be adequate to support the optimum productivity of layers during summer period.

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The Improvement of maintainability evaluation method at system level using system component information and fuzzy technique (시스템의 구성품 정보와 퍼지 기법을 활용한 시스템 수준 정비도 평가 방법의 개선)

  • Yoo, Yeon-Yong;Lee, Jae-Chon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2019
  • Maintainability indicates the extent to which maintenance can be done easily and quickly. The consideration of maintainability is crucial to reduce the operation and support costs of weapon systems, but if the maintainability is evaluated after the prototype production is done and necessitates design changes, it may increase the cost and delay the schedule. The evaluation should verify whether maintenance work can be performed, and support the designers in developing a design to improve maintainability. In previous studies, the maintainability index was calculated using the graph theory at the early design phase, but evaluation accuracy appeared to be limited. Analyzing the methods of evaluating the maintainability using fuzzy logic and 3D modeling indicate that the design of a system with good maintainability should be done in an integrated manner during the whole system life cycle. This paper proposes a method to evaluate maintainability using SysML-based modeling and simulation technique and fuzzy logic. The physical design structure with maintainability attributes was modeled using SysML 'bdd' diagram, and the maintainability was represented by an AHP matrix for maintainability attributes. We then calculated the maintainability using AHP-based weighting calculation and fuzzy logic through the use of SysML 'par' diagram that incorporated MATLAB. The proposed maintainability model can be managed efficiently and consistently, and the state of system design and maintainability can be analyzed quantitatively, thereby improving design by early identifying the items with low maintainability.

An Evaluation of a Basic Subsidy Program for Infants (보육보조금의 효과 분석: 영아기본보조금을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Yoon Young
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.29-73
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    • 2007
  • This paper evaluates the effects of the Basic Subsidy Program provided to families with infants cared for in private day care centers. There has been a discrepancy in the price and quality level between public and private day care centers. Public day care centers which receive government support in their labor costs are able to maintain relatively higher quality at lower price than their private counterparts, while the majority of children are cared for at private day care centers. To reduce the gap of the price and quality of care between public and private day care centers by improving the quality and decreasing the price of private day care centers, the Basic Subsidy Program was introduced in 2006 to the private day care centers. The subsidies mainly aim to improve the quality and the accessibility of child care, and encourage mothers' labor supply. For this purpose, the provision of the Basic Subsidy Program imposed prerequisites to the care providers including minimum wage and four major insurances for teachers, and child-staff ratio. I examine whether the subsidies improve the quality of care, help mothers balancing work and family, and increase satisfaction with child care from mothers' perspective. Since the outcome variables that measure the quality of care are difficult to obtain, I instead use the input variables for quality production. Child-staff ratio, teachers' welfare, and care environment are considered. The relationship between these variables and the introduction of subsidies is examined. The 2004 National Survey of Child Care and Education and the 2004 National Survey of Day Care Centers are used for the base data set. To reflect the outcomes after the Basic Subsidy Program, equivalent data sets for households and care providers are constructed by the KDI Data Analysis Unit. Using these nationally representative data sets, information regarding child care is collected. The findings show that the subsidies contribute to the quality of care improving the input variables of quality production. The welfare of teachers is improved, and the child-staff ratio significantly decreases. As a result, the usage of private day care centers greatly increases even though the price level rarely changes. However, mothers' satisfaction with child care are rarely affected by the subsidies. Although the subsidies with no eligibility criteria enlarge the recipients, the actual effects to increase maternal labor supply or to improve satisfaction is limited. Given this findings, I suggest some modifications of subsidies to raise the effectiveness of the subsidy program.

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A Study on the Unified Operation and Maintenance System of Irrigation Facilities in Korea - With Reference to the Survey Results on the Activities of Irrigation Fraternities in Chungnam Province - (농업용수리시설의 유지관리체제일원화에 관한 연구 - 충남지역 수리계 운영실태조사결과를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sung-Min;Lim, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.53-75
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    • 2004
  • This study is aimed at identifying the national economic value of the irrigation facilities by reviewing the existing papers on economic values of the irrigation facilities and presenting current status of dual O & M problems of the irrigation facilities. This study suggested the unified O & M system rather than continuing the existing dual O & M system of irrigation facilities based on the surveyed results of the activities of irrigation fraternities in Chungnam Province. The findings and proposals for the successful unified and mono O & M system of the irrigation facilities are as follows: (1) Total number of irrigation facilities in the nation accounts for 67,582, while the total length of irrigation and drainage canals amounted to about 174,259km. On account of the total length of structural canals was estimated at 31%, much losses of water and much O & M costs have been inevitable for the full irrigation rice culture. In spite of the past heavy investment for irrigation facilities, the ratio of rain-fed and partially irrigated paddy fields accounts for 23% in 2003. Both Korea Agricultural and Rural Infrastructure Corporation (KARICO) and the city and Gun Governments have managed the irrigation facilities separately by irrigation fraternities. The KARICO have commanded 59% of irrigation paddy area with 18% of the total irrigation facilities, while the city and Gun governments covered 41% of irrigation paddy area with 82% of the existing number of irrigation facilities representing small and medium scale. (2) The 1999 demand prices of irrigation water per ton expressed in 2000 constant market price was estimated at 388 won, the supply price was amounted to 184 won per ton. Considering the supply and demand curve of the irrigation water, the existing irrigation facilities could not satisfy the demand of irrigation water. (3) In 1999, total present added value of the irrigation facilities during the economic life accounted for 48 trillion won, while total supply cost was 44.7 trillion won. The marginal benefit and cost ratio of irrigation water was 1.08. (4) The total O & M cost per year amounting to 681.1 billion won have been required to maintain and repair the existing irrigation facilities in Korea. For the successful unified O & M of irrigation facilities covering whole irrigated paddy field in Korea, 950 billion won of O & M costs are required to keep up the marginal benefit of irrigation water as 2,800 billion won per year. The total O & M cost as 950 billion won should be allocated 40%, 380 billion won for O & M costs of irrigation facilities and 60%, 570 billion won for improvement of irrigation facilities. (5) The study investigated and reviewed the present O & M status of the irrigation facilities by small and medium irrigation fraternities. Most of the farmers belong to the irrigation fraternities preferred not only unified O & M but also KARICO take-over of the whole O & M activities of the irrigation facilities. The prevailing O & M cost per 10a expended by the Corporation was amounted to 104,890 won, while that of city and Gun governments was only amounted to 4,600 won per 10a. regarding the small amount of O & M cost expended by city and Gun governments, it is evident that the existing irrigation system have been managed ineffectively and deteriorated the facilities comparing that of KARICO. In conclusion, the Government could not satisfied the demand of irrigation water by suppling water with existing irrigation facilities. Therefore new additional investment and financial support for irrigation water development should be made to convert rain-fed and partially irrigated paddy fields into fully irrigated ones. The operation and maintenance cost should be supported to keep the marginal values of rice production of existing irrigation facilities in the national economy and to modernize the obsolete irrigation facilities. By unifying the existing dual O & M systems, all the farmers belong to the irrigated paddy fields have to be equally benefited and could be increased their farm income and be stabilized their rural lives.

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Analysis of Standard Income Regarding the Cultivation of Non-Timber Forest Products - Focused on major nuts and fruits - (단기소득임산물 재배 소득분석 - 주요 수실류를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang, Hag Mo;Chang, Cheol Su;Choi, Soo Im
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.103 no.3
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    • pp.490-502
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    • 2014
  • This study investigates the cultivation processes of major nuts and fruits such as Ginkgo biloba L., Vitis coignetiae, Actinidia arguta Planch, Rubus coreanus Miq., and Rubus crataegifolius and analyzes standard income in order to provide foundational data necessary to make reasonable policies related with the criteria of compensating the loss of forest products or diagnosis of forestry management. According to the research results, the types of cultivation by items can be largely divided into open field culture and mountainous culture. Regarding the average annual income per unit area (3.3) by items, the open field culture of Ginkgo biloba L. was 1,060 Won, mountainous culture of Ginkgo biloba L. was 618 Won, open field culture of Vitis coignetiae was 5,891 Won, mountainous culture of Actinidia arguta Planch was 8,113 Won, open field culture of Rubus coreanus Miq. was 14,701 Won, and open field culture of Rubus crataegifolius was 17,482 Won or so; thus, the average annual income of Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rubus crataegifolius was very higher than that of the other items. In particular, because the production of Rubus crataegifolius starts two years after the planting and they rely on family labor mainly for the cultivation, the expenses for employment and labor were analyzed to be low. In addition, the analysis shows that at most of the nuts and fruits cultivation, initial investment costs for facilities or seedlings occupy a great part as about 30% averagely out of the management cost, so it is thought that the government should provide proper support to vitalize the cultivation.

The Comparative Analysis on the Scrap Transport Costs of Container and Bulk Ship (스크랩(Scrap) 화물의 운송경로별 경제성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jae-Kwan;Joung, Eun-Sun;Shin, Yong-John
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.563-572
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    • 2009
  • The steel industry, as the national representative strategic industry of our country, has played the motive power for the economic growth of Korea in 1970s as the positive support of the government and the management endeavor of the private were harmonized. However, in case of our country, we have mostly relied on import of the raw materials for the steel industry, and as the weight of the imported raw materials is heavy, the steel industry is the industry whose transport burden is big as it is called 'transport industry'. So, the transport rationalization will be the important task of the steel industry. This study has analyzed the economic efficiency per the transport route (container ship vs bulk ship) of the sea transport related to import/export of the steel scrap on the level acquiring the stable supply of the steel scrap. For this, this study firstly researched the status of domestic/foreign steel industry. And analyzed the world crude steel production volume, steel scrap consumption volume and world steel scrap trading structure. Also, in order to compare the transport logistics expenses between two transport devices, namely, container ship and bulk ship, this study calculated the logistics expenses per ton by using the traffic hours and traffic expenses items as the imported/exported scrap freights of 'D' company.