• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Support of production costs

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Pollution Abatement Costs and Labor Demand in Korea Manufacturing Industries (제조업의 환경오염방지지출과 노동수요)

  • Hwang, Seok-Joon;Kang, Man-Ok
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.893-921
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    • 2005
  • In this study, we try to find out the effect of private companies' environmental protection activities on the labor demand of companies in Korea manufacturing industries with empirical practice from 1992 to 2002. One of the main difficulties in this empirical work is to identify the effect of environmental protection activities on the labor demand, because the effect can be mixed with the effect of traditional production technologies on the labor demand. We follow the suggestion of Morgenstern et al. (2002) to identify the effect but which is not enough because of endogeneity between the production technology improvement and pollution reduction. So we propose a Fixed-effect Instrumental Variable estimation method as an estimation strategy. The estimation results support the positive relationship between the labor demand increase and the increase in pollution abatement costs. Therefore, we can conclude that the environmental protection activites of Korea manufacturing industries from 1992 to 2002 can help job creation without making a big burden for business activities when we consider the share of pollution abatement costs among total production costs is around 1% during that time.

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Design and Implementation of Apparel Product Support System based on SOA Environment (SOA 환경 기반의 의류 생산지원 시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • Han, Jong-Jin;Choi, Dong-Oun;Song, Hang-Suk
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • SOA sorts function of old applications by function unit that have business meaning, and through standard call interface, do orchestration by component unit of service. System that developed in this paper predicts production point of time when order with frugality of production raw material. And reduce original register resources purchase expense and production costs in proper stock and increase company's competitive power. Also, design and implementation production management system for many species small quantity production of SOA base that reflect this analyzing correctly company's manufacturing process and original register resources supply and demand present condition.

GIS/GPS based Precision Agriculture Model in India -A Case study

  • Mudda, Suresh Kumar
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2018
  • In the present day context of changing information needs of the farmers and diversified production systems there is an urgent need to look for the effective extension support system for the small and marginal farmers in the developing countries like India. The rapid developments in the collection and analysis of field data by using the spatial technologies like GPS&GIS were made available for the extension functionaries and clientele for the diversified information needs. This article describes the GIS and GPS based decision support system in precision agriculture for the resource poor farmers. Precision farming techniques are employed to increase yield, reduce production costs, and minimize negative impacts to the environment. The parameters those can affect the crop yields, anomalous factors and variations in management practices can be evaluated through this GPS and GIS based applications. The spatial visualisation capabilities of GIS technology interfaced with a relational database provide an effective method for analysing and displaying the impacts of Extension education and outreach projects for small and marginal farmers in precision agriculture. This approach mainly benefits from the emergence and convergence of several technologies, including the Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), miniaturised computer components, automatic control, in-field and remote sensing, mobile computing, advanced information processing, and telecommunications. The PPP convergence of person (farmer), project (the operational field) and pixel (the digital images related to the field and the crop grown in the field) will better be addressed by this decision support model. So the convergence and emergence of such information will further pave the way for categorisation and grouping of the production systems for the better extension delivery. In a big country like India where the farmers and holdings are many in number and diversified categorically such grouping is inevitable and also economical. With this premise an attempt has been made to develop a precision farming model suitable for the developing countries like India.

Automated Supervision of Data Production - Managing the Creation of Statistical Reports on Periodic Data

  • Schanzenberger, Anja;Lawrence, D.R.
    • 한국디지털정책학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.39-53
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    • 2004
  • Data production systems are generally very large, distributed and complex systems used for creating advanced (mainly statistical) reports. Typically, data is gathered periodically and then subsequently aggregated and separated during numerous production steps. These production steps are arranged in a specific sequence (workflow or production chain), and can be located worldwide. Today, a need for improving and automating methods of supervision for data production systems has been recognized. Supervision in this context entails planning, monitoring and controlling data production. Two significant approaches are introduced here for improving this supervision. The first is a 'closely-coupledd' approach (meaning direct communication between production jobs and supervisory tool, informing the supervisory tod immediately about delays in production) - based upon traditional production planning methods typically used for manufacturing (goods) and adopted for working with data production. The second is a 'loosely-coupled' approach (meaning no direct communication between supervisory tool and production jobs is used) - having its origins in proven traditional project management. The supervisory tool just enquires continuously the progress of production. In both cases, dates, costs, resources, and system health information is made available to management. production operators and administrators to support a timely and smooth production of periodic data. Both approaches are theoretically described and compared. The main finding is that, both are useful, but in different cases. The main advantages of the closely coupled approach are the large production optimisation potential and a production overview in form of a job execution plan, whereas the loosely coupled method mainly supports unhindered job execution and offers a sophisticated production overview in form of a milestone schedule. Ideas for further research include investigation of other potential approaches and theoretical and practical comparison.

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Developing a decision support system for selecting new crops

  • Jung, Guhyun;Jeon, Myounghee;Lee, Jinhong;Park, Heundong;Lee, Seyong;Kim, Joonyong
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.8-17
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    • 2018
  • Due to changes in the agricultural market environment and both overseas and domestic farming conditions, uncertainties in agricultural production and management are becoming greater. Hence, there is a stronger need for farmers to choose crops in the optimal condition. This research aims to introduce the result and process of developing a decision support system for selecting crops, aimed to assist farmers in selecting the optimal crops most suitable in the given situation. There are basically three main factors to consider in the decision-making process for farmers when selecting a crop to introduce to their lands. First of all, one must consider how much profit crop A will produce when it is cultivated. Secondly, one must consider which crop to cultivate in order to earn a certain amount of profit. Thirdly, one must consider what is the best way to maximize Farm A's business profit. For instance, a farm may have land as its resource, and one must research which location, type of crop, level of technology, and so forth, to maximize profit.This research creates a database of the profitability of a total of 180 crop types by analyzing Rural Development Administration's survey of agricultural products income of 115 crop types, small land profitability index survey of 53 crop types, and Statistics Korea's survey of production costs of 12 crop types. Furthermore, this research presents the result and developmental process of a web-based crop introduction decision support system that provides overseas cases of new crop introduction support programs, as well as databases of outstanding business success cases of each crop type researched by agricultural institutions.

Application of a Simulation Model for Dairy Cattle Production Systems Integrated with Forage Crop Production: the Effects of Whole Crop Rice Silage Utilization on Nutrient Balances and Profitability

  • Kikuhara, K.;Hirooka, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.216-224
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    • 2009
  • In Japan, since rice consumption has been decreasing with the westernization of Japanese eating habits, surplus paddy fields have been increasing. If these surplus paddy fields can be utilized for forage rice production as feed for animal production and excretions (feces and urine) from animal production can be applied to the paddy fields as manure, then the problems of surplus paddy fields and excretions from animal production may be solved, and the environment kept sustainable. The objectives of the present study were to apply a bio-economic model to dairy and forage rice integration systems in Japan and to examine the merit of introducing whole crop rice silage (WCRS), as well as economic and environmental effects of various economic and management options in the systems. Five simulations were conducted using this model. The use of WCRS as a home-grown feed increased environmental loads and decreased economic benefit because of the higher amount of purchased feed, when compared to the use of typical crops such as maize, alfalfa and timothy silage (simulation 1). Higher economic benefits from higher forage rice yields and higher milk production of a dairy cow were obtained (simulations 2, 3). There were no economic and environmental incentives for utilizing crude protein (CP) rich WCRS, because an increase in the CP content in WCRS led to the use of more chemical fertilizers, resulting in high production costs and nitrogen outputs (simulation 4). When evaluated under the situation of a fixed herd size, increasing forage rice yields decreased the total benefit of the production, in spite of the fact that the amount of subsidies per unit of land increased (simulation 5). It was indicated that excess subsidy support may not promote yield of forage rice. It was, however, observed in most cases that dairy and forage rice integration systems could not be economically established without subsidies.

Allocation of the Optimal Reliability and Maintainability in Manufacturing Systems (제조 시스템의 최적 신뢰도 및 보전도 할당)

  • 이상철
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.22 no.50
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 1999
  • Reliability and maintainability allocation in the analysis of the system's design, with the objective of planning and installing the individual components in such a way that the system performance is achieved. This paper has been made to solve an important task in reliability management of manufacturing systems within the general objective being to increase productivity while maintaining costs low. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical approach to determine an optimal reliability and maintainability allocation, trading off among system performance and parts investment costs. Two important considerations will be addressed in this regard : (ⅰ) determine the reliability and maintainability allocation of parts which maximizes a given production index, having fixed the total cost of investments ; and (ⅱ) determine the reliability and maintainability allocation which minimizes the total cost of investments, having fixed a minimum acceptable level of productivity. The procedure proposed in this paper is able to provide to managers and designers useful indications on the reliability and maintainability characteristics of parts in series -parallel systems. And this heuristic model is a decision support tool for contractors who are involved in large scale design projects such as ship and aircraft design. Numerical examples prove that an approximate expression of the average throughput rate is sufficiently accurate to be used in a numerical optimization method.

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An Evaluation on the Audio-visual Investment Fund's Contribution to Korean Film Production Capital (한국영화 제작자본에 대한 영상전문투자조합 정책의 기여도 평가)

  • Kim, Mee-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.212-220
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    • 2019
  • This study evaluates the extent to which the government's financial support policy, the Audio-visual investment fund, contributed to raising capital for Korean films. Audio-visual investment fund in the Korean film industry, which has been formed through the public sector support since 1999. The Audio-visual investment fund is a leading financial support policy for the Korean film industry, and began with the investment of the Small and Medium Business Administration and the Korean Film Council. It has become an important source of Korean film production costs and has spread to other cultural industry sectors, as a way of capital procurement for a start-up companies and cultural projects. This study reconstruct the data of the organizations such as the size of a new investment fund by public sector, the ratio of public capital contribution, the amount and number of investment in Korean films, investment multiplier compared to equity investment, and the internal return rate(IRR) of liquidation funds in the Korean film capital market from 1999 to 2017. The purpose of this project was to provide the basis for assessing the achievements of the Audio-visual investment fund policy in contributing to the growth of the film industry.

Optimization of Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger in Solid-State Packed-Bed Bioreactor

  • Rodriguez-Duran, Luis V.;Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.;Rodriguez, Raul;Prado-Barragan, L. Arely;Aguilar, Cristobal N.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.960-967
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    • 2011
  • Tannin acyl hydrolase, also known as tannase, is an enzyme with important applications in the food, feed, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. However, despite a growing interest in the catalytic properties of tannase, its practical use is very limited owing to high production costs. Several studies have already demonstrated the advantages of solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of fungal tannase, yet the optimal conditions for enzyme production strongly depend on the microbial strain utilized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to improve the tannase production by a locally isolated A. niger strain in an SSF system. The SSF was carried out in packed-bed bioreactors using polyurethane foam as an inert support impregnated with defined culture media. The process parameters influencing the enzyme production were identified using a Plackett-Burman design, where the substrate concentration, initial pH, and incubation temperature were determined as the most significant. These parameters were then further optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The maximum tannase production was obtained with a high tannic acid concentration (50 g/l), relatively low incubation temperature ($30^{\circ}C$), and unique low initial pH (4.0). The statistical strategy aided in increasing the enzyme activity nearly 1.97-fold, from 4,030 to 7,955 U/l. Consequently, these findings can lead to the development of a fermentation system that is able to produce large amounts of tannase in economical, compact, and scalable reactors.

Activation of Maeul Community Media - Analysis of Gwangju Metropolitan Community Media (마을공동체미디어 활성화 방안 - 광주광역시 마을미디어를 중심으로)

  • Kang, Chul-Soo;Kim, Dug-Mo
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2019
  • It requires administrative supporting & Policies Aids on Maeul Community Media that confronted with reconstruction of community & interaction of residence. There are increased of community media research. This study examines the meanings of participants, the role of participants & volunteer, characteristic of community media, enlargement of residence, problems and activation of community media also conducted in-depth interviews of participants. According to the results of the analysis, the first it will be enforced administrative supporting & policies aids on Maeul Community Media. Secondly, suggests supporting of a municipal ordinance of Council. Thirdly, facilitate the education of program contents and management of community media. Finally, Supports of production costs.