• Title, Summary, Keyword: Support of production costs

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An Integrated Epidemiological and Economic Analysis of Vaccination against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

  • Zhang, Haifeng;Kono, Hiroichi;Kubota, Satoko
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1499-1512
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    • 2014
  • The purposes of this study are to assess pig farmers' preference for highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, and estimate the cost and benefit of PRRS vaccination in Vietnam. This study employed an integrated epidemiological and economic analysis which combined susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, choice experiment (CE) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) together. The result of SIR model showed the basic reproduction number ($R_0$) of PRRS transmission in this study is 1.3, consequently, the optimal vaccination percentage is 26%. The results of CE in this study indicate that Vietnam pig farmers are showing a high preference for the PRRS vaccine. However, their mean willingness to pay is lower than the potential cost of PRRS vaccine. It can be considered to be one of the reasons that the PRRS vaccination ratio is still low in Vietnam. The results of CBA specified from the whole society's point of view (Social perspective), the benefits of PRRS vaccination are 2.3 to 4.5 times larger than the costs. To support policy making for increasing the PRRS vaccination proportion, this study indicates two ways to increase the vaccination proportion: i) decrease vaccine price by providing a subsidy, ii) provide compensation of culling only for PRRS vaccinated pigs.

Marginal Benefit-Cost Analysis of Irrigation Water in Rice Production (미곡생산(米穀生産)에 있어서 관개용수(灌漑用水)의 한계편익(限界便益)·비용분석(費用分析))

  • Lim, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Min-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.132-146
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    • 2001
  • Rice cultivation is not only the main resource of farm income and staple food but also the root of cultural life of Korean people. Korean government has carried out irrigation water development with heavy investment to cope with water shortage in rice fanning as a link of the five years economic development plans. In spite of the continuous accomplishment of irrigation water development, the marginal benefits-costs of irrigation water has not been studied. Owing to the government full support for the operation and maintenance of irrigation facilities, price of irrigation water as a membership fee could not be formed as the municipal and industrial water prices. Accordingly this study is aimed at identifying firstly the marginal benefits-cost of irrigation water, secondly deriving the macro-econometrics models as supply and demand functions of irrigation water and thirdly examining the marginal benefits-cost ratio. The trends of supply and demand prices of irrigation water were estimated annually. Considering the marginal benefits-cost ratio as 1.3, it was identified that additional irrigation water development projects still have an economic feasibility under the present economic situation in Korea.

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Development of a Reverse Engineering System for Stamping Die Manufacturing (자동차 금형 Reverse Engineering 을 위한 측정 및 분석 시스템 개발)

  • 김덕영;노상도;한형상;주영관;박진수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.277-280
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    • 2000
  • Reverse Engineering is a procedure where the results of engineering decisions in manufacturing is feedback to the design phase and the knowledge-base is generated from the process know-how to reduce the errors. Since it used to take lots of time and efforts to finalize the machining of dies out of the original CAD design especially for die spotting and try-outs, reverse engineering is important to improve the productivity and quality of the die manufacturing process. In this regard, we developed system to support reverse engineering in machining of stamping dies for auto-body production. They automatically generate the relevant MC programs for a CMM simply with the input of measuring points in CAD environments, and show the CAD model and the results of inspection simultaneously for the ease of comparison. They also help reduce the overall clearance between the lower and upper dies. Applying these systems to the machining process of stamping dies, we could improve the reliability of measuring and get the optimal compensation distance between the two dies. We also analyzed the expected benefits of the system in terms of savings in time and costs.

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Study on analysis of the Corporate requirements and CPND Value chain for e-book Market Activation (전자책 시장 활성화를 위한 기업 요구사항과 CPND 가치사슬 분석)

  • Na, Yun-Bin;Yu, Jong-Sun;Lee, Seoung-Ha
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.163-171
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    • 2016
  • This study derived the policy implications and market strategies by analysis the e-book companies requirements & the CPND value chain structure, in order to revitalize the e-book market in Korea. Specifically, we examined the prospect of e-book market in Korea, current situations of production and distribution, awareness of service utilization and requirements for support policy with targets of 30 companies. As a research, the most needed item for e-book companies is 'PR and marketing support to enter and open the markets'(27%), which is the highest. 'Financial support such as labor costs and business expenses', 'support for retraining personnel to develop the expertise in respective fields' are followed and they account for 22%. Currently, the most effective support item is the external support program(35%) and funding power(30%) is followed. Unlike a paper book market, e-book is turned into a platform business in terms of the value chain. Based on these research content, e-book market activation and corporate competitive strategy was derived as follows : 1)literacy reinforcement about SNS marketing and e-pub3 authoring tool. 2)statistical DB construction of retail sales channels. 3)diversification of the billing system. 4)The quality of the e-book content certification.

A Study on the Long Term Demand Estimation for the Livestock Products (축산물(畜産物) 수요(需要)의 장기여측(長期予測)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Chul Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.393-405
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    • 1983
  • The demand for livestock and poultry products including beef, pork, chicken, egg and milk whose income elasticities are relatively higher than other staple foods, has been increased significantly during the past two decades in response to the remarkable increase in per capita GNP. This trend will be continued during the fifth and the sixth five year economic development plan period beginning with 1982. The annual GNP growth rate will be 7.5% on the average during the next 10 years. It is greatly needed to estimate the demand for beef, pork, chicken egg and milk and to study the feasibilities of domestic production of livestock products for the formulation of adequate policies in order to equate the consumption and the production during the 1980s. So this study reviewed the possible changes in the food consumption patterns during the 1980s, estimated the demand for beef, pork, chicken, egg and milk by using empirical demand functions and finally made suggestions for the formulation of long term price stabilization policies for each livestock, poultry and dairy products through the equilibrium of the quantity of demand for and supply of the products. There are many factors affecting the demand for meats, but this study considered own price, prices of supplements and substitutes and per capita income as the independent variables in the demand equations. It was found that it's own price and income were most significantly affecting factors among others and the degree of substitution effects were remarkably different among the products. According to the meat demand derived in this study, per capita consumption of beef, pork and chicken in the base year 1982 was 11.2kg for total meat, 2.5kg beef, 6.0kg pork and 2.5kg chicken, 106 pieces egg, 15.1kg milk respectively, while those in 1991 were 19.3kg for total meat, 4.8kg beef, 9.6kg pork, 4.9kg chicken, 133pieces egg and 44.1kg milk. It is also predicted through this study that, when the level of production costs be maintained, the domestic production of pork and chicken will meet the demand for them during the fifth and sixth five year economic plan period. However, there will be chronic shortage of beef supply during the coming years. The annual import requirement will be 30,000tons to 40,000tons during the period. In order to stabilize the domestic livestock and poultry and dairy products market, the government should introduce measures to curb the increase in beef consumption by encouraging the consumption of pork and chicken. For this, the livestock production policy measures should be concentrated on : 1) the improvement of infrastructures of beef production by introducing advanced feeding and management technology, subsidies for the establishment of facilities and price support programs for farmers : 2) the development of dairy beef : 3) the reinforcement of the forecast systems for pork and chicken production and consumption.

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A study on the improvement of distribution system by overseas agricultural investment (해외농업투자에 따른 유통체계 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Sun, Il-Suck;Lee, Dong-Ok
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2010
  • Recently concerns have been raised due to the unbalanced supply of crops: the price of crops has been unstable and at one point the price went up so high that the word Agflation(agriculture+ inflation) was coined. Korea, in particular, is a small-sized country and needs to secure the stable supply of crops by investing in the produce importation at a national level. Investment in foreign produce importation is becoming more important as a measure for sufficient supply of crops, limited supply of domestic crops, weakened farming conditions worldwide, as well as recent changes in the use of crops due to the development of bio-fuels, influence of carbon emission on crops, the price increase in crops, and influx of foreign hot money. However, there are many problems with investing in foreign produce importation: lack of support from the government; lack of farming information and technology; difficulty in securing the capital; no immediate pay-off from the investment and insufficient management. Although foreign produce is originally more price-competitive than domestic produce, it loses its competiveness in the process of importation (due to high tariffs) and poor distribution system, which makes it difficult to sell in Korea. Therefore, investment in foreign produce importation is being questioned for feasibility; to make it possible, foreign produce must maintain the price-competitiveness. Especially, harvest of agricultural products depends on natural and geographical conditions of each country and those products have indigenous properties, so distribution system according to import and export of agricultural products should be treated more carefully than that of other industries. Distribution costs are differentiated into each item and include cost of sorting and wrapping, cost of wrapping materials, cost of domestic transport, cost of international transport and cost of clearing customs for import and export. So transporting and storing agricultural products generates considerable costs compared with other products. Also, due to upgrade of dietary life, needs for stability, taste and visible quality toward food including agricultural products are being raised and wrong way of storage causes decomposition of food and loss of freshness, making the storage more difficult than that in room temperature, so storage and transport in distribution of agricultural products needs specialty. In addition, because lack of specialty in distribution and circulation such as storage and wrapping does not solve limit factors in distance, the distribution and circulation has been limited to a form of import and export within short-distant region. Therefore, need for distribution out-sourcing which can satisfy specialty in managing distribution and circulation and it is needed to establish more effective distribution system. However, existing distribution system of agricultural products is exposed to various problems including problems in distribution channel, making distribution and strategy for distribution and those problems are as follows. First, in case of investment in overseas agricultural industry, stable supply of the products is difficult because areas of production are dispersed widely and influenced by outer factors due to including overseas distribution channels. Also, at the aspect of quality, standardization of products is difficult, distribution system is quite complicated and unreasonable due to long distribution channels according to international trade and financial and institutional support is not enough. Especially, there are quite a lot of ineffective factors including multi level distribution process, dramatic gap between production cost and customer's cost, lack of physical distribution facilities and difficulties in storage and transport due to lack of wrapping containers. Besides, because import and export of agricultural products has been manages under the company's own distribution according to transaction contract between manufacturers and exporting company, efficiency is low due to excessive investment in fixed costs and lack of specialty in dealing with agricultural products causes fall of value of products, showing the limit to lose price-competitiveness. Especially, because lack of specialty in distribution and circulation such as storage and wrapping does not solve limit factors in distance, the distribution and circulation has been limited to a form of import and export within short-distant region. Therefore, need for distribution out-sourcing which can satisfy specialty in managing distribution and circulation and it is needed to establish more effective distribution system. Second, among tangible and intangible services which promote the efficiency of the whole distribution, a function building distribution environment which includes distribution information, system for standard and inspection, distribution finance, system for diversification of risks, education and training, distribution administration and tax system is wanted. In general, such a function building distribution environment is difficult to be changed and supplement innovatively because its effect compared with investment does not appear immediately despite of its necessity. Especially, in case of distribution of agricultural products, as a function of collecting and distributing is performed individually through various channels, the importance of distribution information and standardization is getting more focus due to the problem of repetition of work and lack of specialty. Also, efficient management of distribution is quite difficult due to lack of professionals in distribution, so support to professional education is needed. Third, though effort to keep self-sufficiency ratio of staple food, rice is regarded as important at the government level, level of dependency on overseas of others crops is high. Therefore, plan for stable securing food resources aside from staple food is also necessary. Especially, governmental organizations of agricultural products distribution in Korea are production-centered and have unreasonable structure whose function at the aspect of distribution and consumption is quite insufficient. And development of new distribution channels which can deal with changes in distribution environment and they do not achieve actual results of strategy for distribution due to non-positive strategy for price distribution. That is, it implies the possibility that base for supply will become vulnerable because it does not mediate appropriate interests on total distribution channels such as manufacturers, wholesale dealers and vendors by emphasizing consumer protection excessively in the distribution of agricultural products. Therefore, this study examined fundamental concept and actual situation for our investment to overseas agriculture, drew necessities, considerations, problems, etc. of overseas agricultural investment and suggested improvements at the level of distribution for price competitiveness of agricultural products cultivated in overseas under five aspects; government's indirect support, distribution's modernization and distribution information function's strengthening, government's political support for distribution facility, transportation route, load and unloading works' improvement, price competitiveness' securing, professional manpower's cultivation by education and training, etc. Here are some suggestions for foreign produce importation. First, the government should conduct a survey on the current distribution channels and analyze the situation to establish a measure for long-term development plans. By providing each agricultural area with a guideline for planning appropriate production of crops, the government can help farmers be ready for importation, and prevent them from producing same crops all at the same time. Government can sign an MOU with the foreign government and promote the importation so that the development of agricultural resources can be stable and steady. Second, the government can establish a strategy for an effective distribution system by providing farmers and agriculture-related workers with the distribution information such as price, production, demand, market structure and location, feature of each crop, and etc. In order for such distribution system to become feasible, the government needs to reconstruct the current distribution system, designate a public organization for providing distribution information and set the criteria for level of produce quality, trade units, and package units. Third, the government should provide financial support and a policy to seek an efficient distribution channel for foreign produce to be delivered fresh: the government should expand distribution facilities (for selecting, packaging, storing, and processing) and transportation vehicles while modernizing old facilities. There should be another policy to improve the efficiency of unloading, and to lower the cost of distribution. Fourth, it is necessary to enact a new law covering exceptional cases for importing produce in order to maintain the price competitiveness; currently the high tariffs is keeping the imported produce from being distributed domestically. However, the new adjustment should be made carefully within the WTO regulations since it can create a problem from giving preferential tariffs. The government can also simplify the distribution channels in order to reduce the cost in the distribution process. Fifth, the government should educate distributors to raise the efficiency and to modernize the distribution system. It is necessary to develop human resources by educating people regarding the foreign agricultural environment, the produce quality, management skills, and by introducing some successful cases in advanced countries.

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Past and Present Definitions of the Energy and Protein Requirements of Ruminants

  • Corbett, J.L.;Freer, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.609-624
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    • 2003
  • The genesis of methods for defining the nutritional value of feeds and the nutrient requirements of animals, and their development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Europe and the USA are outlined. Current energy and protein feeding systems for ruminants are described. Particular reference is made to the Australian systems which are applicable to grazing animals as well as to those given prepared feeds, and enable the effective nutritional management of a imals at pasture by means of the decision support tool GrazFeed. The scheme for predicting intakes by cattle and sheep from pastures allows for the effects of selective grazing on the composition of the feed eaten, and for reduction in herbage intake when a supplementary feed is consumed. For herbage of any given concentration of metabolizable energy (ME) in the feed dry matter the changes with season of year in the net efficiency of use of the ME for growth and fattening and in the yield of microbial crude protein, g/MJ ME, which both vary with latitude, are defined. An equation to predict the energy requirements for maintenance (MEm) of both cattle and sheep includes predictions of the additional energy costs incurred by grazing compared with housed animals and the cost, if any, of cold stress. The equation allows for the change in MEm with feed intake. A flexible procedure predicts the composition of liveweight gain made by any given breed or sex of cattle and sheep at any stage of growth, and the variation with rate of gain. Protein requirements for maintenance, production including wool growth, and reproduction, are related to the quantities of microbial true protein and undegraded dietary protein truly digested in the small intestine.

A Study on the HDTV Programming of Three Major Terrestrial Broadcasting Systems (지상파방송 3사의 HDTV프로그램 편성에 관한 연구)

  • Yu, Sae-Kyung;Kim, Mi-Ra
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.29
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    • pp.111-145
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the problems In the current HDTV programming strategies were critically inquired into and reform measures were sought through in-depth interview with HDTV programming staff and program directors of the three major terrestrial broadcasting systems that are in their fourth year of HDTV broadcasting, and through analysis of the characteristics of HDTV programming. The analysis of this study showed that the time allocated to HDTV programs far exceeded the thirteen hours per week set by the Korean Broadcasting Commission. However, the percentage of HDTV programs broadcasted during the prime time was low, which as a result, limited the opportunity for the audiences to experience HDTV. furthermore, the low percentage of programs such as documentaries, sports, movies, etc. that are preferred by early adopters and through which the features of HDTV including high quality of picture, wide screen, etc. can be fully applied and shown did not appear to help in accelerating the popularization of HDTV In order to improve these problems, despite their having to bear the initial production costs, the broadcasting systems must come up with an aggressive strategies for the programming of documentaries, sports programs and dramas in order to strengthen the competitiveness in HDTV production and secure future adopters, and together with this, full support from the policy planning authorities and companies manufacturing electric home appliances, the other leaders in DTTB(Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting) transition, are necessary in order to promote the production of HD contents.

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Publication Report of the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences over its History of 15 Years - A Review

  • Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.124-136
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    • 2002
  • As an official journal of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) was born in February 1987 and the first issue (Volume 1, Number 1) was published in March 1988 under the Editorship of Professor In K. Han (Korea). By the end of 2001, a total of 84 issues in 14 volumes and 1,761 papers in 11,462 pages had been published. In addition to these 14 volumes, a special issue entitled "Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition" (April, 2000) and 3 supplements entitled "Proceedings of the 9th AAAP Animal Science Congress" (July, 2000) were also published. Publication frequency has steadily increased from 4 issues in 1988, to 6 issues in 1997 and to 12 issues in 2000. The total number of pages per volume and the number of original or review papers published also increased. Some significant milestones in the history of the AJAS include that (1) it became a Science Citation Index (SCI) journal in 1997, (2) the impact factor of the journal improved from 0.257 in 1999 to 0.446 in 2000, (3) it became a monthly journal (12 issues per volume) in 2000, (4) it adopted an English editing system in 1999, and (5) it has been covered in "Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Science since 2000. The AJAS is subscribed by 842 individuals or institutions. Annual subscription fees of US$ 50 (Category B) or US$ 70 (Category A) for individuals and US$ 70 (Category B) or US$ 120 (Category A) for institutions are much less than the actual production costs of US$ 130. A list of the 1,761 papers published in AJAS, listed according to subject area, may be found in the AJAS homepage (http://www.ajas.snu.ac.kr) and a very well prepared "Editorial Policy with Guide for Authors" is available in the Appendix of this paper. With regard to the submission status of manuscripts from AAAP member countries, India (235), Korea (235) and Japan (198) have submitted the most manuscripts. On the other hand, Mongolia, Nepal, and Papua New Guinea have never submitted any articles. The average time required from submission of a manuscript to printing in the AJAS has been reduced from 11 months in 1997-2000 to 7.8 months in 2001. The average rejection rate of manuscripts was 35.3%, a percentage slightly higher than most leading animal science journals. The total number of scientific papers published in the AJAS by AAAP member countries during a 14-year period (1988-2001) was 1,333 papers (75.7%) and that by non- AAAP member countries was 428 papers (24.3%). Japanese animal scientists have published the largest number of papers (397), followed by Korea (275), India (160), Bangladesh (111), Pakistan (85), Australia (71), Malaysia (59), China (53), Thailand (53), and Indonesia (34). It is regrettable that the Philippines (15), Vietnam (10), New Zealand (8), Nepal (2), Mongolia (0) and Papua New Guinea (0) have not actively participated in publishing papers in the AJAS. It is also interesting to note that the top 5 countries (Bangladesh, India, Japan, Korea and Pakistan) have published 1,028 papers in total indicating 77% of the total papers being published by AAAP animal scientists from Vol. 1 to 14 of the AJAS. The largest number of papers were published in the ruminant nutrition section (591 papers-44.3%), followed by the non-ruminant nutrition section (251 papers-18.8%), the animal reproduction section (153 papers-11.5%) and the animal breeding section (115 papers-8.6%). The largest portion of AJAS manuscripts was reviewed by Korean editors (44.3%), followed by Japanese editors (18.1%), Australian editors (6.0%) and Chinese editors (5.6%). Editors from the rest of the AAAP member countries have reviewed slightly less than 5% of the total AJAS manuscripts. It was regrettably noticed that editorial members representing Nepal (66.7%), Mongolia (50.0%), India (35.7%), Pakistan (25.0%), Papua New Guinea (25.0%), Malaysia (22.8%) and New Zealand (21.5%) have failed to return many of the manuscripts requested to be reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief. Financial records show that Korea has contributed the largest portion of production costs (68.5%), followed by Japan (17.3%), China (8.3%), and Australia (3.5%). It was found that 6 AAAP member countries have contributed less than 1% of the total production costs (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Thailand), and another 6 AAAP member countries (Mongolia, Nepal and Pakistan, Philippine and Vietnam) have never provided any financial contribution in the form of subscriptions, page charges or reprints. It should be pointed out that most AAAP member countries have published more papers than their financial input with the exception of Korea and China. For example, Japan has published 29.8% of the total papers published in AJAS by AAAP member countries. However, Japan has contributed only 17.3% of total income. Similar trends could also be found in the case of Australia, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. A total of 12 Asian young animal scientists (under 40 years of age) have been awarded the AJAS-Purina Outstanding Research Award which was initiated in 1990 with a donation of US$ 2,000-3,000 by Mr. K. Y. Kim, President of Agribrands Purina Korea Inc. In order to improve the impact factor (citation frequency) and the financial structure of the AJAS, (1) submission of more manuscripts of good quality should be encouraged, (2) subscription rate of all AAAP member countries, especially Category B member countries should be dramatically increased, (3) a page charge policy and reprint ordering system should be applied to all AAAP member countries, and (4) all AAAP countries, especially Category A member countries should share more of the financial burden (advertisement revenue or support from public or private sector).

A Study on the Improvement of Agricultural Facility Legislation (농업용 시설의 건축 및 이용 법령 개선연구)

  • Lee, Won;Jang, Woo-Suk;Kwon, Hyung-Dun;Song, Jae-Il;Kim, Ji-Suk;Jung, Nam-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2013
  • As facilities performing the production, processing, preservation, and shipment of agricultural products; agricultural facilities are categorized into planting facilities and livestock facilities based on the management target. Agricultural facilities are set in farmlands, and facility users mainly complain about the legal or institutional restrictions on farm rather than their own facilities itself. From 2009 to 2012, the Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) published the "Casebook of farmer Complaints on Farmlands" in order to help answer farmers' questions and support public workers' workloads. However, contents related to agricultural facility installed in farmland are currently not dealt with in particular. Among agricultural facilities, demands of property rights with livestock facilities have risen due to construction permissions, operational restrictions, and high initial investment costs; and relevant laws were revised and are now being executed. However, for planting facilities such as mushroom facilities, ginseng facilities, and greenhouses; farmer complaints related to property rights are constantly increasing because revisions to relevant laws are not being made despite the rising diversity of construction materials through technical developments as well as the rising scale of assets-i.e. mechanization, automation, and the application of New Regeneration Energies according to capital influx. In this study, the current state of relevant agricultural facility legislation were organized and their drawbacks deduced in order to propose improvements of Agricultural Facility Legislation. The result of interviewing with public workers and farmers show that agricultural facilities should be regarded as extensions of farmlands rather than as facilities built in land where development actions were being taken. Alternatives able to reflect these opinions were suggested through expert consultation.