• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sun-dried (Korea) salt

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Influence of Heat Treatment on the Physicochemical Property and Mineral Composition of Various Processed Salts

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Lee, Seog-Won;Rhee, Chul
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1010-1015
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    • 2008
  • The effects of heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and mineral composition of sun-dried salt were investigated. The salts parched at high temperature were appeared the higher alkalinity and the lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) than the samples without heat treatment. The commercial salts (bamboo salt and yellow loess salt) and the sun-dried salt parched at high temperature had relatively higher sodium ion content (418-450 ppm) compared to that (418.0 ppm) of refined salt. The increase of calcium ion occurred in the salts parched at high temperature compared to the sun-dried salt without heat treatment, but the magnesium ion was vice versa. The commercial salt, yellow loess salt had highest turbidity (0.973) whereas sun-dried salt showed lowest level (0.097) among the tested samples. Turbidity of heat treatment samples decreased as solubility increased. The maximum concentration of dialyzed salt was reached after 4 hr regardless of various processed salts, but those had no difference significantly among the tested samples. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the parched sun-dried salts showed different peak intensity with common salts, and they were similar to the patterns of oxide salts, especially MgO. The maximum value (2.56%) of MgO appeared in the sun-dried salt parched at $1,400^{\circ}C$.

Difference of Catechins Extracted Level when Fermented Sun-dried Salt and Green Tea (천일염과 녹차를 발효시켰을 때 Catechin류의 추출량 변화)

  • Yun, Hyun;Oh, Hye-Jong;Choi, Sung-Woo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.12 no.11
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 2012
  • In an experiment in which fermentation was done by adding fungal species that have antibiosis but do not have cellulase, the extraction amount of EGC, EC, EGCG, and ECG increased in all samples that fermented by adding sun-dried salt compared to those that fermented only with green tea after fermenting green tea by mixing it with sun-dried salt. In the analysis conducted according to the days of fermentation, the high extraction amounts of EGC(epigallocatechin), ECG(epicatechin gallate), EC(epicatechin), and EGCG(epigallocatechin gallate) were detected on the second and third day. Furthermore, when fermentation was done by adding ferment bacillus, all types of catechin(EGC, EC, EGCG, ECG) extraction increased in Paenibacillus spp but in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, EGC and EC decreased while EGCG and ECG increased; whereas in Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis all types of catechin(EGC, EC, EGCG, ECG) decreased. The results of the above experiment reveal that the largest amount of catechin was extracted from the result which conducted fermentation for three days together with sun-dried salt and Paenibacillus spp in the green tea.

The influence of Procyanidins, Gallic acid and Theaflavins extracted level when fermented sun-dried salt and green tea (천일염을 이용한 녹차의 발효가 Procyanidins와 Gallic acid 및 Theaflavins 추출량에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hyun;Choi, Cheol-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.3774-3780
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    • 2014
  • This study examined green tea fermented by the addition of sun-dried salt to increase the extraction of Procyanidins and Gallic acid and Theaflavins. An experiment on the change in the amount of the extract according to the saturation degree of sun-dried salt was performed. The sample of fermented only green tea extracted only Gallic acid (0.004 mg/g). No Procyanidins and Theaflavins were extracted. When the green tea was fermented by sun-dried salt, large amounts of the three compounds were extracted: Procyanidins, 75%(0.244 mg/g) and 100%(0.949 mg/g); Gallic acid, 75%(0.386 mg/g) and 100%(0.691 mg/g), and Theaflavins, 75%(0.083 mg/g). According to the date of fermentation, the largest amount of Procyanidins, Gallic acid and Theaflavins extracted were on the 2nd day(0.295 mg/g) and 7th day(2,256 mg/g) and 4th day(0.168 mg/g), respectively.

Growth-inhibitory Effect of the Sun-dried Salts and Gamma rays on Microorganisms Isolated from Korean Traditional Raw Rice Wine (천일염과 감마선이 막걸리의 미생물 생장 억제에 미치는 효과)

  • Nam, Ji-Young;Kim, Jae-Hun;Lee, Ju-Woon;Kim, Jin-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.218-222
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the changes in the storage characteristics of the Korean traditional raw rice wine (RRW) treated with Korean sun-dried salts and gamma rays. Nowadays, RRWs have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health-stimulating properties. But the rapid deterioration of the fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world. Actually, the expiry date of the RRW is around a week and this has been a biggest disadvantage of the RRW. The goal of this study was to make it of high quality and extend the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from the RRW. The 16S rRNA sequences of isolates showed 98% homology with the Lactobacillus fermentum. These results suggested that could be manageable improve the shelf life with addition of the sun-dried salts and irradiation with gamma rays.

Effects of Traditional Salt on the Quality Characteristics and Growth of Microorganisms from Kimchi (자염(煮鹽)으로 담근 배추김치의 발효숙성 중 이화학적.관능적 특성 및 자염이 김치발효 미생물의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye-Ran;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various kinds of commercial salts, including sun-dried (Korea), purified, and traditional salts on the chemical and sensory properties and growth of microorganisms involved in kimchi fermentation. Kimchi was prepared by salting in 10% NaCl solution for 2 hours followed by addition of other spices and fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$. The decreases in pH suggested that kimchi fermentation can be classified into 3 steps: initial, intermediate, and final stages. In texture analysis, the hardness and fracturability of traditional salt kimchi were higher than those of regular kimchi. From the sensory evaluation test for kimchi, sensory scores were high for traditional salt addition, especially taste, overall preference and texture. Among various microorganisms related to kimchi fermentation, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pichia membranaefaciens and Escherichia coli were examined. Based on the conditions of kimchi fermentation, a 2% and 5% concentration of each salt were studied. Also, the conditions of the cultures at $37^{\circ}C$ were examined. There was no considerable difference in the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli in the different kinds of salts. However, the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens was strongly inhibited by a 5% concentration of traditional salt during incubation at $37^{\circ}C$.

Chemical Composition of Imported Table Salts and Kimchi Preparation Test (시판 수입 소금의 성분과 김치제조 시험)

  • 신동화;조은자;홍재식
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.277-281
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    • 1999
  • Chemical composition of imported table salts from China (sun dried), Thailand (sun dried) and Australia (rock salt) were compared the mineral content and heavv metal contamination with Korean sun dried salt. Kimchies prepared by those salts were analyzed the quality by pH, acidity and sensory evaluation. Chemical compositions were as follows : moisturefrom 1.7% (Australia) to 8.7% (Korea), sodium chloride-from 86.7% (China, summer) to 97% (Australia), insoluble matter in water-from 0.02% (Australia) to 0.18 (China), and sulfate ionfrom 0.03% (Australia) to 1.65% (China, summer). Judging by Korean Standard(KS) of salt, salt from Australia and Thailand belong to 1st grade, Korean and Chinese (winter) to 2nd grade, and China (summer) were out of 3rd grade. Ca and Mg content of the salts tested were 0.022% (Australia) to 0.246 (China, winter), 0.036% (Australia) to 0.841% (China, summer) respectively and Pb was 1.23 ppm(China, summer)~0.61ppm(Korea) which is within the Korean regulation. The other heavy metals, Pb, Cd, As and Hg were not detected in all salts tested. The quality of Kimchi prepared by those salts were significantly no difference with Korean sun dried salt.

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Antimutagenic and Anticancer Effects of Salted Mackerel with Various Kinds of Salts (소금의 종류에 따른 염장 고등어의 항돌연변이효과 및 암세포 성장억제효과)

  • KONG Chang-Suk;BAK Soon-Sun;JUNG Keun-Ok;KIL Jeung-Ha;LIM Sun-Young;PARK Kun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.281-285
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    • 2005
  • Raw meat of mackerel (Scomber japonicus) was salted by refined, sun-dried, bamboo, and KC1-added bamboo salts. Antimutagenic activity on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Ames test and growth inhibitory effects of AGS human gastric and HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were investigated using methanol extracts of the salted mackerels. Mackerel salted sun-dried, bamboo, and KC1-added bamboo salts used increased the antimutagenic activities against MNNG, however, the sample treated with refined salt reduced the antimutagenic activity. Inhibitory effects of the salted-mackerels on the growth of human cancer cells were increased as dose dependent pattern. Mackerel salted with refined salt activated the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, but mackerel salted with sun-dried, bamboo, and KC1-added bamboo salts kept or increased anticancer effect compared to the raw mackerel. Mackerel salted with KC1-added bamboo salt led to the highest antimutagenic and anticancer activities. These results suggest that antimutagenic and anticancer effects of mackerel during manufacturing of the salted-mackerel could be enhanced by using different kind of salts such as bamboo, or KC1-added bamboo salts.

Optimal Processing Conditions of Fermentation Temperature and Sea Salt Concentration for Preparing Squid Todarodes paxificus Sikhae (오징어(Todarodes paxificus) 식해의 제조시 발효 온도 및 염도의 최적화 공정 개발)

  • Han, Dae-Won;Kim, So-Ra;Im, Mi-Jin;Cho, Soon-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2012
  • Squid Sikhae is traditional salt-fermented food in Korea. We evaluated the standardization of optimal processing conditions for desirable quality-controlled squid Sikhae using analyses of physiochemical properties, microbiological species, and organoleptic tests. Among several squid Sikhae preparation processes, the optimal fermentation temperature sun-dried sea salt concentration, and fermentation period for squid Sikhae of acceptable quality were $10^{\circ}C$, 4%, and 6 days, respectively. Amino-N and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) contents of the acceptable quality squid Sikhae were 162.51 mg/100 g and 15.25 mg/100 g, respectively.

Processing of Dried Products of Ascidian , Halocynthia roretzi (우렁쉥이 건제품 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kang-Ho;Hong, Byeong-Il;Jung, Byung-Chun;Cho, Ho-Sung;Lee, Dong-Ho;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 1994
  • In this study, processing of dried products of adcidian , Haocynthia roretzi, were investigated, which has been cultured in the south and east coast of Korea in recent years. Raw ascidians were shucked , gutted, soaked and then drained. Seven kinds of dried ascidian meats were prepared : boiled in 5% slat solution for 10 min and hot-air dried (A)-sun dried (B) or hot-air dried (C) after soaking for 1 min in 0.2% NaHSO3 solution , sun dried (D) or hot -air dried (G) after treating for 15 sec in 5% liquid smoke solution, and sun dried (E) or hot -air dried (F) after blanching for 30 sec in boiling 5% salt solution added with 0.2% NaHSO3. The moisture contents, water activity of the products showed little change and VBN gradually increased during storage at 25 $\pm$2$^{\circ}C$. The TBA and POV values of the liquid smoked dried ascidian (product D, G0 were considerably lower than those of others, In fatty acid composition 22 : 6 , 20 : 5 : 16: 0 and 18 : 1 acid were predominant. Conditions adopted in products D and G had a good antioxidative effect on highly unsatuated fatty acids during the storage. The contents of inosine and AMP of products were higher than those of other nucleotide and their related compounds. Judging from the results of chemical experiments and sensory evaluation, the sample A, D and G were most desirable and they could be preserved more than 120 days at room temperature(25$\pm$2$^{\circ}C$).

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Single Dose Toxicity Studies of the Bamboo Salt (Jukyum) in rats (죽염에 대한 단회투여 독성시험연구)

  • 김준규;이봉훈;서경원;박미경;박창원;안진홍;홍충만;조대현
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.273-277
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    • 2001
  • Though the bamboo salt, called as "JUKYUM" has been widely used in Korea as panacea, it's toxicity were not screened completely. To investigate the toxicity of bamboo salt, we compared with the toxicity of crude salt and reagent-grade NaCl by performing single dose oral toxicity test in SD rats. Crude salt, natural sun-dried salt (crude salt) production, was purchased from the western seashore of Korean peninsular, and reagent-grade NaCl was purchased from Sigma company. Results of the single dose oral toxicity tests on bamboo salt, crude salt and reagent-grade NaCl to SD rats are as follows, $LD_{50}$ of bamboo salt was 4174mg/kg (male) and 4074mg/kg (female), that of crude salt was 4871mg/kg (male) and 4898mg/kg (female) and that of reagent-grade NaCl was 4247mg/kg (male) and 4025mg/kg (female), respectively. There were little differences in clinical signs and gross legions among groups. Finding of gross autopsy and necropsy of bamboo salt treated group were similar to other groups.er groups.

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