• Title, Summary, Keyword: Supervised/Non-supervised Learning

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Stochastic Non-linear Hashing for Near-Duplicate Video Retrieval using Deep Feature applicable to Large-scale Datasets

  • Byun, Sung-Woo;Lee, Seok-Pil
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4300-4314
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    • 2019
  • With the development of video-related applications, media content has increased dramatically through applications. There is a substantial amount of near-duplicate videos (NDVs) among Internet videos, thus NDVR is important for eliminating near-duplicates from web video searches. This paper proposes a novel NDVR system that supports large-scale retrieval and contributes to the efficient and accurate retrieval performance. For this, we extracted keyframes from each video at regular intervals and then extracted both commonly used features (LBP and HSV) and new image features from each keyframe. A recent study introduced a new image feature that can provide more robust information than existing features even if there are geometric changes to and complex editing of images. We convert a vector set that consists of the extracted features to binary code through a set of hash functions so that the similarity comparison can be more efficient as similar videos are more likely to map into the same buckets. Lastly, we calculate similarity to search for NDVs; we examine the effectiveness of the NDVR system and compare this against previous NDVR systems using the public video collections CC_WEB_VIDEO. The proposed NDVR system's performance is very promising compared to previous NDVR systems.

The Development of EMG-based Powered Wheelchair Controller for Users with High-level Spinal Cord Injury using a Proportional Control Scheme (중증 장애인을 위한 근전도 기반 비례제어 방식의 전동 휠체어 제어기 개발)

  • Song, Jae-Hoon;Han, Jeong-Su;Oh, Young-Joon;Lee, He-Young;Bien, Zeung-Nam
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.6-8
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this paper is to develop a powered wheelchair controller based on EMG for users with high-level spinal cord injury using a proportional control scheme. An advantage of EMG is relative convenience of acquisition by a surface electrode to users. Direction information can be easily extracted from two EMG channels and force information can be acquired by proportional relationship between the amplitude of EMG and user's power, respectively. Pattern classification algorithm is a threshold method with a supervised learning process. Furthermore, the emergency situation can be avoided using an interrupt function. We evaluated the performance of powered wheelchair controller by navigating a pre-defined path with three non-handicapped people. The results show the feasibility of EMG as an input interface for powered wheelchair and other devices for the seriously disabled.

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Classification of 3D Road Objects Using Machine Learning (머신러닝을 이용한 3차원 도로객체의 분류)

  • Hong, Song Pyo;Kim, Eui Myoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.535-544
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    • 2018
  • Autonomous driving can be limited by only using sensors if the sensor is blocked by sudden changes in surrounding environments or large features such as heavy vehicles. In order to overcome the limitations, the precise road-map has been used additionally. This study was conducted to segment and classify road objects using 3D point cloud data acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping system provided by National Geographic Information Institute. For this study, the original 3D point cloud data were pre-processed and a filtering technique was selected to separate the ground and non-ground points. In addition, the road objects corresponding to the lanes, the street lights, the safety fences were initially segmented, and then the objects were classified using the support vector machine which is a kind of machine learning. For the training data for supervised classification, only the geometric elements and the height information using the eigenvalues extracted from the road objects were used. The overall accuracy of the classification results was 87% and the kappa coefficient was 0.795. It is expected that classification accuracy will be increased if various classification items are added not only geometric elements for classifying road objects in the future.

Rain Detection via Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (심층 컨볼루셔널 신경망 기반의 빗줄기 검출 기법)

  • Son, Chang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.54 no.8
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes a method of detecting rain regions from a single image. More specifically, a way of training the deep convolutional neural network based on the collected rain and non-rain patches is presented in a supervised manner. It is also shown that the proposed rain detection method based on deep convolutional neural network can provide better performance than the conventional rain detection method based on dictionary learning. Moreover, it is confirmed that the application of the proposed rain detection for rain removal can lead to some improvement in detail representation on the low-frequency regions of the rain-removed images. Additionally, this paper introduces the rain transfer method that inserts rain patterns into original images, thereby producing rain effects on the resulting images. The proposed rain transfer method could be used to augment rain patterns while constructing rain database.

Automatic Meeting Summary System using Enhanced TextRank Algorithm (향상된 TextRank 알고리즘을 이용한 자동 회의록 생성 시스템)

  • Bae, Young-Jun;Jang, Ho-Taek;Hong, Tae-Won;Lee, Hae-Yeoun
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.467-474
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    • 2018
  • To organize and document the contents of meetings and discussions is very important in various tasks. However, in the past, people had to manually organize the contents themselves. In this paper, we describe the development of a system that generates the meeting minutes automatically using the TextRank algorithm. The proposed system records all the utterances of the speaker in real time and calculates the similarity based on the appearance frequency of the sentences. Then, to create the meeting minutes, it extracts important words or phrases through a non-supervised learning algorithm for finding the relation between the sentences in the document data. Especially, we improved the performance by introducing the keyword weighting technique for the TextRank algorithm which reconfigured the PageRank algorithm to fit words and sentences.

Predicting Crime Risky Area Using Machine Learning (머신러닝기반 범죄발생 위험지역 예측)

  • HEO, Sun-Young;KIM, Ju-Young;MOON, Tae-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.64-80
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    • 2018
  • In Korea, citizens can only know general information about crime. Thus it is difficult to know how much they are exposed to crime. If the police can predict the crime risky area, it will be possible to cope with the crime efficiently even though insufficient police and enforcement resources. However, there is no prediction system in Korea and the related researches are very much poor. From these backgrounds, the final goal of this study is to develop an automated crime prediction system. However, for the first step, we build a big data set which consists of local real crime information and urban physical or non-physical data. Then, we developed a crime prediction model through machine learning method. Finally, we assumed several possible scenarios and calculated the probability of crime and visualized the results in a map so as to increase the people's understanding. Among the factors affecting the crime occurrence revealed in previous and case studies, data was processed in the form of a big data for machine learning: real crime information, weather information (temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, sunshine, insolation, snowfall, cloud cover) and local information (average building coverage, average floor area ratio, average building height, number of buildings, average appraised land value, average area of residential building, average number of ground floor). Among the supervised machine learning algorithms, the decision tree model, the random forest model, and the SVM model, which are known to be powerful and accurate in various fields were utilized to construct crime prevention model. As a result, decision tree model with the lowest RMSE was selected as an optimal prediction model. Based on this model, several scenarios were set for theft and violence cases which are the most frequent in the case city J, and the probability of crime was estimated by $250{\times}250m$ grid. As a result, we could find that the high crime risky area is occurring in three patterns in case city J. The probability of crime was divided into three classes and visualized in map by $250{\times}250m$ grid. Finally, we could develop a crime prediction model using machine learning algorithm and visualized the crime risky areas in a map which can recalculate the model and visualize the result simultaneously as time and urban conditions change.

Bankruptcy Type Prediction Using A Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks Model (하이브리드 인공신경망 모형을 이용한 부도 유형 예측)

  • Jo, Nam-ok;Kim, Hyun-jung;Shin, Kyung-shik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.79-99
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    • 2015
  • The prediction of bankruptcy has been extensively studied in the accounting and finance field. It can have an important impact on lending decisions and the profitability of financial institutions in terms of risk management. Many researchers have focused on constructing a more robust bankruptcy prediction model. Early studies primarily used statistical techniques such as multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) and logit analysis for bankruptcy prediction. However, many studies have demonstrated that artificial intelligence (AI) approaches, such as artificial neural networks (ANN), decision trees, case-based reasoning (CBR), and support vector machine (SVM), have been outperforming statistical techniques since 1990s for business classification problems because statistical methods have some rigid assumptions in their application. In previous studies on corporate bankruptcy, many researchers have focused on developing a bankruptcy prediction model using financial ratios. However, there are few studies that suggest the specific types of bankruptcy. Previous bankruptcy prediction models have generally been interested in predicting whether or not firms will become bankrupt. Most of the studies on bankruptcy types have focused on reviewing the previous literature or performing a case study. Thus, this study develops a model using data mining techniques for predicting the specific types of bankruptcy as well as the occurrence of bankruptcy in Korean small- and medium-sized construction firms in terms of profitability, stability, and activity index. Thus, firms will be able to prevent it from occurring in advance. We propose a hybrid approach using two artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of bankruptcy types. The first is a back-propagation neural network (BPN) model using supervised learning for bankruptcy prediction and the second is a self-organizing map (SOM) model using unsupervised learning to classify bankruptcy data into several types. Based on the constructed model, we predict the bankruptcy of companies by applying the BPN model to a validation set that was not utilized in the development of the model. This allows for identifying the specific types of bankruptcy by using bankruptcy data predicted by the BPN model. We calculated the average of selected input variables through statistical test for each cluster to interpret characteristics of the derived clusters in the SOM model. Each cluster represents bankruptcy type classified through data of bankruptcy firms, and input variables indicate financial ratios in interpreting the meaning of each cluster. The experimental result shows that each of five bankruptcy types has different characteristics according to financial ratios. Type 1 (severe bankruptcy) has inferior financial statements except for EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) to sales based on the clustering results. Type 2 (lack of stability) has a low quick ratio, low stockholder's equity to total assets, and high total borrowings to total assets. Type 3 (lack of activity) has a slightly low total asset turnover and fixed asset turnover. Type 4 (lack of profitability) has low retained earnings to total assets and EBITDA to sales which represent the indices of profitability. Type 5 (recoverable bankruptcy) includes firms that have a relatively good financial condition as compared to other bankruptcy types even though they are bankrupt. Based on the findings, researchers and practitioners engaged in the credit evaluation field can obtain more useful information about the types of corporate bankruptcy. In this paper, we utilized the financial ratios of firms to classify bankruptcy types. It is important to select the input variables that correctly predict bankruptcy and meaningfully classify the type of bankruptcy. In a further study, we will include non-financial factors such as size, industry, and age of the firms. Thus, we can obtain realistic clustering results for bankruptcy types by combining qualitative factors and reflecting the domain knowledge of experts.