• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sudanese women

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Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer

  • Almobarak, Ahmed O;Elbadawi, Ayman A;Elmadhoun, Wadie M;Elhoweris, Mohammed H;Ahmed, Mohammed H
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.625-630
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    • 2016
  • Background: Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. Results: More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Conclusions: Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

Factors Delaying Presentation of Sudanese Breast Cancer Patients: an Analysis Using Andersen's Model

  • Salih, Alaaddin M;Alfaki, Musab M;Alam-Elhuda, Dafallah M;Nouradyem, Momin M
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2105-2110
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: A multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted to assess factors delaying presentation of breast cancer cases. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from a pair of highly specialized referral centers, both located in the center of the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. For a total of 153 eligible respondents, durations of delay, clinicodemographic factors and reasons of referral were collected from our respondents through self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis and ANOVA were used to test the relation between periods of delay and different factors. Odd ratios (OR's) and their correspondent Confidence intervals (95% CI's). Delay periods were studied with Andersen's model. Results: The average duration of delay in our study was 11.9 (${\pm}11.2$) months. Only a quarter of our patients presented early within the first 3 months after onset of their symptoms. About 47.7% arrived later during the course of the first year, while it took beyond that for the last 27% to come. A prior diagnosis of BC was the only predictor of early presentation (for 3-12 months OR=9.6 (p<0.00), 95% CI 9.55-9.75; for >12 months OR=9.3 (p<0.00), 95% CI 9.33-9.33). Out of the 12 different reasons for delay given by our respondents, none showed a significant difference between patients presenting early or late. Financial incapacity (17.5%), ignorance about BC (14.3), and misinterpreting symptoms (12.7%) were the top three whys of delay. Conclusions: Our findings support existence of a non-uniform pattern of delay among Sudanese BC patients. Changing currently adopted awareness elevating strategies into much more inclusive approaches is strongly recommended.