• Title, Summary, Keyword: Support of production costs

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Analysis of Income Variation of Professional Rice Cultivators Supported by the Farmland Scale Improvement Project (영농규모화사업의 지원을 받은 쌀전업농가의 소득분석)

  • Kim, Kyung-Jin;Kim, Jai-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.189-200
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the farmland scale improvement project and to present basic data for establishing a long-term improvement scheme of this project. Professional rice cultivators' farming scale after receiving the farmland scale improvement fund has increased compared to the situation before receiving the fund support. The average paddy fields increased by 220% (from 2.75ha to 8.82ha), the average upland increased by 27% (from 0.44ha to 0.56ha), and the average orchard land increased by 44% (from 0.25ha to 0.36ha). The rice production costs per 10a are estimated as 608,678won for below 3ha, 488,721won for 3-6ha, 487,431won for 6~10ha, and 425,313won for over 10ha, which decreased with increasing farming scale. The effects of the farmland scale improvement project on income variation are summarized as follows. 1) Average farm household income for all subjects has increased by 223 % (from 40,517,000won to 90,295,000won). 2) For each category, the results show that average farm household income has increased by 9,766,000won for below 3ha, 35,898,000won for 3~6ha, 42,822,000won for 6~10ha, and 72,697,000won for over 10ha.

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The Rice Price Support Program in the midst of Structural Change (미곡시장(米穀市場) 구조변화(構造變化)와 가격지지정책(價格支持政策))

  • Kim, Ji-hong
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.3-26
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    • 1990
  • Encouraged by the investment in the rice paddy, the introduction of new varieties (Tong-Il), and the price support program, there has been great success in increasing rice production. Meanwhile, the demand for rice has decreased rapidly as per capita income continues to rise. Rice self-sufficiency has been attained, and a new over-supply problem is emerging. Moreover, the Uruguay Round Agricultural Negotiation would prohibit government price support for agricultural products. In October the Korean government decides the government purchase amount and support price, which works as the price guideline. All interested parties exert political efforts to influence the decision. The continued increase of the government purchase price of rice due to political pressure pushed the government purchase price above the market wholesale price in 1988. Also, the farmers preferred to sell to the government than to the wholesaler. This has discouraged the market mechanism, and the government is to take over the three functions of the market mechanism: stockpiling, seasonal price fluctuation adjustment, and circulation. Another big increase may cause the government purchase price to rise above the consumer price, which might lead to arbitrage opportunities for the farmers and suffocate the market mechanism. However, the current political situations limits the options for the Korean government. This paper argues that a supply control policy will reduce the social cost resulting from the high level of producer price support, and it proposes several second best policies: First, the production of new varieties should be reduced rapidly. Second, the old rice in the government warehouse should be auctioned or disposed of in order to reduce the government handling and management costs. Third, the acreage diversion program should be launched in order to control rice paddy acreage. Fourth, a social welfare program in rural areas should be introduced, since the share of population over 60 is increasing rapidly. Fifth, instead of the price support which is forbidden by the Uruguay Round, Korea should restructure the agricultural industry by developing new crops, by enhancing productivity and by improving the agricultural infrastructure.

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Top Management's Human and Social Capital Effect on Governmental R&D Support System Utilization and Success (최고경영진의 인적 및 사회적 자본이 정부의 R&D 지원제도 활용과 초기 성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Je-Keum;Hwang, Hee-Joong;Song, In-Am
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2015
  • Purpose - This study attempts to analyze whether or not there are characteristics among the top management of companies that promote corporate performance at venture companies. It investigates the characteristics of the human and social capital that are inherent in top management at a venture company and conducts an empirical analysis of hypotheses examining if these characteristics will affect utilization of the governmental R&D support system as well as affect the firm's initial success. Research design, data, and methodology - This study conducted theoretical and empirical research together to accomplish the goal of the study. The pilot study researched human capital and social capital as the independent variables; the governmental R&D support system as the parameter; and, the initial success as the dependent variable. The empirical study carried out research on the model, establishment of hypotheses, and the statistical treatment. A survey was conducted targeting top management of high-tech venture companies in Daedeok Innopolis; 500 questionnaires were distributed; and, 222 were collected. Results - The human and social capital inherent in top management at venture companies in the early stages of their existence become good evaluation data for those who are invested in similar resources. If top management includes strong human and social capital, access to external resources will be easier; these will have a positive influence on the selection of overnmental support systems; and, this proper support will also have a positive influence on the initial success of the venture company. The results revealed the following. First, it was found that when the educational level and functional background, (the top management human capital), are the output function, top management human capital had a significant influence on selection of governmental R&D support funds. Second, it was found that the internal social capital and external social capital, (the top management social capital), had a significant influence on selection of governmental R&D support tasks. Third, it was found that selection of the governmental R&D support tasks at the start of the venture company had a positive influence on the corporate financial performance such as sales, business profits, and the increase in workers; and, had a significant influence on nonfinancial performance such as market share, competitive position, product competitiveness, and the future product development. Conclusions - Selection of the governmental R&D support system is not recognized as part of the direct sales of a venture company in its early stages, but as it can reduce costs for technical development and helps significantly in creating test products and mass production, it has a positive influence on the company's financial performance and nonfinancial performance as a result. Therefore, companies should take great efforts to frequently be selected as a candidate in the governmental R&D support system, as it can help facilitate R&D that requires extensive funds. As a result, companies can expect effects such as job creation and patent applications and they can advance future product sales.

A Review on Conception of Policy for Production of Imported Tropical and Temperate Fresh Fruits Using Hot Waste Water from Power Plant (발전소 온배수를 활용한 온·열대 신선과일 수입대체 정책 방안)

  • Kim, Yean-Jung;Park, Jiyun;Kim, Bae-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2017
  • One of the policies of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock Food and Livestock aims to export $10 billion worth of products. Although it was not easy to achieve the export goal of $ 6.5 billion in 2016, the policy should be pursued continuously. Accordingly, a facility modernization project and high-tech greenhouse project are being implemented to facilitate exports. Moreover, it is possible to consider substitution of imports in the policy shift. Imports of temperate and tropical fresh fruits totaled 1.2 trillion won in 2016. Accordingly, identification of alternatives to tropical and temperate fresh fruit imports will enable farm income to increase and the fresh fruit industry to grow. The major obstacle to tropical fruit production in Korea is high heating costs. However, Jeju Island apple mango farmers found that using non-taxable kerosene and hot water from power plants could reduce heating costs by 42.5%. Indeed, using hot wastewater can reduce heating costs by more than 40%. To improve competition with imported fruits, farmers can change their heating systems using financial support plans (e.g., 20% government subsidies, 20% loans, 30% subsidies from local governments). The income effect and import substitution effect of fruit tree farmers should be carefully analyzed in the future and the study will be closed to discuss the policy direction.

A Survey on the Broadcasting Program Production by Video Journalists in Daejeon (비디오저널리스트(VJ)의 방송프로그램 제작 실태조사 - 대전지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jong-Tak;Jeong, Jong-Geon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2009
  • This paper explores the current situation of the broadcasting program production by video journalists (VJs), one of the recent trends of broadcasting production, centering around the programs made in Daejeon. The result of the survey shows that VJ programs are considered to be one of the generalized broadcasting program production systems. Thus, production costs should be γeadjusted to a realistic level in order to secure the good quality VJ programs in the current situation. Local broadcasting stations should depart from the idea that they make a VJ program subcontract to produce programs at low cost. It is time to support good quality VJ programs financially and systematically. The survey also reveals that most video journalists cannot participate in the decision-making process regarding program production. Local broadcastings should cooperate with video journalists, as co-producers, in producing the programs. Besides, VJ programs have some disadvantages such as limitation of high definition image production, poor image quality, instability of images taken, etc Hence, video journalists should also try to make better image quality of their broadcasting programs. Local subcontractors should make efforts to overcome their poor manpower and production environments as well. By economizing their scale of production and updating their production equipment, subcontractors need to constantly develop the contents related to local community which make them more competitive.

A study on the efficient supporting methods for small and medium businesses of mobile sector (모바일 분야 중소기업에 대한 효율적 지원 방안 연구)

  • Ahn, Jong-Chang;Lee, Dong-Han;Jung, Gag-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.192-201
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    • 2018
  • This study intends to find efficient support methods for small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) especially in the increasingly important mobile sector. We investigated regarding perceptions of mobile sector-specific support programs and their current state of usage, and perceptions of the new mobile market and the present conditions of each stage of production based on analysis of a survey that included 204 respondents in each SMB to achieve this goal. Concretely, detections through this research were the reasons for non-selection of support businesses, the future prospective mobile business area, the company's own first-preference item and the reason for the preference, plus new mobile areas of willingness to apply the company's own product and its own first-preference item, and the reason for the preference. In addition, we found out covering costs and revenue size of the maximum-revenue product for each stage (from the first to the fourth stage), the kind of a product's execution method connected to the product (e.g. self-production, outsourcing to another company to produce a product), and the execution method for pre-products. We can suggest a policy regarding efficient support alternatives for SMBs related to the mobile sector thanks to these findings.

A Study on the Effective Management Methods of Craftsmen through Job Environment and Productivity Analysis of Construction Craft Workers (건설기능인력의 업무환경 및 생산성 분석을 통한 기능인력의 효율적인 관리방안에 관한 연구)

  • Ha, Gee-Joo;Ha, Min-Su;Yi, Dong-Ryul
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2019
  • Construction work is a labor-intensive industry, which is required systematic production activities using materials, manpower, and equipment. Among them, manpower resources play a very important role in achieving efficiently production in the organization. Construction work is highly dependent on construction craft workers, and the level of proficiency can be directly related to the construction productivity and quality. However, a rapidly aging construction craft workers in Korea, is being replaced by a foreign construction craft workers because of advoidance of new laborers in the construction site. In the future, if the continuous development and management of construction manpower is not made properly, it may be lead to adverse effects such as setbacks in production, delayed completion, faulty construction, industrial disasters, and decreased productivity in construction site. In this study, it was proposed four important factors for work capacity management of construction craft workers. These were ensuring of physical strength through the health management of construction craft workers, securing of proficiency through career management, ensuring of productivity through work capacity and establing of informatization through work capacity management. By introducing a systematic system, it is possible to improve construction craft workers' professionalism, enhancing the level of welfare, reflecting the realities of labor costs, increasing the quantitative and qualitative levels of construction craft workers, Futhermore it was demanded the continued interest and policy support for the realization of effective management of construction craft workers.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY BESIDES ELECTRICITY GENERATION: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

  • Gauthier, Jean-Claude;Ballot, Bernard;Lebrun, Jean-Philippe;Lecomte, Michel;Hittner, Dominique;Carre, Frank
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.31-42
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    • 2007
  • Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will be developed. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source tree of Greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated electric plant. Depending on the process heat temperature and power needs, up to 80% of the nuclear heat is converted into useful power. An important feature of the design is the standardization of the heat source, as independent as possible of the process heat application. This should expedite licensing. The essential conditions for success include: ${\bullet}$ Timely adapted licensing process and regulations, codes and standards for such application and design ${\bullet}$ An industry oriented R&D program to meet the technological challenges making the best use of the international collaboration. Gen IV could be the vector ${\bullet}$ Identification of an end user(or a consortium of) willing to fund a FOAK

An Analysis on the Value Chain and the Value System of the Korean Wind Power Industry (한국 풍력산업의 가치사슬 및 가치시스템 분석)

  • Ryu, Jae-Ho;Choi, Ta-Gwan;Park, Jung-Gu
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzes whether the value-added structure of Korean wind power industry exhibits a virtuous cycle through the value chain(VC) within wind power firms and the value system(VS) among the wind power industries, using a regression analysis based on a survey about Korean wind power companies. According to the VC, the government's R&D support is analyzed to have contributed to an increase in the R&D investments of the wind power companies. An increase in corporates' R&D investments has led to an increase in corporates' R&D outputs, and in turn, induced a remarkable increase in the amounts of production. But an increase in production has not led to a decrease in the costs of production, not resulting in an increase in profit rates per sales amount. In addition, while an increase in profit rates is analyzed to have contributed to an increase in production, this did not induce further investments in corporate's R&D. The virtuous cycle of the value chain in Korean wind power firms is, therefore, analyzed to be weak. Next, the VS is analyzed by dividing the whole chain into the system group including rotor blades, gear boxes, and power generators, and the structure group, such as towers. Two groups are analyzed to have mutually positive effects in the processes of the government's support for corporates' R&D, corporates' investment in R&D, R&D outputs, and profit rates per sales amount. Such mutual positive effects are, however, not found in the processes of the amounts of production and the costs of production. These results demonstrates that the value system of Korean wind power industry is not completed. This study has a policy implication to need further efforts to create the virtuous cycle in the VC and VS of Korean wind power industry.

A Study on Effective Management & Administration System for Deluxe Hotel Kitchen in Seoul Area. (관공호텔 조리직무의 분업과 통합에 따른 문제점과 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • 라영선
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.1
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    • pp.57-89
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    • 1995
  • Despite prologed business stagnation of both international and domestic economy, hotel business as well as tourist industry has continuously been keeping growing, owing to increase of surplus income and world flowing population. During recent 4 years, growth rate of yearly mean in domestic hotels reached 9.9% and especially that of the superior class hotels 15.2%. In the composition of domestic tourist hotel's revenue, the earnings of guest rooms form 37.4%, on the other hand those of food & beverage 39.9%. This result is that our hotel business is concentrated on its interest in FOOD & BEVERAGE of which productivity per unit dimension can be increased to an unlimited extent and extent and superior class hotels strengthened in F&B are increasing in comparison with European or American hotels which are focused on guest rooms in their management. For value added rate of F&B is low as compared with increase of their earnings, they are interested in the management techniques which focus on rising the rate. As for the cost of Food & Beverage, personnel expenditure forms 36.5% and the direct materials 31.5%. Therefore how to manage personnel and materials costs which compose as much as 68% of total revenue will greatly affect net profit. We can say that an effective management technique in cost of Food & Beverage is one of the most important know-hows in hotel management. Especially management know-how for the Kitchen Department where the most of foods come out makes a great effects on various expenses, productivity and it is the achievement from hotel management. For the most of the hotel's top managers, they don't seriously take the fact that KITCHEN SYSTEM affects greatly total expenditure. This study starts from the point of recognizing the question of fundamental cause affecting tow largest cost elements incurred in Food & Beverage and trying to present an effective kitchen system. To settle the questions raised, I compared and analyzed productivity and cost of food & beverage and unit kitchen centered around superior class hotels in Seoul, which vary in Kitchen Systems. In order to attain the aforementioned study effectively purpose of this study, I compared Room-Service and Coffee-Shop Menu, flow of basic food in the kitchen, extent and result of division of labor and integration in the kitchen, scale of outlet kitchen, productivity, the turnover rate of food in store, food cost rate one another which all vary in Kitchen Systems. All these elements are compared and analyzed each other being divided into two main groups such as①. Main Production kitchen and Banquet Kitchen, and ②. coffee-shop kitchen and Room-service Kitchen. Therefore this study is to point out the problems in managing kitchens of superior class hotels which are different in systems. An effort was made to find out the better Kitchen System for superior deluxe hotels. I emphasize the followings on the proper scale of division of labor and integration of unit kitchen and a disposition plan for outlet kitchens of restaurant. First, KITCHEN SYSTEM as a sub-system of Hotel Management System is composed of sub-systems of outlet unit kitchen. Basic food materials are cooked and served for the guests while support kitchen and out restaurant kitchen interact organically each other. So Kitchen should be considered as a system composed of integrated sub-systems. Second, support and banquet kitchens should be integrated to be managed. And these unit kitchens have to be designed to be placed in the back of banquet rooms area. Third, coffee-shop kitchen and room-service kitchen should be integrated to be managed. Fourth, several unit business kitchens should be place on the same floor. Fifth, main production kitchens ought to be located near the loading duck, food store and large refrigerator. Sixth, considering the limits of supervision, duties should be adjusted as 12-20 cooks in two shifts a day for a sub-kitchen, and 18-30 cooks in three shifts a day so that labor division can be made. Last, I would like to two points for direction and task of future study. Firstly, I compare the effective income and increasing costs each other, which are incurred by increasing the use rate of the second processing materials for foods perched outside and through the results. I can find out the better points of the processing production and circulation system, and then I study this effects made on hotel kitchen system. Secondly, I can point out that more efficient kitchen system shall be established through comparing and analyzing the matter of amount of indirect costs and flow of food in different kitchen systems.

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