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Physiochemical and Quality Characteristics of Young Radish (Yulmoo) Kimchi Cultivated by Organic Farming (유기농법에 의해 재배된 열무김치의 품질 및 기능적 특성)

  • Jung, Su-Jin;So, Byung-Ok;Shin, Sang-Wook;Noh, Sun-Ok;Jung, Eun-Soo;Chae, Soo-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.8
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    • pp.1197-1206
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    • 2014
  • This study compared and analyzed the physiochemical and quality characteristics of young radish kimchi made with YR-FNC or YR-GC cultivated by organic farming as well as kimchi made with young radish cultivated by chemical composting/general farming (YR-Control). YR-Control showed higher contents of water and crude protein than YR-FNC and YR-GC kimchi but lower contents of crude ash, dietary fiber, and vitamin C. YR-FNC and YR-GC kimchi also showed higher contents of P and Cu than YR-Control but lower contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn. YR-Control fermentation progressed faster than that of YR-FNC or YR-GC after 24 days, and YR-Control more rapidly reached an appropriate pH. On the other hand, YR-FNC and YR-GC kimchi fermentation progressed slow and did not reach a pH level below 5.3. For period of fermentation, YR-Control and YR-FNC kimchi showed no significant difference in reducing sugar content, whereas that of YR-GC kimchi decreased significantly after 24 days of fermentation (P<0.002). YR-FNC and YR-GC kimchi showed 1.5~3 times higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents than YR-Control at the beginning of fermentation, whereas YR-Control and YR-FNC kimchi showed a significant increase in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents during the fermentation period. By day 7 of fermentation, YR-FNC kimchi showed higher contents of lactic acid bacteria and total microbes than YR-Control. In the sensory evaluation, YR-FNC and YR-GC kimchi showed higher preference values than YR-Control. Therefore, kimchi made from young radish cultivated by organic farming has a longer freshness period than control kimchi and is characterized by excellent sensory quality, increased physiological contents, and improved beneficial health effects.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Galactomannan by Fractionation to Evaluate Heterogeneity (불균일 성질을 평가하기 위한 분획화된 galactomannan의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Yee;Lee, Eun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.428-433
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    • 2013
  • Heterogenous samples of locust bean gum (galactomannan) were prepared into homogeneous substances. Locust bean gum was fractioned using ammonium sulfate (14.11-23.08%, w/w). The intrinsic viscosity was obtained by extrapolating reduced viscosity versus concentration by using an Ubbelohde viscometer. The ranges of intrinsic viscosity for fractions that not included protein (F3-F6) and fractions that included protein (F1-F2) were 9.89-8.10 and 8.44-4.59, respectively. Values for Huggins' coefficient (k'), which depends on physical interactions, were 0.46-0.78. Increasing ammonium sulfate concentration was associated with a weak trend towards lower molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC): $M_w$ ranged from 674 to 617 kg/mol and [${\eta}$] from 9.80 to 8.10 dL/g between F3 and F6. The evaluations of those fractions by using SEC and the Ubbelohde viscometer produced very similar values, as predicted. We verified the application of a gradient of ammonium sulfate to precipitate locust bean gum into fractions of different molecular size and show structural variations.

Quality Characteristics of Soy Ice Cream Prepared with Fermented Soybean Powder Base and Oligosaccharide and Its Blood Glucose Lowering Effect (대두분말 발효 베이스와 올리고당으로 제조한 콩아이스크림의 품질특성과 혈당개선능)

  • Park, In-Kyung;Yang, Sun-Hee;Choi, Young-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to improve the quality characteristics of soy ice cream supplemented with oligosaccharide, and to test its blood glucose lowering effect. Boiled soybean powder was compared to parched soybean powder and to milk, as an ingredient. The soybean powder base was prepared by incubating with fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and apple juice, along with Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bulgaricus at $30-40^{circ}C$ for 24 hr. With the fermentation process, the fishy smell of the soybean was removed and the taste improved. The overrun and melt-down values of the boiled soybean ice cream were significantly higher than those of the parched soybean ice cream, although they were significantly lower than those of the milk ice cream. The sensory characteristics of the soy ice cream prepared with the fermented base of boiled soybeans were significantly improved, as compared to those of the ice cream made using parched soybeans, but they were not significantly different from those of the milk ice cream. The blood glucose level at 120 min after ingestion of the ice cream prepared with FOS and the fermented base of boiled soybean powder was significantly lower than that occurring with the milk ice cream made with sugar.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Traditional Fermented Soybean Products Manufactured in Folk Villages of Sunchang Region (순창 고추장민속마을에서 생산한 전통 장류의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jong-Wook;Kim, Yong-Suk;Jeong, Pyeong-Hwa;Kim, Hyung-Eun;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2006
  • For standardization of quality of traditional fermented soybean products manufactured in Folk Villages of Sunchang Region, the physicochemical characteristics of 28 Kochujang, 28 Doenjang, and 18 Chunggukjang were compared. Moisture contents of Kochujang, Doenjang, and Chunggukjang were $46.9{\pm}3.6,\;60.6{\pm}1.9,\;and\;57.0{\pm}3.10%$, respectively. On the basis of average moisture contents, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash contents were calculated to $6.2{\pm}0.7,\;2.0{\pm}0.5,\;and\;8.2{\pm}1.1%$ in Kochujang, $13.2{\pm}1.0,\;7.1{\pm}0.6,\;and\;15.2{\pm}1.5%$ in Doenjang, and $18.9{\pm}1.2,\;6.1{\pm}1.4,\;and\;5.1{\pm}1.7%$ in Chunggukjang, respectively. Reducing sugar, salinity, and water activities in Kochujang were $19.25{\pm}4.1%,\;7.3{\pm}1.1%,\;and\;0.790{\pm}0.003$, in Doenjang were $2.38{\pm}0.89%,\;14.2{\pm}1.4%,\;and\;0.835{\pm}0.020$, and in Chunggukjang were $0.51{\pm}0.24%,\;4.2{\pm}1.6%,\;and\;0.962{\pm}0.028$, respectively. Amino-type nitrogen contents, which affects delicate flavors of fermented soybean products, of Kochujang, Doenjang, and Chunggukjang were $114.03{\pm}19.04,\;734.32{\pm}147.70,\;and\;600{\pm}150mg%$, respectively. Lightness (l), redness (a), and yellowness (b) values in color of Kochujang were $14.49{\pm}1.44,\;15.45{\pm}1.77,\;and\;8.34{\pm}1.02$, respectively, and the redness was lower than that of other ones. Those of Doenjang were $26.69{\pm}4.33,\;7.25{\pm}1.03,\;and\;12.02{\pm}1.82$, respectively, and those of Chunggukjang were $35.62{\pm}2.05,\;6.31{\pm}0.37,\;and\;13.50{\pm}0.78$, respectively. These results indicate that the salt concentration and quality of traditional fermented soybean products manufactured in Folk Villages of Sunchang region must be lowered and standardized, respectively.

A Study on Contents of Sugar and the Activities of Amylase in Enzyme Foods and Enzyme-shaped Foods (효소식품과 효소표방식품 중 아밀라아제 활성과 당 함량 조사연구)

  • Kim, Myeong-Gil;Oh, Moon-Seog;Kang, Suk-Ho;Kim, Han-Taek;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the contents of sugars and ${\alpha}$-amylase and ${\beta}$-amylase activities in 98 specimen with enzyme foods and enzyme-shaped foods (the other processed foods, beverage bases, fermented drinks, liquid teas). The ${\alpha}$-amylase activity in enzyme foods and the other processed foods were ranged 4.9~53,854.6 U/g and 2.9~1,182.7 U/g, respectively, there was a big difference in the same type. The ${\alpha}$-amylase activity of the fermented products (beverage bases, fermented drinks, liquid teas) were ranged 0.1~1.7 U/g. The average of ${\beta}$-amylase activity in enzyme foods, the other processed foods, the fermented products were found 126.0 U/g, 5.6 U/g and 10.5 U/g, respectively, enzyme-shaped foods were a lot lower than enzyme foods. Total contents of sugars were average 22.4 g/100 g in enzyme foods, 14.8 g/100 g in the other processed foods, 46.9 g/100 g in beverage bases, 41.1 g/100 g in fermented drinks, 39.5 g/100 g in liquid teas, total contents of sugars appeared high amount in the fermented products. Correlations between ${\alpha}$-amylase activity and lactose content was statistically significant in enzyme foods (r = 0.644) and it was strong in the other processed foods (r = 0.903). Correlations between ${\beta}$-amylase activity and lactose content was statistically significant in enzyme foods (r = 0.648) and it was strong in the other processed foods (r = 0.757). There was a significant relationship between ${\alpha}$-amylase and ${\beta}$-amylase activities in enzyme foods and the other processed foods (r = 0.869, r = 0.760). That is, it was found that also the proportional relationship established among the ${\alpha}$-amylase activity, ${\beta}$-amylase activity.

Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Traditional Kamju Using Extruded Rice Collet Powder (압출 쌀 콜렛 분말을 사용한 전통 감주의 제조 및 이화학적 품질 특성)

  • Je, Hae-Soo;Kang, Kyung-Hun;Park, Si-Young;Choi, Byeong-Dae;Kang, Young-Mi;Kim, Jeong-Gyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical quality properties and provide basic data for the activation of traditional Kamju of juice type product prepared by mixing malt and extruded rice collet powder. Malt extracts were prepared by extracting the mixture of malt and water at a weight ratio of 25:75 after soaking for 2 h at $45^{\circ}C$. Rice collet powder was prepared by adjusting the barrel temperature to $95^{\circ}C$, screw speed to $3.07{\times}g$, discharge port diameter to 7 mm and a raw material input to 50 kg/h, the powder was then ground to a particle size of 80 mesh. The physicochemical characteristics (pH, color, viscosity, reducing sugars, number of viable cells, free amino acids) and sensory evaluations were conducted at various time points during the saccharification and at different mixing ratios of the extruded rice collet powder to malt extract (5:95, 15:85, 25:75, 35:65, each at $55^{\circ}C$ for 9 h). As a result, with an increase in the proportion of the extruded rice collet powder and saccharification time, the physicochemical properties of traditional Kamju significantly improved (p<0.05). A mixing ratio of 35:65 rice collet powder to malt extract and a saccharification time of 9 h were found to be the most desirable conditions. However, based on the sensory evaluation, a mixing ratio of rice collet powder and malt extract of 25:75 and a saccharification time of 5 h resulted in the most preferable palatability of traditional Kamju (p<0.05). Therefore, the mixing ratio and saccharification time should be determined to provide a better choice with respect to the taste and economic aspects of traditional Kamju.

Relevance of Serum Vitamin D and Indices Related To Cardiovascular Disease Among Korean Adults (한국 성인의 혈청 비타민 D 수준과 심혈관 질환 관련 지표와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Han-Soo;Ryu, So-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated the relationship between Vitamin D levels and indices related to cardiovascular disease in Korean adults aged ${\geq}19years$. The data for analysis were obtained from the sixth Korea National Health Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the incidence of Vitamin D deficiency was 73.1% among Korean adults and that indices related to cardiovascular disease showed an increasing trend (55.6% of Korean adults). The relationship between Vitamin D levels and indices related to cardiovascular disease with controlled physical activity status was also studied. The odds ratios (ORs) for age were 1.72 for the 4-62 years age group (95% CI, 1.53-1.93) and 2.05 for the ${\geq}65years$ age group (95% CI, 1.71-2.45). For blood pressure, the OR for pre-hypertension was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and that for hypertension was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.11-1.54). For body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.66) and that for waist circumference (WC) was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.66). For fasting blood sugar (FBS), the OR for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and that for diabetes mellitus (DM) was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.65). The OR for total cholesterol (TC) was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.11-1.52) and that for triglycerides (TG) was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.37) in Korean adults. There was a significant relationship between Vitamin D and indices related to cardiovascular disease in Korean adults with respect to age, blood pressure, FBS, BMI, TC and TG. Confirmation of a causal relationship between Vitamin D and indices related to cardiovascular disease may require further research consisting of more systematic cohort studies.

Changes in oligosaccharide content during the storage period of maesil cheong formulated with functional oligosaccharides (기능성 올리고당으로 제조한 매실청의 저장기간 중 올리고당 함량 변화)

  • Bae, Moon-Joo;Yoo, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to produce the health functional food maesil cheong by replacing sucrose with isomaltooligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide. The substitution levels of these oligosaccharides were between 10% and 100%. A 1:1 (w/w) mixture of maesil and sugar was adopted for preparing maesil cheong. The pH of maesil cheong remained unchanged (between 2.72 and 3.00) during 90-day storage period, regardless of oligosaccharide content. Citric and malic acids were identified in maesil cheong; citric acid accounted for 71-82% of the total organic acid content. Sucrose was completely liquefied in the sample after 30 days and was hydrolyzed steadily into fructose and glucose over the storage period. More than 75% of isomaltooligosaccharides remained in maesil cheong after 90 days when sucrose was completely replaced with isomaltooligosaccharide. However, fructooligosaccharides were mostly decomposed at the end of storage period. Thus, isomaltooligosaccharides may be suitable for acidic maesil cheong products to expect its health functional effect.

Effects of Seeding Dates on the Growth Characteristics, Dry Matter Yield and Feed Value of Teosinte New Variety, "Geukdong 6" [Zea mays L. subsp. mexicana (Schrad.) H. H. Iltis] (파종시기가 테오신트 [Zea mays L. subsp. mexicana (Schrad.) H. H. Iltis] 신품종 "극동 6호"의 생육 특성, 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Gyeong Suk;Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of seeding dates and cultivated period on the growth characteristics, dry matter yield and feed value of Teosinte new variety "Geukdong 6"[Zea mays L. subsp. mexicana (Schrad.) H. H. Iltis]for feed. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of five time seeding dates, 10 May(T1), 25 May(T2), 10 June(T3), 25 June(T4) and 10 July(T5), and same time harvesting, 22 October. Therefore, growing period were 164 days(T1), 149 days(T2), 134 days(T3), 119 days(T4) and 103 days(T5), respectively. In growth stage at harvest time, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were early flowering, end heading, middle heading, early heading and early heading stage, respectively. Plant length and dead leaf were highest in T1, but leaf width and number of leaf were highest in T2 than others (p<0.05). Leaf length, stem diameter and number of tiller were not significantly different among the treatments (p<0.05). Stem hardness was higher in order of T1(2.0)> T2(1.9) > T3=T4(1.7) > T5($1.2kg/cm^2$). Fresh yield and dry matter yield showed significantly higher as the sowing time was faster and the cultivation period was longer (T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > T5, p<0.05). Crude protein, crude fat and TDN content were highest in T5, but ADF and NDF content were highest in T1 than others (p<0.05). T1, T2 and T3 showed significantly higher crude protein yield compared to T4 and T5 (p<0.05). Total digestible nutrients yield were higher in order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > T5 (p<0.05), and relative feed value were higher in order of T5 > T4 > T3 > T2 > T1 (p<0.05). Based on the above results, seeding dates could be recommended from the early May to the late May, and it is efficient that the cultivation period is over 150 days for dry matter yield, crude protein yield and total digestible nutrients yield.

Evaluation of the Anti-oxidant Activity of Pueraria Extract Fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus BHN-LAB 76 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus BHN-LAB 76에 의한 Pueraria 발효 추출물의 항산화 활성 평가)

  • Kim, Byung-Hyuk;Jang, Jong-Ok;Lee, Jun-Hyeong;Park, Ye-Eun;Kim, Jung-Gyu;Yoon, Yeo-Cho;Jeong, Su Jin;Kwon, Gi-Seok;Lee, Jung-Bok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.545-554
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    • 2019
  • The phytochemical compounds of Pueraria, a medicinally important leguminous plant, include various isoflavones that have weak estrogenic activity and a potential role in preventing chronic disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and postmenopausal syndrome. However, the major isoflavones are derivatives of puerarin and occur mainly as unabsorbable and biologically inactive glycosides. The bioavailability of the glucosides can be increased by hydrolysis of the sugar moiety using ${\beta}$-glucosidase. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of a Pueraria extract after fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus BHN-LAB 76. The L. rhamnosus BHN-LAB 76 strain was inoculated into Pueraria powder and fermented at $37^{\circ}C$ for 72 hr. The total polyphenol content of the Pueraria extract increased by about 134% and the total flavonoid content increased around 110% after fermentation with L. rhamnosus BHN-LAB 76 when compared to a non-fermented Pueraria extract. Superoxide dismutase-like activities, DPPH radical scavenging, and ABTS radical scavenging increased by approximately 213%, 190%, and 107%, respectively, in the fermented Pueraria extract compared to the non-fermented Pueraria extract. Fermentation of Pueraria extracts with L. rhamnosus BHN-LAB 76 is therefore possible and can effectively increase the antioxidant effects. These results can be applied to the development of improved foods and cosmetic materials.