• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sugar

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Effect of Fructose on the Quality of the Bread added with Sugar Alcohol (과당 첨가가 당알코올 첨가빵의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.889-898
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    • 2016
  • This study was to evaluate the characteristics of bread and the rheology of flour dough containing sugar alcohols, after addition of fructose. In the farinogram tests, the addition of sugar alcohol changed the stability and mixing tolerance index. The stability and mixing tolerance index of farinogram increased as the amount of sugar alcohols increased. Amylograms revealed that the increase in gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity of wheat flour dough with sugar alcohols was more than that of controls. Extensogram of dough with sugar alcohols exhibited higher extensibility and resistance. After fermentation treatment, the dough volumes prepared with only sorbitol and xylitol were lesser than those prepared after addition of fructose. The volume of loaf and specific volume of bread containing sugar alcohols with fructose significantly increased. The breads containing sugar alcohols showed greater taste, flavor and texture scores, for breads prepared with either sorbitol with fructose or xylitol with fructose, compared to breads without fructose. Overall preference scores by sensory evaluation of bread containing sugar alcohols with fructose were higher than bread with only sugar alcohols. These results indicate that the addition of fructose improves the flavor of bread containing sugar alcohols.

In Vitro Sugar Accumulation in Juice Sacs of 'Shiranuhi' Mandarin

  • Moon, Doo-Gyung;Han, Sung-Gap;Joa, Jae-Ho;Kim, Chun-Hwan;Seong, Ki-Cheol
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.269-274
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    • 2013
  • To further our understanding of sugar accumulation in 'Shiranuhi' mandarin [(C. unshiu ${\times}$ C. sinensis) ${\times}$ C. reticulate], we investigated the patterns of sugar uptake in juice sacs exposed to different concentrations of sucrose, fructose and glucose in vitro. Data was also collected on the change in weight and shape of the in vitro juice sacs over time. Soluble solids content, sugar content and acidity content were highest at 20% sucrose, fructose and glucose solution content; while fructose content was highest at 5% sucrose concentration. Furthermore, the juice sac's fresh weight was highest at 5% sucrose and lowest at 20% fructose content. The shape of the juice sacs also differed in different sugar concentration and type. Overall, sucrose, fructose and glucose content in juice sacs increased with the sugar concentration. These results suggest that sugar translocation into juice sacs is actively induced by high sugar concentration in the medium. Thus, it can be concluded that sugar and acid accumulation in juice sacs increased with sugar concentration in vitro culture.

Effect of Sugar Starvation on the Sugar Transport System in Suspension Cultures of Streptanthus trotus (Streptanthus tortus 배양 세포에서 당류고갈이 당류 수송계에 미치는 영향)

  • 조봉희
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2000
  • In suspension cultures of Streptanthus. the uptake rate of sugar was increased during the ceil starvation of sugar in the medium. The maximal uptake rate obtained with 3 days of cell starvation. Sugar transport system induced by the sugar starvation was completely inhibited by 10 $\mu$M cycloheximide. Plant cells are known to possess only one sugar transport system, but the uptake rate of glucose obtained a saturated kinetic while the one of sucrose had two different kinetics after the sugar starvation. Induced sugar transport systems had different kinetics compared to plant cell. These results showed that higher plants have adaptable ability to induce new sugar transport systems when the environment changed unsuitable.

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A Study on the Diverse Roles of Sugar in Confectionery and Bread-making. (제빵 제과에 다양한 설탕 이용에 관한 연구)

  • 이명호
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.4
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    • pp.249-269
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    • 1998
  • What satisfies the desire of human beings about taste most easily is sweet taste, and it has seemed that the pronoun of sweet taste is sugar. Sugar is used in confectionery and bread-making essentially, and it has influence on the structure and touch of baked confectionery. In addition, if we soften the and apply heat, coloring is made. Thus, it colors good. It doesn't have a sweet taste, but it has the effect to emit fragrance variously, balance and soften the product. The kinds of sugar are very diverse, and it is sugar to be referred to as white sugar is used most frequently. In this study, this researcher examined the classification of physicochemical property and melting point etc. of sugar in confectionery and bread-making through theoretical study, about the simple classification of sugar. In addition, this researcher approached about the role of sugar in confectionery and bread-making and about the influence to have when it is more or less than proper quantity, centering around function. As the result, this researcher extracted the importance of sugar in confectionery and bread-making. It means that the increase of 5% of sugar quantity decreases the absorption quantity of moisture by 1% in bread-making and that the excess of 8% of sugar slow the action of yeast in straight method. Besides, there are the properties such as absorptive property, permeability, storage nature, aging prevention of starch, oxidation restraint of oils and fats, the gelation action of pectin, the fermentation acceleration of yeast, and the emulsification-maintaining-nautre and antiseptics effect of fat-soluble material. And in confectionery, sugar makes fragrance and peel color, increases the storage nature with moisture maintenance and has the softening effect. So, it is considered that the attitude to study and make efforts continuously on the basis of the role of sugar will have to be unfolded in confectionery and bread-making.

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Identification of Sugar-Responsive Genes and Discovery of the New Functions in Plant Cell Wall

  • Lee, Eun-Jeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study is to understand how regulatory mechanisms respond to sugar status for more efficient carbon utilization and source-sink regulation in plants. So, we need to identify and characterize many components of sugar-response pathways for a better understanding of sugar responses. For this end, genes responding change of sugar status were screened using Arabidpsis cDNA arrays, and confirmed thirty-six genes to be regulated by sucrose supply in detached leaves by RNA blot analysis. Eleven of them encoding proteins for amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism were repressed by sugars. The remaining genes induced by sugar supply were for protein synthesis including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. Among them, I focused on three hydrolase genes encoding putative $\beta$-galactosidase, $\beta$-xylosidase, and $\beta$-glucosidase that were transcriptionally induced in sugar starvation. Homology search indicated that these enzymes were involved in hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides. In addition to my results, recent transcriptome analysis suggested multiple genes for cell wall degradation were induced by sugar starvation. Thus, I hypothesized that enzyme for cell wall degradation were synthesized and secreted to hydrolyze cell wall polysaccharides producing carbon source under sugar-starved conditions. In fact, the enzymatic activities of these three enzymes increased in culture medium of Arabidopsis suspension cells under sugar starvation. The $\beta$-galactosidase encoded by At5g56870 was identified as a secretory protein in culture medium of suspension cells by mass spectrometry analysis. This protein was specifically detected under sugar-starved condition with a specific antibody. Induction of these genes was repressed in suspension cells grown with galactose, xylose and glucose as well as with sucrose. In planta, expression of the genes and protein accumulation were detected when photosynthesis was inhibited. Glycosyl hydrolase activity against galactan also increased during sugar starvation. Further, contents of cell wall polysaccharides especially pectin and hemicellulose were markedly decreased associating with sugar starvation in detached leaves. The amount of monosaccharide in pectin and hemicellulose in detached leaves decreased in response to sugar starvation. These results supported my idea that cell wall has one of function to supply carbon source in addition to determination of cell shape and physical support of plant bodies.

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Current status and development direction of the food nutrition safety policy: The first phase of sugar intake reduction plan (식품영양안전 정책 현황 및 발전방향: 1차 당류 저감 종합계획을 중심으로)

  • Jung, Jin-Yee;Park, Sun-Young;Lee, Soon-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The purposes of this study are to refer existing and past domestic and foreign policies and to establish a comprehensive plan to reduce sugar consumption and utilize it as fundamental data to establish and implement relevant policies. Methods: Korean government analyzed domestic and foreign policies and average sugar intake to develop draft of sugar intake reduction plan. Based on the plan, objectives, sections and agendas of the plan were set after taking into account of their feasibility. Results: The policy has three directions: to help sugar intake reduction in all population groups, to create an environment which helps people to make informed decision on lower sugar choices and to lay scientific and statistical foundation for sugar intake reduction plan. The goal is to restrict average sugar intake from processed food to less than 10% of total energy intake per day. Three core strategies are to help reduce intakes of sugar in all population groups, to create an environment which helps people to make informed decision on lower sugar choices and to lay a foundation for sugar intake reduction plan. Each strategies has 2~4 projects. Conclusions: This study is expected to serve as a catalyst for carrying out the first phase of sugar intake reduction plan to help reduce sugar consumption.

Mass Transfer Characteristics and Browning Inhibition by Osmotic Dehydration of Mushrooms (양송이의 삼투압 건조에 따른 물질이동 특성과 갈변억제)

    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.903-907
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    • 1998
  • Mass transfer characteristics during osmotic dehydration of mushrooms(Agaricus bisporus) in sugar solution were studied as a function of sugar concentration, immersion time and temperature, and the effect of osmotic dehydration on browning inhibition of air-dried mushrooms was also evaluated. Increasing the sugar concentration, immersion time and temperature increased moisture loss, sugar gain, molality and rate parameter. The changes of sugar gain and rate parameter were more significantly affected by concentration than by temperature of sugar solutions, while 1$0^{\circ}C$ increase in temperature or 10 Brix increase in concentration had the same effect on water loss. Water loss, sugar gain, molality were rapid in the first period of osmotic dehydration especially in the case of higher concentration and temperature of sugar solutions. Effects of osmotic dehydration in sugar solution(60 Brix, 8$0^{\circ}C$) with 18 min of immersion time(O.D.=0.099) rior to air dehydration on browning inhibition of dried mushrooms were more significant than blanching in water(8$0^{\circ}C$) with the same immersion time(O.D.=0.330) and the control (O.D.=0.559).

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Sensory and mechanical characteristics of Okgalseobyung by Different ratio of Ingredient (옥갈서병의 재료배합에 따른 Texture 특성)

  • 이효지;허수연
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.538-547
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    • 2000
  • Ok-gal-seo-byung is a steamed rice cake which is made from rice flour mixed with com powder, sugars and cinnamon powder. This study aimed for exploring the best recipe of Ok-gal-seo-byung to popularize it. The most desirable recipe was determined after sensory evaluation and mechanical test for measuring texture, moisture content and colorimetry. In case of mixing rice flour with yellow com powder, the best result on each item was obtained in the following conditions: 15% of yellow com powder with honey for color, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar for flavor and sweetness, 5% of yellow com powder with honey for graininess, 5% of yellow com powder with sugar for moistness and chewiness, and 10% of yellow corn powder with sugar for overall quality. When glutinous com powder was used, the conditions giving the best results were as follows: 20% of glutinous com powder with sugar for color, graininess and chewiness, 30% of glutinous com powder with sugar for flavor, 10% of glutinous com powder with sugar for moistness and sweetness, 20% of glutinous com powder with sugar for overall quality. The best condition for each textural property was as follows: 10% of yellow com powder with sugar and 20% of glutinous com powder with sugar for springiness, 5% of yellow com powder with sugar and 30% of glutinous com powder with sugar for cohesiveness, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar and 20% of glutinous corn powder with honey for chewiness, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar and 30% of glutinous com powder with oligosaccharides for gumminess, 5% of yellow com powder with sugar and 10% of glutinous corn powder with sugar adhesiveness, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar and 30% of glutinous com powder with oligosaccharides for hardness. Moisture content in Ok-gal-seo-byung with yellow com powder and with glutinous corn powder which gave the most desirable results were 46.108% and 43.623%, respectively. As a result of colorimetry, the highest L value was obtained from 10% yellow com powder or glutinous com powder with oligosaccharides. The highest a value was obtained from 10% yellow com powder or glutinous corn powder with honey. The best b value was obtained from 15% yellow com powder with oligosaccharides and 30% glutinous corn flour with honey. Based on the results, the best recipe for Ok-gal-seo-byung was determined as follows: in case of using yellow corn powder, rice flour 315g, yellow com powder 35g, sugar 60g, water 100$m\ell$, cinnamon powder 0.5g, salt 3.5g, and in case of using glutinous com powder, rice flour 280g, glutinous com flour 70g, sugar 50g, water 110$m\ell$, cinnamon powder 0.5g, salt 3.5g.

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Quality Characteristics of Jeju Mandarin Orange Jellies with Sugar Derivative Sweeteners for Consumption by the Elderly (대체감미료의 첨가에 따른 고령자용 감귤젤리의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Eun-Jung;Lee, Mi-Hye;Oh, Myung-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to determine the quality characteristics of Jeju mandarin orange jellies containing sugar (control) and sugar derivative sweeteners (erythritol, isomaltooligosaccharide, sorbitol, and xylitol) to be consumed by the elderly. The gelling agents were carrageenan and gellan gum at the concentration of 0.27%, respectively. The average age of the subjects for the acceptance test was 78. The lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) values of the carrageenan gel were higher than those of the gellan gum gel using the same sugars. The L, a, and b values of the carrageenan gel made with sugar derivative sweeteners were higher than those of the respective gel made with sugar. Whereas there were almost no differences between the color values of the gellan gum gels made with sugar and sugar derivative sweeteners, respectively. The gelling and melting temperatures of the carrageenan gel with erythritol were highest and those of the respective gel with xylitol were lowest among the sugar derivative sweeteners. The gelling and melting temperatures of the gellan gum gels with erythritol and isomaltooligosaccharide, respectively, were lower, and those of the respective gel made with xylitol were higher compared to that with sugar. There was no break down in the gellan gum gel. The break down rate of the carrageenan gel made with isomaltooligosaccharide was highest and that of the respective gel with xylitol was lowest among the sugar derivative sweeteners. The hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the gellan gum gel were greater compared to the carrageenan gel. The adhesiveness levels of the carrageenan gels made with sugar derivative sweeteners were lower, and their springiness was higher than the respective gel with sugar. All the TPA characteristics of the gellan gum gels made with erythritol and xylitol, respectively, were higher than the respective gel with sugar. The rupture properties of the gels were the same as their TPA characteristics. The sensory acceptance of the carrageenan and gellan gum gels made with sugar were highest among all the sweeteners. There were no significant differences in the sensory acceptance scores of the carrageenan gels made with xylitol, erythritol, and sugar, respectively, and there were also no significant differences in the sensory acceptance scores of the gellan gum gels made with xylitol, sorbitol, and sugar, respectively. Xylitol was preferred in both the carrageenan and gellan gum gels. Thus, xylitol appears to be an appropriate alternative sweetener to sugar in Jeju mandarin orange jelly for consumption by the elderly, with regard to the acceptability and stability of the gel.

Waste Reuse in Sugar Industries

  • Ansari, Abdul Khalique
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 2001
  • Pakistan being the 6$^{th}$ largest sugar producer has over 75 sugar mills with annual production capacity of about 2.4 million tons during 1996-97. The contribution of Sindh with 27 sugar mills is recorded over 50% of the total sugar production. The majority of the mills in Pakistan use the Defecation-Remelt-Phosphitation (DRP; 24 mills), Defecation-Remelt-Carbonation (DRC; 21 mills) and Defecation-Remelt Carbonation and Sulphitation (DRCS; 11 mills) process. Seven of the 75 sugar mills in Pakistan also produce industrial alcohol from molasses, a by- product of sugar manufacturing process. These sugar industries also produce fly ash, which have been found to contain unburned carbon and reach as far as four-kilo meter area with the wind direction, threatening the community health of people living around, besides posing other aesthetic problems. The untreated wastewater, in many cases, finds its way to open surface drains causing serious threat to livestock, flora and fauna. One study showed that fly ash emitted from the chimneys contain particle size ranging from 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ to 1000 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. About 50 per cent of each fly ash samples were above 300 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in size and were mostly unburned Carbon particles, which produced 85% weight loss on burning in air atmosphere at 1000${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. This fly ash (mostly carbon) was the main cause of many health and aesthetic problems in the sugar mill vicinity. The environmental challenge for the local sugar mills is associated with liquid waste gaseous emission and solid waste. This paper discusses various waste recycling technologies and practices in sugar industries of Pakistan. The application of EM technology and Biogas technology has proved very successful in reusing the sugar industry wastewater and mud, which otherwise were going waste.

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