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Mosquito Control Efficacy of a BtPlus Insecticide and Its Safety Assessment to Aquatic Environment (비티플러스 살충제의 모기 방제 효과 및 환경생물에 대한 안전성 평가)

  • Park, Youngjin;Ryu, Sungmin;Kwon, Bowon;Park, Chan;Kim, Jin;Kim, Yonggyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2016
  • BtPlus is a group of biopesticides that are made of Bacillus thuringiensis and immunosuppressant. A new BtPlus that exhibits high insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae has been investigated in control efficacy in field conditions and its environmental safety against aquatic system. This study assessed the control efficacy of BtPlus against mosquito larvae with two different application methods. In aerial spraying application (100 mL per $3.3m^2$), BtPlus was effective at 50% or above formulation concentrations to control mosquito larvae. For a direct application to aqueous mosquito habitat, a semi-field mimicking paddy rice field was constructed. In this condition, BtPlus showed 80% and 100% control efficacies at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations, respectively. BtPlus also showed 40% mortality against adults at 0.1% concentration in 10% sugar bait. However, its control efficacies against adults were much less than against larvae. Safety assessment of BtPlus against ecosystem was evaluated using young carp (Cyprinus carpio), a water flea (Daphnia magna), and a honey bee (Apis mellifera). BtPlus did not give any adverse effects on these nontarget organisms. Based on these results, BtPlus can be applied to control mosquitoes by direct aqueous application to paddy rice field.

A Study on Joseon Royal Cuisine through Sachanbalgi of the Jangseogak Archives - Focusing on Royal Birthday, Child birth, Weddings and Funerals- (장서각 소장 사찬발기를 통한 조선왕실의 사찬음식 연구 - 탄일, 출산, 가례, 상례를 중심으로 -)

  • Chung, Hae-Kyung;Shin, Dayeon;Woo, Nariyah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.508-533
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the Sachanbalgi, which record the royal feasts given by the royal family of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. These records are contained within the Gungjung Balgi, which recorded the types and quantity of items used in royal court ceremonies. The Eumsikbalgi is the general name for the records of food found within this document. Using these Eumsikbalgi, and in particular the Sachanbalgi, this study investigated the food eaten and bestowed by the Joseon royal family. The Sachanbalgi describes four categories or occasions of feasts: royal birthdays, childbirth, royal weddings, and funerals. These records allow us to reconstruct who the attendees were and what the table settings and food were for instances not directly indicated in oral records, books, or other documents. The food at these Sachan (feasts) was diverse, being related to the specific event, and its contents varied based on the position of the person who was receiving the food. Usually, Bab (rice) was not found at a Sachanbalgi, and only on two occasions were meals with Bab observed. Specifically, it was served with Gwaktang (seaweed soup) at a childbirth feast. There were seven kinds of soups and stews that appeared in the Sachanbalgi: Gwaktang, Yeonpo (octopus soup), Japtang (mixed food stew), Chogyetang (chilled chicken soup), Sinseonro (royal hot pot), and Yukjang (beef and soybean paste). Nureumjeok (grilled brochette) and Saengchijeok (pheasant), and Ganjeonyueo (pan-fried cow liver fillet) and Saengseonjeonyueo (pan-fried fish fillet) were eaten. Yangjeonyueo, Haejeon, Tigakjeon (pan-fried kelp) and other dishes, known and unknown, were also recorded. Boiled meat slices appeared at high frequency (40 times) in the records; likewise, 22 kinds of rice cake and traditional sweets were frequently served at feasts. Five kinds of non-alcoholic beverages were provided. Seasonal fruits and nuts, such as fresh pear or fresh chestnut, are thought to have been served following the event. In addition, a variety of dishes including salted dry fish, boiled dish, kimchi, fruit preserved in honey, seasoned vegetables, mustard seeds, fish, porridge, fillet, steamed dishes, stir-fried dishes, vegetable wraps, fruit preserved in sugar, and jellied foods were given to guests, and noodles appear 16 times in the records. Courtiers were given Banhap, Tanghap, Myeonhap, wooden bowls, or lunchboxes. The types of food provided at royal events tracked the season. In addition, considering that for feasts food of the royal household was set out for receptions of guests, cooking instructions for the food in the lunchbox-type feasts followed the cooking instructions used in the royal kitchen at the given time. Previous studies on royal cuisine have dealt mostly with the Jineosang presented to the king, but in the Sachanbalgi, the food given by the royal family to its relatives, retainers, and attendants is recorded. The study of this document is important because it extends the knowledge regarding the food of the royal families of the Joseon Dynasty. The analysis of Sachanbalgi and the results of empirical research conducted to reconstruct the precise nature of that food will improve modern knowledge of royal cuisine.

Quality Characteristics of Brown Rice Dasik added with Chia Seed according to Different Types of Sweetener (감미료의 종류를 달리한 치아씨 첨가 현미다식의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ja-Kyung;Yoo, Seung-Seok
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2017
  • The present study was performed to develop healthier sweeteners for brown rice Dasik with chia seed powder. The quality features and sensory evaluation were tested for brown rice Dasik with chia seed powder added with five different sweeteners and the results are as follows. The Dasik (DS) with isomalto-oligosaccharide and starch syrup received the highest scores on moisture content tests. The results from hardness tests identified the DS with agave syrup as the hardest, and the results from the adhesiveness test verified that the DS with agave syrup as well as the DS with starch syrup produce the most adhesive DS. The results of the springiness test show that the DS with starch syrup has higher springiness than other sweetners. The highest score for the chewiness and cohesiveness tests was the DS with starch syrup, while the DS with isomalto-oligosaccharide received the highest score on the gumminess test. The results of the chromaticity measurement test found that the DS with starch syrup showed the highest score of 'L' and the lowest score with fructo-oligosaccharide. In addition, the highest score of 'a' was DS with isomalto-oligosaccharide and the lowest score of 'b' was the DS with starch syrup. The results of sugar content displayed that the DS with starch syrup was the highest and the DS with fructo-oligosaccharide was the lowest score. The results of sensory evaluation verified that color did not influence evaluators' preference investigation. The results of sweet flavor test found that the DS with honey and the DS with agave syrup had the most preferred by participants, but there was no statistically significant difference among all five different sweeteners from the sweet taste test. Furthermore, the DS with agave syrup received the highest score while the DS with agave syrup scored the lowest from the hardness preference test. General preference evaluation identified the highest score with the addition of fructo-oligosaccharide and the lowest score with the addition of isomalto-oligosaccharide. Thus, the findings of the present study provide the meaningful results to demonstrate the DS with fructo-oligosaccharide is the most suitable sweetener to manufacture brown rice DS added by chia seed powder, and this result will help marketers with creating meaningful strategies and with developing similar products using chia seed powder.

Physicochemical properties and oxidative stabilities of chicken breast jerky treated various sweetening agents (당침지 처리된 닭 가슴살 육포의 이화학적 특성 및 산화안정성)

  • Nam, Dong-Geon;Jeong, Beom-Gyun;Chun, Jiyeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.84-92
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    • 2017
  • Chicken breast jerky (CJ) was prepared by drying chicken breast at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs after marinating it in a various sweetening sauce including white sugar (WS), brown sugar (BS), rice syrup (RS), fructooligosaccharide (FO), pineapple concentrate (PC), Rubus coreanus extract (RCE), or honey (H), and its physicochemical and sensory properties were investigated. The CJ was found to contain 22.5-25.0% moisture, 41.0-46.6% protein, and 0.4-1.0% fat, which indicates that it could serve as a high-protein and low-fat snack. The type of sweeteners significantly affected the yield, pH, total viable cell count, and water activity of the CJ, showing ranges of 40.9-50.1%, 5.2-5.9, $2.5-6.2{\times}10^4CFU/g$, and 0.74-0.81, respectively. Both the water activity and pH were the lowest in CJ-RCE where of the highest in CJ-WS. The cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the CJ significantly differed depending on the type of sweeteners (p<0.05). CJ-RCE showed the best taste and overall acceptability in a sensory test. After storage at $50^{\circ}C$ for 2 weeks, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content (58.3 malondialdehyde (MDA) mg/kg) of CJ-RCE was much lower than those of control beef (75.6 MDA mg/kg) and pork jerky (98.0 MDA mg/kg), showing the good oxidative stability of CJ-RCE. Overall, marination in RCE sauce was suitable for the preparation of CJ with good quality in terms of its water activity, fat and protein contents, sensory property and oxidative stability.

Inhibitory Effects of Functional Sujeonggwa (Cinnamon Drink) on Lipid Peroxidation and DNA Damage in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic ApoE Knockout Mice (고콜레스테롤혈증 ApoE Knockout 마우스에서 기능성 수정과의 지질과산화 및 산화적 DNA 손상 억제 효과)

  • Park, Eunju;Baek, Aran;Kim, Mijeong;Lee, Seon Woo;Lee, Eunji;Choi, Mi-Joo;Lee, Jeehyun;Song, Yeong Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1627-1634
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    • 2014
  • The recipe for sujeonggwa, a Korean traditional sweet drink containing cinnamon, ginger, sugar, or honey, was modified by replacing sugar with alternative sweeteners [stevia or short-chain frutooligosaccharide (scFOS)] in order to improve the health functionality of sujeonggwa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of modified sujeonggwa on lipid peroxidation and oxidized DNA damage in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic ApoE knockout mice. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in 6-week-old male mice by administration of a high cholesterol diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid, and 10% coconut oil) for 4 weeks, after which mice were divided into five groups: sucrose solution-fed control group, sujeonggwa containing sucrose group, sucrose+stevia group, sucrose+stevia+scFOS group, and commercially available sujeonggwa group as a positive control. After 6 weeks, sujeonggwa supplementation resulted in reduced hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), regardless of sweetener type. However, reduction of hepatic TBARS by commercially available sujeonggwa was insignificant. Both endogenous and $H_2O_2$-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes and splenocytes were significantly reduced only in the sujeonggwa containing stevia group compared to the sucrose-fed control group. There were no significant effects of sujeonggwa supplementation on total radical trapping potential, lipid peroxidation, or DNA damage in blood. These results suggest that sujeonggwa has protective effects against hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in hepatocytes or splenocytes from diet-induced hypercholesterolemic ApoE knockout mice, and the type of sweetener should be modified to improve the health benefits of sujeonggwa.

Control of the Fruit-Piercing moths (과실 흡수나방의 방제효과)

  • Yoon Ju-Kyung;Kim Kwang-Soo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 1977
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the insect-proof netting, chemical sprays, application of attractants, fruit bagging and light trapping as the control methods of the fruit piercing moths in the orchards on reclaimed land in Sugyeri, Goksung, Chonnam Province, during June to October in 1976. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Insect-proof. netting effectively decreased fruit damage, compared as to the control, down to $9.4\%$ from $38.3\%$ in plum, $2.5\%$ from $53.0\%$ in peaches and $10.0\%$ from $29.0\%$ in grapes. 2. The control effects of chemicals varied significantly among the 7 insecticides tested: Deoclean, Naphthalene, and Thiometon were more effective to the fruit damages as low as $2.0\%,\; 3.6\%,\;and\;5.9\%$ respectively. while the fruit damage was rather high, $9.8\%$ for Demeton, $10.1\%$, for Takju +lead arsenate and $14.2\%$ for Padan. ,3. In the test with 7 attractants, the largest number of moths attracted and killed was 416.by Takju+brown sugar and the next was 307 by Takju+venegor while this number was 141 by mixed solution (see text) which is rather lower than expectation The fruit damage was lowest in Takju+honey and$5.2\%$, the next was $5.60\%$ for Takju+venegor and the highest was $12.0\%$, Takju alone. 4. Fruit bagging with polyethylene film effectively decreased the fruit damage from the inserts but brought about severe fruit rot and delay ripening. Meanwhile, paper bagging was less effective in preventing insects, resulting in $17.5\%$ fruit damage, however, gave no adverse effect other than slight Belay in ripening. 5. Light trapping was hardly expected to be a method of controlling these fruit piercing moths. However, the number of collected moths swarmed by electric light was 10.8 for can-descence, 0.95 for blue, and 0.22 for yellow light.

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Effect of GA Paste on Physiological Fruit Drop and Fruit Characteristics in 'Formosa' Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) (GA 도포제 처리가 '포모사' 자두의 생리적 낙과 및 과실 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Seok Kyu;Bae, Haejin;Yoon, Ik Koo;Nam, Eun Young;Kwon, Jung Hyun;Jun, Ji Hae;Chung, Kyeong Ho
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2013
  • Fruit drop is a serious problem in plum trees during fruit development after pollination and fertilization. In order to increase fruit yields, physiological fruit drop in plum trees at the early stages of fruit development must be reduced. In this study, the effect of gibberellic acid paste (GA paste 2.7%) applied on 'Formosa' plum was determined to reduce fruit drop. GA paste was applied one time on one set of the fruit stalk at 3 days after full bloom (DAFB), and on another set of the fruit stalk at 13 DAFB, and then the fruit-set rate was observed at 70 DAFB. GA paste application increased the fruit-set rate up to 61%. In 'Formosa', the time of GA application had a strong influence on reducing fruit drop. GA application increased the fruit-set rate up to 61% in treatments at 3 DAFB, and to 15% in treatments at 13 DAFB when the fruit-set rate was 5% in the control group. The same results were observed in 'Honey Red' and 'Akihime' plums. GA application impacted on fruit enlargement in the 'Formosa' cultivar, compared with the control trees, which had no GA application. The rate of fruit enlargement with GA application was similar to that of the control fruits until 70 DAFB, whereas the enlargement rate was slightly higher in the GAtreated trees than the control from 70 DAFB until harvest. In GA-treated fruit, fruit weight increased more than in the control, while total acidity and firmness was lower than in the control group. Additionally, GA application accelerated sucrose increase in maturing fruit. Our data indicated that GA paste application can reduce fruit drop, and subtly promote fruit enlargement and maturation in plum trees.

Fermentation Conditions for High Acceptability of Korean Traditional Fermented Beverage Kyejang (전통 발효음청류 계장의 기호도 우수 발효조건)

  • Jung, Jin-Kyoung;Song, Kyung-Mo;Yi, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Han, Young-Sook;Lee, Myung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2015
  • Kyejang is a Korean traditional beverage manufactured from medicinal plants and fruits using honey, sugar, or starch in cold water. In this study, cinnamon-containing kyejang, which is a type of beverage Jang, was reproduced based on Imwonsibyukji's method published in 1827 in the Korean literature. Kyejang made by nuruk, cinnamon, and medicinal plants was prepared at various temperatures and periods. Kyejang was assayed for physiochemical properties (pH and acidity), contents of metabolites (organic acids, sugars, and amino acids), and sensory characteristics (aroma and taste). During fermentation, content of organic acids (e.g. lactic acid, acetic acid, and shikimic acid) increased, which lowered pH, increased acidity, and increased intensity of sour taste. In the case of free sugars, fructose and maltose levels decreased while glucose and mannitol levels increased during fermentation periods, and sweetness decreased. The main amino acid in kyejang was tryptophan, followed by asparagine, proline, and arginine. The sensory evaluation score of overall preference was highest for kyejang which was fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 3 days. The results will be provide the basic data of fermentation conditions for standardized manufacturing process of kyejang.