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Potential of Activated Carbon Derived from Local Common Reed in the Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

  • D-Abdullah, Ibrahim;Girgis, Badie S.;Tmerek, Yassin M.;Badawy, Elsaid H.
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 2010
  • Common reed (Fragmites australis), a local invasive grass, was investigated as a possible feedstock for the production of activated carbon. Dried crushed stems were subjected to impregnation with phosphoric acid (30, 40 and 50%) followed by pyrolysis at $400{\sim}500^{\circ}C$ with final washing and drying. Obtained carbons were characterized by determining: carbon yield, ash content, slurry pH, textural properties and capacity to remove color bodies from factory-grade sugar liquor. Produced carbons possessed surface area up to 700 $m^2/g$, total pore volumes up to 0.37 $cm^3/g$, and proved to be microporous in nature. Decolorization of hot sugar liquor at $80^{\circ}C$ showed degrees of color removal of 60 up to 77% from initial color of 1100~1300 ICU, at a carbon dose of 1.0 g/100 ml liquor. No correlation seems to hold between synthesis conditions and % R but depends on the degree of microporosity. A commercial activated carbon N showed a comparative better color removal capacity of 91%. Common reed proved to be a viable carbon precursor for production of good adsorbing carbon suitable for decolorization in the sugar industry, as well as in other environmental remediation processes.

Nitrogen Balance in Goats Fed Flemingia (Flemingia Macrophylla) and Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Foliage Based Diets and Effect of a Daily Supplementation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on Intake and Digestion

  • Mui, Nguyen Thi;Ledin, Inger;Uden, Peter;Binh, Dinh Van
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.699-707
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    • 2002
  • Diets with foliage of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) or Jackfruit (Artocapus heterophyllus were fed to goats with the objective to study nitrogen (N) balance and effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on intake and digestion. In experiment 1, three male Alpine${\times}$Jamnapary goats with initial weights varying from 26.9 to 27.7 kg were used in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design in the dry season. Three Alpine${\times}$Bachthao crosses, 15.3-16.7 kg, were used in the same design in the wet season. The three diets were based on chopped whole sugar cane complemented with the two green foliages, Jackfruit and Flemingia, or soybean meal (SBM). The level of dry matter (DM) offered was 4% of body weight (BW), 2.7% as foliage and 1.3% as chopped whole sugar cane. The amount of SBM offered was calculated to give the same amount of crude protein (CP) as the foliages. Each experimental period lasted 32 days (14 days for adaptation, 7 days for collection and 10 days for rest). Feed intake, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) and retained nitrogen (N) were measured by total faecal and urine collection. In experiment 2, four male goats (Alpine${\times}$Jamnapary) with initial weights from 17.1 to 23.1 kg were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The four treatments were Jackfruit or Flemingia with or without addition of PEG, which was fed at a level of 5 g/goat and day by mixing with a small amount of rice bran. Each experimental period lasted 15 days (8 days for adaptation, 7 days for collection). Measurements were done as in experiment 1. The DM digestibility was highest (65.9-74.3%) for goats fed the SBM diet in both the dry and wet season. The DM digestibility of goats fed the Jackfruit and the Flemingia diets was similar in both the dry (58.6-59.2% respectively) and the wet season (53.9-56.1% respectively). The CP digestibility was highest (73.0-73.6%) for the SBM diet followed by the Jackfruit diet (47.0-38.5%) and was lowest (36.8-30.0%) for the Flemingia diet in both dry and wet seasons, respectively. The NDF digestibility was low for both the Jackfruit (36.4%) and Flemingia (38.0%) diets in the wet season. All diets resulted in a positive N balance. The N retention was highest (0.465-0.604 g/kg $W^{0.75}$) in the SBM diets and lowest (0.012-0.250 g/kg $W^{0.75}$) in the Flemingia diet. Addition of PEG had no effect on feed intake for any of the diets. PEG added in the Flemingia diet had a positive effect only on NDF digestibility, but the digestibility of the Jackfruit diet was significantly increased. Supplementation with PEG reduced digestibility and N retention of Flemingia, possibly because of the low tannin level, but increased digestibility and N retention for Jackfruit foliage.

Waste Reuse in Sugar Industries

  • Ansari, Abdul Khalique
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 2001
  • Pakistan being the 6$^{th}$ largest sugar producer has over 75 sugar mills with annual production capacity of about 2.4 million tons during 1996-97. The contribution of Sindh with 27 sugar mills is recorded over 50% of the total sugar production. The majority of the mills in Pakistan use the Defecation-Remelt-Phosphitation (DRP; 24 mills), Defecation-Remelt-Carbonation (DRC; 21 mills) and Defecation-Remelt Carbonation and Sulphitation (DRCS; 11 mills) process. Seven of the 75 sugar mills in Pakistan also produce industrial alcohol from molasses, a by- product of sugar manufacturing process. These sugar industries also produce fly ash, which have been found to contain unburned carbon and reach as far as four-kilo meter area with the wind direction, threatening the community health of people living around, besides posing other aesthetic problems. The untreated wastewater, in many cases, finds its way to open surface drains causing serious threat to livestock, flora and fauna. One study showed that fly ash emitted from the chimneys contain particle size ranging from 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ to 1000 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. About 50 per cent of each fly ash samples were above 300 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in size and were mostly unburned Carbon particles, which produced 85% weight loss on burning in air atmosphere at 1000${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. This fly ash (mostly carbon) was the main cause of many health and aesthetic problems in the sugar mill vicinity. The environmental challenge for the local sugar mills is associated with liquid waste gaseous emission and solid waste. This paper discusses various waste recycling technologies and practices in sugar industries of Pakistan. The application of EM technology and Biogas technology has proved very successful in reusing the sugar industry wastewater and mud, which otherwise were going waste.

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Yeast Cell Cultivation of Produce Active Dry Yeast with Improved Viability (생존능이 증진된 활성 건조효모 생산을 위한 효모세포배양)

  • Kim, Geun;Kim, Jae-Yun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.561-565
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    • 1999
  • Optimum conditions for vacuum-drying ad cultivation of yeast cells for the production of active dry yeast were examined. At lower temperature, more drying time was required to dry the yeast pellet to reach the desirable water content(8%). Optimum temperature of vaccum oven and time for drying was 63$^{\circ}C$ and 90 min, respectively. Optimum medium composition for flask culture using cane molasses as the substrate were 0.25% sugar, 0.013% $K_2$HPO$_4$, 0.1% $K_2$HPO$_4$. and 0.125% (NH$_4$)$_2$SO$_4$. Culture temperature $25^{\circ}C$ gave the highest survival rate of dired yeast. After finishing fed-batch culture and the culture was left in the fermentor without adding any sugar or nutrient, survival of the dried yeast harvested from the fermentor increased to 86.0% after 36 hr. It was also observed that the yeast cells with higher budding rates showed lower survival rate.

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NIS quality analysis of pre- and post-harvest sugarcane.

  • Johnson, Sarah E.;Berding, Nils
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1621-1621
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    • 2001
  • The quality of sugarcane grown on the NE Australian tropical coast ($16^{\circ}$15'- $18^{\circ}$15' S Lat.) has declined markedly in the past seven years. This has been linked to dilution of mill-supply cane with increasing levels of non mature-stalk material consisting of leaves and sucker culms. The prime research objective was to examine the transition from the pre-harvest, in-field crop to harvested material sent for processing, in terms of quality and crop fraction proportions. A secondary objective was to quantify the effects of preharvest-season crop habit and culm condition on crop quality. Ten quadrat samples from each of 54 random crop sites (17 in 1999 and 37 in 2000), covering a wide range of variables (cultivar, crop class, and edaphic, topographic, climatic, and temporal factors) were collected immediately before harvest. Samples were partitioned into four fractions:- sound and unsound mature stalks (culms), sucker culms, and extraneous matter (leaves). Material harvested from each site was sampled and partitioned into four fractions:- sound and unsound billets (culm pieces), culm-spindle pieces, and leaf. In 2000, before harvest, 14 additional sites were sampled monthly, on three occasions, from March - June. Erect and non-erect culms were divided into sound and unsound classes. All samples were disintegrated and presented to a remote reflectance module of a scanning spectrophotometer using the BSES large cassette module. Near infra-red spectroscopic (NIS) analyses were developed for the rapid determination of quality components (Brix, commercial cane sugar (CCS), fibre, moisture, and polariscope reading). Calibrations for three material groups (culm (n = 639), non-culm (n = 496), and combined) were developed for all components using the 1999 data set. Two sub-sets (n = 178, and 190) of about 10% of the preharvest-season and harvest populations scanned in 2000 also were subjected to full routine laboratory analyses. The 1999 combined calibrations were excellent, but the culm calibrations produced consistently lower standard errors. Non-culm calibrations were marginally better than the combined for only CCS and pol. reading. Analysis of the 2000 culm data with calibrations using all 1999 and 2000 culm data resulted in better predictions relative to the 1999 culm calibrations. This also was true for the combined calibrations. Assessment of quality components in pre- and post-harvest sugarcane using NIS calibrations was more cost effective than using routine laboratory techniques. Outcomes from this NIS-facilitated research will have important economic consequences for the Australian sugarcane industry. Potential CCS present in mature culms is being discounted by dilution with leaves and sucker culms, threatening farm viability. The results question the efficacy of current harvesting technology. The CCS of harvested cane is improved only marginally over that of the in-field crop. Current harvesting technology requires either supplementary, innovative pre-mill processing or a design revolution to improve mill-supply cane quality, and therefore whole of industry economics. NIS-facilitated analyses, before the harvest season, highlighted the benefits of growing erect, sound crops. Loss of CCS then, can be minimized only by a combination of crop improvement and agronomic solutions, applied as part of sound on-farm management.

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Characteristic components of sugar-fed honey compared to natural honey (설탕 사양꿀의 특이 성분 분석)

  • Kim, Se-Gun;Hong, In-Phyo;Woo, Soon-Ok;Jang, Hye-Ri;Han, Sang-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.355-359
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    • 2017
  • We investigated and compared certain chemical properties of Korean natural honey and sugar-fed honey for assessing quality characteristics. The specification component was extracted using an organic solvent, and a single substance was isolated and identified as (E)-2-decenedioic acid. The content of (E)-2-decenedioic acid was $121{\pm}5.9mg/100g$ in sugar cane-fed honey and $127{\pm}4.5mg/100g$ in sugar beet-fed honey. Natural acacia, chestnut, and multi-floral honey contain $13{\pm}0.9$, $17{\pm}0.6$, and $13{\pm}1.3mg/100g$ of honey, respectively. Therefore, (E)-2-decenedioic acid was a major component of sugar-fed honey, however, it occurred in trace amounts in natural honey. We conclude that natural and sugar-fed honey can be distinguished by determining the (E)-2-decenedioic acid content.

Studies on the Comparative Analysis of Immunofunction of Agaricus blazei Murill Cultivated with Fermented Media Containing Pueraria thunbergiana (칡혼합 발효배지로 생산된 신령버섯의 면역기능성 비교 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김주남;서정식;박동철
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 2002
  • This research was performed to investigate the immnomodulative effects of ploysaccharides extracted from the fruiting body of Agarcus blazei cultivated with the media which are fermented with sugar cane bagasse containing Pueraria thunbergiana in open-air storage. In MTT test, methanol extracts from the fruiting body of A. blazei cultivated with P. thunbergiana media showed in colon carcinoma line(HT29) by 1.5∼3.5 fold and human heptoma cell line (HepG2) by 1.3 ∼2.4 fold antitumor activites compared to two types media (rice straw plus sugar cane bagasse, rice straw only) often used in the fauns. To clarify the antimutagenic principles, three extracts, Ab-l, Ab-2 and Ab-3, were separated by the solvent fractionations such as hot water, cold & hot sodium hydroxide respectively, and their antimutagenic effects was determined against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-cnitrso-guanidine(MNNG) using Salmonella typhymurium. There was no significant differencies of inhibition levels among the used media, but Ab-3 tractions still showed a high antimutagenicity in the Ames test regardless of cultivating areas or media. To prove the cell immunofunction, nitric oxide (NO) produced from Raw 264.7 matrophage cultured with three fractions (Ab-l, Ab-2, Ab-3) was measured, and showed generally increase about 45 ∼58 percent compared to another two media (rice straw plus sugar cane bagasse, rice straw only), in the fraction of hot alklai extracts of the fruiting body cultivated with P. thunbergiana, which means that the media selection could be very important factors for improving medicinal effects in agaricus blazei fruiting body.

Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

  • Oltramari, C.E.;Napoles, G.G.O.;De Paula, M.R.;Silva, J.T.;Gallo, M.P.C.;Pasetti, M.H.O.;Bittar, C.M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.971-978
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

Processing of Low Sugar Jams from Fig Pulp Treated with Pectinesterase (저당성 무화과 잼의 제조)

  • Hou, Won-Nyoung;Kim, Myoung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 1998
  • The change of pectinesterase (PE) activity and pectin substances in fig fruit were investigated and low sugar jams prepared by various methods from fig fruit were compared. Fig fruit PE, which began to show the activity at the harvest time, was not inactivated and had slight activity during frozen storage at $-25^{\circ}C$. The amount of alcohol insoluble solid (AIS) and the degree of esterification (DE) of AIS were reduced by its own PE activity. However the intrinsic PE of fig fruit was not enough to make low-methoxyl pectin below 50% of DE. Fig pulp treated by its own PE and combination of fig PE and orange PE could make low-methoxyl pectin. After PE treatments, fig pulp adjusted below pH 4.0 by addition of citric acid kept red colour. Fig Jams processed by various methods had lower soluble solid $(31{\sim}49^{\circ}Brix)$ compared with conventional fig jam. Five kinds of fig jams out of those showed higher score than others in the sensory evaluation. For preparation of the five jams, the fig pulps with or without 1% pectin were treated at $50^{\circ}C$ for 25 minutes with addition of orange PE (200 units/400 g pulp). The treated pulps were added with 0.25% citric acid, 0.7% calcium and 20% cane sugar. The mixed pulps were prepared for jams containing low sugar by hot plate or microwave or refrigeration (excepting the mixed pulp without pectin).

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SMALL SCALE DAIRYING IN THREE FARMING SYSTEMS IN EAST JAVA II. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF DAIRYING

  • Widodo, M.W.;de Jong, R.;Moll, H.A.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 1994
  • The indonesian government wishes to increase farmers' by encouraging dairy farming. Since 1980, imported dairy cattle have been distributed on credit. Survey data from 1990 were used to study the average milk sales per cow and the economic parameters of dairy production of a sample of farm households on seven milk cooperatives East Java Province, in three agro-ecological areas, oriented to sugar cane, cassava and horticulture, respectively. in general, dairy production proved not to be economically attractive as returns to labour were similar to the rates for agricultural labour. The returns showed marked differences among the three areas studied. They were highest in the horticultural area. Analysis of the dairy units according to size showed a tendency for inputs as well as revenue per cow to decline as herd size increased. It is argued that a further increase in milk production in East Java can be stimulated by raising the farm gate price of milk, or by expanding dairy production into suitable, new areas.