• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sudan

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Impurity Profiling and Quantification of Sudan III Dyes by HPLC-selective UV Detection

  • Yang, Ki Ryeol;Hong, Ji Yeon;Yoon, Soo Hwan;Hong, Jongki
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.765-769
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    • 2014
  • An analytical methodology was developed for qualitative and quantitative impurity profiling of the coloring agent Sudan III by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD). The impurities in commercial Sudan III were characterized by comparison of their retention times and UV spectra with those of authentic standards. Four impurities regulated by International Committees in Sudan III were quantified by HPLC-selective UV detection. The impurities in Sudan dye were successfully separated on a reversed phase C18-column within 25 min and sensitively detected by UV spectrometry at two selective wavelengths. Method validation was conducted to determine linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of quantification (LOQ). The linear dynamic range extended from 0.002 to 4.0%, with a correlation coefficient (R2) greater than 0.995. The LOQs of the impurities ranged from 8.04 to $54.29{\mu}g/mg$. Based on the established method, the levels of regulated impurities in five commercial Sudan III dyes were determined.

Development of a Simultaneous Analysis Method for Disapproved Coloring Agents in Foods Using HPLC (HPLC를 이용한 식품중 허용 외 색소의 동시분석에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Cheon-Hoe;Lee, Min-Jae;Kim, Keoung-Ok;Lee, Hyoun-Young;Yang, Joo-Hong;Heo, Seok;Park, Jong-Seok;Jang, Yeong-Mi;Kim, Hee-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 2008
  • This study developed the simultaneous analysis method for efficient safety controls of import food of Orange II, Rhodamine B, Para Red, and Sudan dye I-IV among disapproved coloring agents that use is prohibited in foods. The analysis method was developed according to the sample pre-treatment and HPLC conditions, and a documentary survey was used to establish the detection limit of the method, followed by effectiveness verification and recovery percentage examinations. Recovery percentage examination for 26 products resulted Orange II displayed recovery percentage of 96.46-121.26%, Rhodamine B displayed recovery percentage of 70.86-106.53%, Para Red displayed recovery percentage of 97.00-116.86%, Sudan I displayed recovery percentage of 92.93-112.44%, Sudan II displayed recovery percentage of 96.63-115.10%, Sudan III displayed recovery percentage of 92.21-114.73%, Sudan IV displayed recovery percentage of 93.22-122.91%. Correlation coefficient of gradient of this analysis method exhibited more than 0.999, RSD exhibited fewer than 2 as 0.8-1.39%, exactitude exhibited more than 90%. At this time, detection limit and fixed quantity limit decided by each 0.1 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L.

Survey on Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Relation between Tobacco, Alcohol Abuse and Cancer in the Northern State of Sudan

  • Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2483-2486
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    • 2013
  • Background: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of tobacco smoking, toombak dipping and alcohol consumption as risk factors for cancer in the adult population of the northern state of Sudan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2010, covering 963 adults, was performed. Result: Only 207 had responded, and the male female prevalence was 20.8% and 0.73%. Out of 207 respondents, 29.5% had smoked tobacco in their lifetime, 38% were toombak dippers, while 14% were consumers of alcoholic beverages. Conclusions: The prevalence of toombak dipping was higher than tobacco smoking among the adult population in the northern state of Sudan. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies was found to suffer from major obstacles since these habits are considered as social stigma. Appreciation of the full impact of smoking on population health will definitely make a major contribution to improvement of the poor public health situation in Sudan.

Fisheries Resources of Sudan

  • Abd El Magid, Magda Ahmed;Elseed, Salah Mahmoud Hamed
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2008
  • Sudan is the largest country in Africa with an area of $2,505,810km^2$, of water constitutes $129,810km^2$, and cultivable land is 34%. Sudan has a total land boundary of 7,687 km with 9 border countries. This vast country embraces different vegetation patterns reflecting various climatic zones, grading from tropical rain forests in the south through semi-tropical savannah to arid zone in the extreme north, with annual rainfall ranging from 1,600 mm in the south to 25 mm in the north. The aquaculture industry is not developed as yet. Because of their basic characteristics, the Sudan inland and marine capture fisheries are of a small-scale and semi-industrial nature. The demand for fish and fish preparations is growing steadily. The animal resources sector (which includes fisheries) contributes 21% of Sudan GDP. The contribution of fisheries to Sudanese GDP is currently marginal. The per caput supply is only 1.6 kg/year, which is mostly obtained by capture fish landings. Despite the fact that fisheries GDP is extremely low, fish and fish preparations contribute to the food security of a wide sector of the rural and urban communities. Fisheries also provide work opportunities in the form of secondary employment as a source of income that indirectly contributes to household food security.

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A Literature Review of on the Eumchungru in the Royal Palace of Joseon Dynasty (조선왕조 궁중음식(宮中飮食) 중 음청류(飮淸類)의 문헌적 고찰)

  • Oh, Soonduk
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2017
  • This article examines the types of Eumchungru as recorded in 16 royal palace studies of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1909). The types of Eumchungru during the Joseon dynasty appeared Hwachae(花菜), Sujunggwa(水正果), Isug(梨熟), Sumyeon(水麵), Sangseolgo(霜雪膏), Gareun-sujeonggwa(假蓮水正果), Hwamyeon (花麵), Cheongmyeon(淸麵), Semyeon(細麵), Saeng-isug(生梨熟), Osaeg-sudan(五色水團), Sudan(水團), Maeg-sudan(麥水團), Bogbunjago(覆盆子膏), Milsu(蜜水). The frequency of the Eumchungru types during the Joseon dynasty in order were; Hwachae(花菜) 26.4%, Sujunggwa(水正果) 20.7%, Isug(梨熟) 17%, Sumyeon(水麵) Sangseolgo(霜雪膏) each 5.6%, Gareun-sujeonggwa(假蓮水正果) Hwamyeon(花麵) Cheongmyeon(淸麵) each 3.8%, Semyeon(細麵) Saeng-isug(生梨熟) Osaeg-sudan(五色水團) Sudan(水團) Maeg-sudan(麥水團) Bogbunjago(覆盆子膏) Milsu(蜜水) each 1.9%. Through this study, through new lighting and menu development for hwachae used as a basis for hope to contribute to the globalization of Korean food.

Characteristics of Non-ionic Micellar and O/W Microemulsion Systems and Solubilization of Sudan IV (비이온성 미셀용액과 수중유형 마이크로에멀젼계의 특성 및 수단 IV의 가용화)

  • 지웅길;황성주;장은옥;현종목
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.495-505
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    • 1995
  • The O/W microemulsion systems were made from 2 or 4% (w/w) oil (soybean oil, olive oil or isopropyl myristate) and 10, 15 or 20% (w/w) Brij 96. They were compared with micellar solution of equivalent surfactant concentration m therms of physicochemical properties, and the solubilization of sudan IV. They were characterized by dynamic light scattering, stability, surface tension, viscosity and rheogram. The mean diameters of O/W microemulsion systems were 10-15nm, and those of Brij 96 micellar solutions were 18-19 nm. Both of them were monodisperse systems. The O/W microemulsion systems showed Newtonian flow and their apparent viscosities were lower than those of micellar solutions. The surface tensions of O/W microemulsion systems were increased or decreased depending on the types of oil used, when compared with those of micellar solutions. The O/W microemulsion systems were very stable, and did not show any flocculation or aggregation. Their mean diameters were not changed after three months. But oxidation was observed in microemulsions without nitrogen gas at high temperature. There was a significant improvement in the sudan IV solubffimtion in micromulsion compared with that m the micellar solution containing equivalent concentration of surfactant. The size distribution and mean diameters of O/W micromulsions were not changed when sudan IV was solubilized.

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Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in Sudan

  • Quan, Juan-Hua;Choi, In-Wook;Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed;Mohamed, Abdoelohab Saed;Jeong, Hoo-Gn;Lee, Jin-Su;Hong, Sung-Tae;Yong, Tai-Soon;Cha, Guang-Ho;Lee, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2015
  • The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, Sudan, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in Sudan were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in Sudan consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, Sudan.

A Study for Analytical Method of Sudan Colorants in Foods (식품 중 수단색소의 분석법에 관한 연구)

  • 김희연;윤혜정;최장덕;최우정;박선영;이경주;김지혜
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.549-552
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    • 2004
  • A simple, efficient and accurate method was developed for the simultaneous determination of non-permitted oil soluble colorants (sudan I, II, III and IV) in foods. The identification has been carried out for sudan colorants by TLC as well as HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection. Separation of sudan colorants was achieved within 20 min by a gradient elution with water and acetonitrile as eluents. Sudan colorants showed good linear relationships in the range of 0.1 ~ 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curve for sudan colorants exceeded 0.999. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3 : 1) for sudan I, II, III and IV were 0.01, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of red pepper powder, Kimchi and Kakdugi, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 83.02% to 104.3%.

The Study on the South-North Sudan Conflict (남북 수단 분쟁 연구)

  • Cho, Sang-Hyun;Kum, Sang-Moon
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.155-179
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    • 2013
  • Becoming independent in 1956, Sudan has since experienced a number of coups $d^{\prime}{\acute{e}}tat$, religious conflicts between the Islamic north and the Christian south, conflicts between the north-south population composition and races, two civil wars for nearly 40 years due to a clash of interests over resources and others, and the Darfur crisis in which hundreds of thousands died. In 1983, as the Sudanese government forced Islamic laws on the southern region where many Christians lived, the civil war resumed and suffered heavy casualties. Although a brief period of tranquility is maintained at the present moment as South Sudan seceded, military conflicts continue to arise. The objective of this research is to understand the North-South Sudan conflict by examining its history and course. For this purpose, chapter 2 will make a theoretical and reality approach for conflict items and solutions. Chapter 3 will discuss the historical background and reasons for the Sudanese conflict by considering Sudan before 19th century, the Egyptian conquest of Sudan and the diverging North and South, Sudanese independence and other divisions yet again, and finally the North-South conflicts over religion and resources. In Chapter 4, there will be an analysis of the course of the Sudan Civil War by separating it into the First and Second Civil War. In Chapter 5, the consequences and future prospect will be presented in lieu of the conclusion.

Injectable Gel Type Formulation of Hydrated Egg Phosphatidylcholine and Hyaluronate for Local Drug Delivery

  • Kim, Sang-Gyun;Chung, Hesson;Lee, In-Hyun;Kang, Seung-Back;Kwon, Ick-Chan;Sung, Ha-Chin;Jeong, Seo-Young
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2002
  • Injectable gel composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), hyaluronate (HA) and water was formulated for local drug delivery. The lamellar liquid crystalline structure of the egg PC/water system did not change by adding HA in the formulation. However, egg PC/HA/water gel was more resistant to erosion than the egg PC/water gel. The egg PC/HA/water and egg PC/water gels containing model drugs, tetracycline and sudan IV were prepared to perform in vitro and in vivo drug release experiments. In vitro release of tetracycline was sustained in the gel type formulations. The release rate of hydrophobic sudan IV was extremely slow. More than 99% of sudan IV remained inside the gel after 5 days. In vivo release of drugs from the air pouch model in Balb/c mice shows that lipophilic sudan IV remained for more than 10 days whereas tetracycline remained for 1 day in the pouch. The compatibility of the gels was also examined by histopathology. The gels did not cause any adverse inflammatory effect in the air pouch.