• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sugar cane

Search Result 48, Processing Time 0.053 seconds

Cattle Production on Small Holder Farms in East Java, Indonesia: I. Household and Farming Characteristics

  • Winarto, P.S.;Leegwater, P.H.;;Ibrahim, M.N.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.220-225
    • /
    • 2000
  • A general household survey was carried out in the village of Sonoageng in East Java, Indonesia with the aim to assess their socio-economic status, and the crop and livestock production system prevailing in the area. Of the households interviewed (164), 52% are landless, 35% own land or have a combination of own and shared land, and 12% do not own land but have access to land by sharing. Nearly two thirds (65%) of the households raise cattle; most of them own animals, 8% reared shared animals only. The dominant crop was rice; other crops grown were soya bean, groundnut, maize and sugar cane. Nearly half (47%) the household income was derived from off-farm work (non-agricultural activities), 33% from crops, 13% from livestock (mainly cattle), and 7% from agricultural labour. Most households kept 1 to 2 animals and only 21 out of 164 households earned more than Rp. 500,000 (~250 US$) per annum from livestock. The most prevalent type of livestock production in the area could be characterized as small-scale cow/calf operation, either by landless households or those with <0.4 ha of land.

Production of Gluconic Acid by Some Local Fungi

  • Shindia, A.A.;El-Sherbeny, G.A.;El-Esawy, A.E.;Sheriff, Y.M.M.M.
    • Mycobiology
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.22-29
    • /
    • 2006
  • Forty-one fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera isolated from Egyptian soil and sugar cane waste samples were tested for their capacity of producing acidity and gluconic acid. For the tests, the fungi were grown on glucose substrate and culture filtrates were examined using paper chromatography analysis. Most of the tested fungi have a relative wide potentiality for total acid production in their filtrates. Nearly 51% of them showed their ability of producing gluconic acid. Aspergillus niger was distinguishable from other species by its capacity to produce substantial amounts of gluconic acid when it was cultivated on a selective medium. The optimized cultural conditions for gluconic acid yields were using submerged culture at $30^{\circ}C$ at initial pH 6.0 for 7 days of incubation. Among the various concentrations of substrate used, glucose (14%, w/v) was found to be the most suitable carbon source for maximal gluconic acid during fermentation. Maximum values of fungal biomass (10.02 g/l) and gluconic acid (58.46 g/l) were obtained when the fungus was grown with 1% peptone as sole nitrogen source. Influence of the concentration of some inorganic salts as well as the rate of aeration on the gluconic acid and biomass production is also described.

Arthrobacter sp. Strain KU001 Isolated from a Thai Soil Degrades Atrazine in the Presence of Inorganic Nitrogen Sources

  • Sajjaphan, Kannika;Heepngoen, Pimpak;Sadowsky, Michael J.;Boonkerd, Nantakorn
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.602-608
    • /
    • 2010
  • An atrazine-degrading bacterium, strain KU001, was obtained from a sugarcane field at the Cane and Sugar Research and Development Center at the Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Thailand. Strain KU001 had a rod-to-coccus morphological cycle during growth. Biolog carbon source analysis indicated that the isolated bacterium was Arthrobacter histidinolovorans. Sequence analysis of the PCR product indicated that the 16S rRNA gene in strain KU001 was 99% identical to the same region in Arthrobacter sp. The atrazine degradation pathway in strain KU001 consisted of the catabolic genes trzN, atzB, and atzC. Strain KU001 was able to use atrazine as a sole nitrogen source for growth, and surprisingly, atrazine degradation was not inhibited in cells grown on ammonium, nitrate, or urea, as compared with cells cultivated on growth-limiting nitrogen sources. During the atrazine degradation process, the supplementation of nitrate completely inhibited atrazine degradation activity in strain KU001, whereas ammonium and urea had no effect on atrazine degradation activity. The addition of strain KU001 to sterile or nonsterile soils resulted in the disappearance of atrazine at a rate that was 4- to 5-fold more than that achieved by the indigenous microbial community. The addition of citrate to soils resulted in enhanced atrazine degradation, where 80% of atrazine disappeared within one day following nutrient supplementation.

Two New Species of Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae) from Sudan (수단산 위축선충과(참선충목) 두 신종에 대한 보고)

  • Elbadri, G.A.A.;Moon, Il-Sung;Lee, Dong-Woon;Choo, Ho-Yul
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.49 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-60
    • /
    • 2010
  • Two new species of Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 from sugar cane fields in Sudan, T. sudanensis and T. elamini are described and illustrated. T. sudanensis is characterized by rather medium body size female, L= 0.692 mm long with rather medium stylet length of 20 - 23 ${\mu}m$. While T. elamini is characterized by medium body size female, L = 0.61 - 0.78 mm long, medium stylet length of 16 - 19 ${\mu}m$. Different characters of two new species are discussed. In addition, vital measurements and brief descriptions of two species are presented.

Citrus Wine-making from Mandarin Orange Produced in Cheju Island (제주도산(濟州道産) 감귤발효주(柑橘醱酵酒)의 양조특성(釀造特性))

  • Koh, Jeong-Sam;Koh, Nam-Kwon;Kang, Soon-Sun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.416-423
    • /
    • 1989
  • In order to produce clear and favorable citrus wine from Citrus unshiu produced in Cheju island, chemical and microbiological processes for alcoholic fermentation were investigated. The ratio of pressed juice passed below 100 mesh sieve and peel of mandarin orange were 55.9% and 25.6% respectively. Orange juice for fermentation source contained 8.85% total sugar, 1.43% total acid and 0.056% volatile acid. Pressed juice was adjusted to 24 degree Brix with cane sugar, and was fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for one month. Starter screened and selected was Saccharomyces cerevisiae IAM 4274. As principal fermentation proceeded for one week, suspended solids began to precipitate slowly after then. After fermentation, clear citrus wine consisted of about 8 degree Brix residual sugar, $13.3{\sim}14.4%$ ethanol, $0.78{\sim}1.11%$ total acid, $0.05{\sim}0.07%$ methanol and $2.25{\sim}3.29%$ extract, was obtained. Color, flavor and taste of citrus wine found good with panel test. Citrus wine which was treated with fungal enzyme derived from Aspergillus niger CCM-4 was cleared much faster, and could be filtered more rapidly than the untreated. The enzyme-producing strain was isolated from field soil of Cheju island and identified.

  • PDF

A Philological Study on The Portulacea (마치현에 대(對)한 문헌적(文獻的) 고찰(考察))

  • Jung, Min-Young;Kang, Mun-Yeo;Lee, Myoung-Jin;Lee, Jun-Hun;Kim, Dae-Su;Kim, Jong-Han;Park, Soo-Yeon;Choi, Jeong-Hwa
    • Herbal Formula Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.21-35
    • /
    • 2007
  • Objectives : The aim of this study is to find the therapeutic meaning of the Portulacea in herbal medication. Methods : About the origin, the component, the processing the drug, the properties and tastes of drugs, the meridian tropism, the effects, the treating disease, the contraindication and the method of administration, I have researched thirty literatures to mention the Portulacea in time sequence. Results : 1. The Portulacea belongs to the Portulacaceae herbs and it consists of noradrenaline, potassium sometimes containing small amounts of dopamine, dopa, malic acid, citric acid, glutamine acid, asparagin acid, alanine, cane sugar, grape sugar, fruit sugar. 2. The processing of drug is wash of water clealy, and remove the foreign substance. Then the drug is cutting to use. The method of burnt to ashes is used, too. 3. The properties and tastes of drugs is acid, cold, nontoxic. The meridian tropism is mainly liver and the large intestine meridian. 4. From old times, Portulacea has come into general use to treat eczema, the rose erysipelas, an acne, hemorrhoids, discharge from the womb etc. because it is effective on neutralizing poison, reduce a swelling, a tumor, an abscess and stopping of bleeding 5. Portulacea must be stoped When person have a weak digestive organ becase it is cold herba. And don't take use with Fish and shellfish. 6. Portulacea is useful method to external care. To use the herba, pulverize amount of property and then apply to the the affected part Conclusions : This study showed that the Portulacea is useful herb to treat of skin disease and useful method to external care.

  • PDF

Characteristics of Sweet Sorghum Germplasm for Bioethanol Production in Reclaimed Soil (간척지 토양에서 바이오에탄올용 단수수 유전자원의 생육특성)

  • Choi, Yong-Hwan;Moon, Youn-Ho;Ahn, Seung-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Mi;Cha, Young-Lok;Koo, Bon-Cheol;Park, Kwang-Geun;Han, Hee-Suk;Kim, Wan-Seok
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.57 no.4
    • /
    • pp.384-388
    • /
    • 2012
  • Variation of major characteristics of 140 sweet sorghum germplasm which had been collected from domestic and foreign countries were investigated to study the possibility of bioethanol production in reclamed soil of Korea. Averages of culm length, ear length, the number of nodes, stem diameter, fresh weight yield, and growth duration from seeding to heading were 175 cm, 26 cm, 9, 11.6 mm, 12.1 t/ha, and 96 days, respectively. Sugar content, which has a great effect on bioethanol, ranged from 5.7 to 23.5 Brix (average 14.1 Brix). Sugar contents of selected two varieties were more than 20 Brix. Fresh weight yield ranged from 20 to 50 t/ha (average 12.1 t/ha). Fresh weight yield of selected three varieties were more than 30 t/ha. Culm length showed highly significant positive correlation with the ear length, the number of nodes, stem diameter, fresh weight yield, and growth duration from seeding to heading. The number of node showed highly significant positive correlation with stem diameter and fresh weight yield. Fresh weight yield showed highly significant positive correlation with culm length, the number of nodes, stem diameter, and growth duration from seeding to heading.

Quality Properties of Honey in Korean Commercial Markets (국내 유통되는 벌꿀의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Song, Ha-Yeon;Moon, Jin-Ah;Shin, Min-Hong;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.46 no.4
    • /
    • pp.432-437
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to examine the quality properties of honey in Korean commercial markets. The moisture content, stable carbon isotope ratio, invert sugar, cane sugar, and hydroxy-methylfurfural (HMF) contents of honey were measured according to the Korea Food Code and AOAC's (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) official methods. The stable carbon isotope ratio ranged from -25.18‰ to -12.60‰, which clearly differed between honey of $C_3$ origin (flower) and $C_4$ origin (artificial). Results of quality measurements revealed a moisture content of 18.12 to 19.70%, fructose content of 36.10 to 43.94%, glucose content of 22.61 to 31.91%, sucrose content of 1.56 to 4.75%, invert sugar content of 64.89 to 72.79%, and HMF content of 4.10 to 78.66 mg/kg. These values demonstrate that the quality of the tested honey meets the standard criteria of the Korean Food Code and Codex. However, it is necessary to reconsider the appropriate criteria for imported honey because it is circulated in the market through a long distribution process.

Synthesis of Zeolites ZSM-5 and ZSM-48 from Gasification Ashes of Agricultural Wastes

  • Lin, Kuen-Song;Lin, Wen-Chiang;Chitsan Lin
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.610-615
    • /
    • 2001
  • Over 800 thousand tons per year (TPY) agricultural biowastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, sugarcane leaf, rice straw, rice husk and corn leaf, are produced in Taiwan. These biomasses are the major types of agricultural wastes and are abundantly available. However, these biowastes cause disposal and landfill problems. Ossification ashes of the agricultural biowastes containing 70-95 % amorphous silica would make the utilization system of agricultural biowaste ashes become highly economically and environmentally attractive. Experimentally, high crystallinity (99%$^{+}$) zeolites ZSM-5 and ZSM-48 synthesized from the reaction mixtures containing a silica source from ashes of these biowastes gasification were investigated. Tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPABr) and 1,6-diamino-hexane (C$_{6}$ DN) were used as structure-directing agents in syntheses of ZSM-5 and ZSM-48, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) data indicated that ZSM-5 or ZSM-48 with a high crystallinity can be obtained within 48 hours of crystallization in the high pressure (15-20 atm) autoclave at 393-473 K. The Si/Al ratios of synthetic zeolite products were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and induced couple plasma/mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS). It was observed that the ZSM-5 crystals a.e composed of hexagonal rod-shaped crystals with typically 8-13 пm in size by SEM. In addition, ZSM-48 crystalline materials are composed of spherical aggregates of needle-shaped or rod-like crystals with typically 2-3 пm in diameter and 6-8 пm in length.h.

  • PDF

A Agricultural Development and Agricultural Regions in Egypt (이집트의 농업 발달과 농업 지역)

  • Lee, Sang-Yool
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
    • /
    • v.10 no.2
    • /
    • pp.479-496
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study attempts to examine Egyptian agricultural development with regard to the social and political changes in the Egypt, and tries to explore the patterns of major crops and those spatial distribution nowadays. Also, land reclamation processes and farming activities are explained. Agricultural development in Egypt has been considerably affected by historical international trade, and those crops such as cotton and sugar cane have been especially protected and controlled as strategic crops by the Egyptian governments. The issues of land ownership have been varied with political environments by periods, but the controls to the strategic crops have been consistently maintained to a degree though some variations. since the 1990s, national liberalization programs also caused to change the agricultural policies which have affected the adjustments of crop production and land use. Spatial distribution of major crops and farming activities are examined in relation to natural environments by Delta, Middle and Upper Egypt, desert areas. The projects of land reclamation after 1952 are evaluated with the effects of government intervention, and the actors in use of the reclaimed lands are investigated.

  • PDF