• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sugar cane

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The Foliage of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) or Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as a Substitute for a Rice Bran - Soya Bean Concentrate in the Diet of Lactating Goats

  • Mui, Nguyen Thi;Ledin, Inger;Uden, Peter;Binh, Dinh Van
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2002
  • Ninety lactating goats (Bachthao, Barbary, Beetal and Jamnapary breeds) were used in an experiment to investigate the replacement value of the tree fodders Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) and Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The foliages were used to replace the concentrate in diets based on chopped whole sugar cane (Sacharatum sp.), Para grass (Brachiaria mutica) and dried cassava root (Manihot esculanta). The concentrate was replaced by foliage of Jackfruit or Flemingia at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on the crude protein (CP) content in the concentrate and foliages, respectively. Average milk yield was 1,617 g/day for goats fed Jackfruit compared to 1,532 g/day for those fed Flemingia. Increasing amounts of Flemingia foliage resulted in reduced dry matter intake and decreased milk yield but milk composition (CP, casein and fat content) was similar up to 60% replacement. Flemingia showed a poor potential as a supplement for lactating goats and replacement levels should not exceed 20% of the protein in the concentrate or 7.5% of the dry matter in the diet. With respect to the combination of milk production and net return over the control a CP replacement rate of 20% was the most promising. For Jackfruit there was similar feed intake and milk yield at a replacement level of 20% of CP in the concentrate (9.2% of DM intake) compared to the control diet. Milk yield at the level of 40% replacement (15% of the DM) in the diet was slightly reduced. Up to a level of CP replacement rate of 60% (21% DM in the diet) can be suggested for on-farm testing as a higher net return over the control was obtained on station.

Long-term Bias of Internal Markers in Sheep and Goat Digestion Trials

  • De Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto;Garcia, Rasmo;Vieira Pires, Aureliano Jose;Silva, Roberio Rodrigues;Detmann, Edenio;Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes;Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2013
  • Two digestion trials, one with sheep and another with goats, were conducted to evaluate the long-term bias (LTB) of the indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) internal markers. The study used eight Santa In$\hat{e}$s castrated male sheep (average body weight of 16.6 kg) distributed in two $4{\times}4$ Latin squares and eight Saanen castrated male goats (average body weight of 22.6 kg) distributed in two $4{\times}4$ Latin squares. The experiments were conducted simultaneously, and the animals were housed in 1.2 $m^2$ individual pens with wood-battened floors equipped with individual feeders and drinkers. The animals received isonitrogenous diets that were offered ad libitum and contained 14% crude protein and 70% sugar cane (with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% CaO, in natural matter percentage), corrected with 1% urea and 30% concentrate. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods of 14 d each, with the feed, leftovers and feces sampled on the last four days of each period. The marker concentrations in the feed, leftovers and fecal samples were estimated by an in situ ruminal incubation procedure with a duration 240 h. The relationship between the intake and excretion of the markers was obtained by adjusting a simple linear regression model, independently from the treatment (diets) fixed effects and Latin squares. For both the sheep and goats, a complete recovery of the iDM and iNDF markers was observed (p>0.05), indicating the absence of LTB for these markers. However, the iADF was not completely recovered, exhibiting an LTB of -9.12% (p<0.05) in the sheep evaluation and -3.02% (p<0.05) in the goat evaluation.

Techno-economic Evaluation of an Ethanol Production Process for Biomass Waste (바이오매스 폐기물의 에탄올 생산 공정의 기술경제성 평가)

  • Gwak, In-seop;Hwang, Jong-Ha;Lee, See Hoon
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2016
  • Extensive efforts from all over the world have been made to solve energy problems, such as high oil prices, global warning due to the depletion of oil. Among them, biofuel has been drawing attention as a clean energy, which can replace fossil fuels. However, conventional biofuels were often converted from eatable biomass such as sugar cane, corn and soy which should be replaced with uneatable biomass. In this study, a techno-economical evaluation of the gasification of biomass waste with mixed alcohol synthesis process was performed. Considering available domestic biomass wastes, a 2000 ton/day conversion plant were assumed to produce 533000 L/day ethanol. Also, financial data from previous studies were evaluated and used and economical sensitivities with various operation conditions were established. Economic analysis were conducted by the payback period and internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV). Sensitivity analyses of raw material costs, initial investment, the major process cost, ethanol price changes and operating costs were all performed.

Effect of Dietary Fiber Sources on Chewing Activity in Sheep (섬유소 공급원이 면양의 저작행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, M.H.;Lee, S.R.;Seo, I.J.;Maeng, W.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.639-646
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    • 2007
  • To evaluate the effect of fiber sources on chewing activity, five sheep were consecutively fed diets containing 45% of a fiber source selected from 7 tested fiber sources of alfalfa hay cube(AHC), corn cob (CC), corn silage(CS), cotton seed hull(CSH), peanut hull(PHL), rice straw(RS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Number of chew showed significantly higher value in CC(p<0.001) then other sources. RS and CC had highest(p<0.01) rumination times of 352 and 367 min/d, respectively. CC also showed the highest number of chew per kg NDF intake(p<0.01), but rumination time per kg NDF intake showed no difference except CSH(p<0.001). These results suggest that chewing activities were greatly affected by the fiber sources, and therefore it should be accounted in the formulation for ruminant feed.

Ensiling of Sweet Potato Leaves (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) and the Nutritive Value of Sweet Potato Leaf Silage for Growing Pigs

  • An, Le Van;Lindberg, Jan Erik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.497-503
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    • 2004
  • The effect of adding carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs to sweet potato leaves (SPL) on silage quality was studied using a total of 180 laboratory silos. Silage quality was assessed by changes of pH, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ammonia nitrogen ($NH_{3}$-N). Pre-wilted SPL was mixed with cassava root meal (CRM), sweet potato root meal (SPM) or sugar cane molasses (Mo) at levels of 0, 30, 60 and 90 g $kg^{-1}$ (air-dry weight of additives to pre-wilted weight of SPL). Samples for assessing silage quality were collected after mixing the SPL with the additive and thereafter at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of ensiling. There was a marked decrease in pH after 7 days and the pH remained low and stable until day 56. Addition of 60 and 90 g $kg^{-1}$ resulted in a lower pH (p<0.05) than the other treatments. The DM content of the silage increased (p<0.05) with increasing levels of additive, while there were no differences in DM with time of ensiling. The CP content of the silage decreased (p<0.05) with increasing levels of additive. The CP content did not change up to 28 days, but was lower (p<0.05) after 56 days in all treatments. The $NH_{3}$-N levels were increasing (p<0.05) with time of ensiling, and were lower (p<0.05) with additive levels of 60 g $kg^{-1}$ or higher. Also, the additive source affected the $NH_{3}$-N values, with the lowest values found for Mo. Castrated male pigs (Large White$\times$Mongcai) were used in 4$\times$4 Latin square design to study the total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) utilisation of diets with inclusion of ensiled SPL. The diets were based on cassava root meal with inclusion of protein from either fish meal (C) or SPL ensiled with CRM (D1), SPL ensiled with SPM (D2) and SPL ensiled with Mo (D3). The digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and CP were higher (p<0.05), and the digestibility of crude fibre (CF) was lower (p<0.05), in diet C than in diets D1, D2 and D3. However, there were no differences (p>0.05) in digestibility of dietary components between diets D1, D2 and D3. Also, the excretion of N in faeces was higher (p<0.05) and the N retention was lower (p<0.05) in diets D1, D2 and D3 than in diet C. It can be concluded from the present experiments, that a good quality silage can be produced from pre-wilted SPL by addition of 60 g $kg^{-1}$ of either CRM, SPM or Mo. Diets with inclusion of 450 g ensiled SPL $kg^{-1}$ DM showed a high digestibility of dietary components and thus ensiled SPL should be considered as a potential feed resource for growing pigs.

Effects of Fiber Sources on Ruminal pH, Buffering Capacity and Digestibility in Sheep (섬유소 공급원이 면양의 반추위 pH, Buffering Capacity 및 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, In-Jun;Kim, Myeong-Hwa;Kim, Dong-Sik;Lee, Sang-Rak;Maeng, Won-Jai
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to study the effect of fiber sources on ruminal pH and buffering capacity and whole digestive tract digestibility with five ruminally fistulated sheep. Evaluated fiber sources were alfalfa hay cube (AHC), corn cob (CC), com silage (CS), cotton seed hull (CSH), peanut hull (PHL), rice straw (RS), and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Sheep were fed consecutively a diet containing each tested fiber source $(45\%)$ with a corn-based concentrate diets $(55\%)$ during each experimental period. Ruminal pH showed no difference among fiber sources except the significantly lower pH at 8h (p<0.05) with RS (pH; 5.78) than those in other sources. Buffering capacity showed significant differences at 0h (p<0.05) and 2h (p<0.05) after feeding in CS compared to those from SCB and CC, while there was higher in PHL (p<0.01) at 12h post feeding except AHC than CC, CS, SCB, and RS. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher in CS (p<0.001) than in other sources. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher in CC, CS, CSH, and RS than other fiber sources (p<0.001). These results suggest that ruminal pH and buffering capacity and whole digestive track digestibility were significantly affected by fiber sources in ruminant diet, and, therefore, should be took those effects into account for TMR formulation.

Development of "Miscanthus" the Promising Bioenergy Crop (유망 바이오에너지작물 "억새" 개발)

  • Moon, Youn-Ho;Koo, Bon-Cheol;Choi, Yoyng-Hwan;Ahn, Seung-Hyun;Bark, Surn-Teh;Cha, Young-Lok;An, Gi-Hong;Kim, Jung-Kon;Suh, Sae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.330-339
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    • 2010
  • In order to suggest correct direction of researches on Miscanthus spp. which are promising bioenergy crop, authors had reviewed and summarized various literature about botanical taxonomy, morphology and present condition of breeding, cultivation and utilization of miscanthus. Among the genus of Miscanthus which are known 17 species, the most important species are M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus which origin are East Asia including Korea, and M. x giganteus which is inter-specific hybrid of tetraploid M. sacchariflorus and diploid M. sinensis. Miscanthus is superior to other energy crops in resistance to poor environments including cold, saline and damp soil, nitrogen utilization efficiency, budget of input energy and carbon which are required for producing biomass and output which are stored in biomass. The major species for production of energy and industrial products including construction material in Europe, USA and Canada is M. x giganteus which was introduced from Japan in 1930s. In present, many breeding programs are conducted to supplement demerits of present varieties and to develop "Miscanes" which is hybrid of miscanthus and sugar cane. In Korea, the researches on breeding and cultivation of miscanthus were initiated in 2007 by collecting germplasms, and developed "Goedae-Uksae 1" which is high biomass yield and "mass propagation method of miscanthus" which can improve propagation efficiency in 2009. In order to develop "Korean miscanthus industry" in future, the superior varieties available not only domestic but also foreign market should be developed by new breeding method including molecular markers. Researches on production process of cellulosic bio-ethanol including pre-treatment and saccharification of miscanthus biomass also should be strengthen.

Optimization of Analytical Methods for Octacosanol in Related Health-functional Foods with GC-MS (GC-MS를 이용한 건강기능식품 중 옥타코사놀 분석법 개발 연구)

  • Lee, Jin Hee;Oh, Mi Hyune;Lee, Kyung Jin;Kim, Yang Sun;Keum, Eun Hee;Park, Ji Eun;Cho, Mee Hyun;Seong, Min Hye;Kim, Sang A;Kim, Mee hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2018
  • The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) is amending its test methods for health-functional foods (dietary food supplements) to establish regulatory standards and specifications in Korea. In this regard, we continue our research on developing analytical methods for the items. Octacosanol is the major component of polycosanol and is a high-molecular-mass primary fatty alcohol, obtained from sugar cane wax. Previous researchers have shown that octacosanol can lower cholesterol and has antiaggregatory properties, cytoprotective uses, and ergogenic properties for human health. Recently, octacosanol products have been actively introduced into the domestic market because of their functional biological activity. We have developed a sensitive and selective test method for octacosanol that the TMS derivatives by means of gas-chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The trimethylsilyl ether derivative of the target analyte showed excellent chromatographic properties. The procedure was validated in the range of $12.5{\sim}200{\mu}g/L$. Standard calibration curves presented linearity with the correlation coefficient ($r^2$) > 0.999, and the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were $4.5{\mu}g/L$ and $13.8{\mu}g/L$, respectively. The high recoveries (92.5 to 108.8%) and precision (1.8 to 2.4%) obtained are in accordance with the established validation criteria. Our research can provide scientific evidence to amend the octacosanol test method for the Health-Functional Food Code.