• Title, Summary, Keyword: Suckling

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Development of an Incubator for Suckling Pigs (포유자돈용 인큐베이터 개발)

  • 임정택;장동일;한원석
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.371-378
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    • 2001
  • This research devoted to develop an incubator that could make an optimum environment condition according to days of age for suckling pigs to decrease the mortality and improve the rate of the weight gain of the suckling pigs. Results obtained from this research summarized as follows: 1. Several experiments were carried out at the farm to find the effect of incubator developed for suckling pigs on weight gain by season. The total average gain of the weight of the treatment group was around 6∼22kg, and 6∼23kg higher than control group at the first experiment (April 19), at the second (July 30), and at the third (September 23), year of 2000 experiment, respectively. There were no significant differences ($\alpha$=5%) of the total weight gain among treatment groups. There was, however, a significant difference ($\alpha$=5%) of the total weight gain between the control and treatment groups and it was considered to be that the incubator had efficiency for weight gain of the suckling pigs. 2. The survival rate of the control group was 87% in the total sample number of 92, meanwhile, which of the experiment group was 98% in the total sample number of 50 suckling pigs. 3. Finally, economic analysis was executed for suckling pigs based on a farm size of breeding 500 sows. The results showed that a break-even point was around 9 months and the annual profit of ₩52,265,694 was expected after the break-even point.

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Behaviors and body weight of suckling piglets in different social environments

  • Hong, Joon-Ki;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Hwang, Hyun-Su;Lee, Jae-Kang;Eom, Tae-Kyung;Rhim, Shin-Jae
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.902-906
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study was conducted to characterize the behaviors and the body weight of suckling piglets in different social environments. Methods: Two groups of sows and suckling piglets housed either in individual farrowing crates in separate pens ($1.8{\times}2.4m$, the control group) or in groups of three sows with their piglets in farrowing crates in a large common enclosure ($5.4{\times}2.2m$, the treatment group) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3, after mixing. Results: Suckling, agonistic, and elimination behaviors of suckling piglets were significantly higher in the control group than in the treatment group. Inactive behavior was higher in the treatment group than in the control group. Most of the effects of the social environment on the suckling piglets seem to be the result of large reductions in behaviors and body weight for piglets switching from high activity to low activity. Moreover, suckling behavior and birth body weight were highly correlated with body weight at the end of the test. Conclusion: The social environment that resulted from mixing, thus, had significant effects on the behavior and body weight of suckling piglets, and behavioral characteristics, therefore, should be considered when making improvements to the husbandry and care methods used in swine production.

An Evaluation of Suckling and Post Weaning Practices in Relation to the Stimulation and Ease of Detection of Oestrus in Nepalese Pakhribas Pigs

  • Shrestha, NP;Edwards, S.A.;English, P.R;Robertson, J.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.765-770
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    • 2001
  • Thirty second parity sows of the synthetic Nepalese Pakhribas genotype were used to investigate factors which might improve the occurrence and expression of estrus. The experiment had two sequential elements. In part 1, a change in suckling pattern was applied during lactation, and in part 2, different estrus detection methods were evaluated after weaning. All sows received the same pattern of weaning, which imitated the progressive weaning system used in Nepalese villages. Piglets from each litter were weaned at three ages (6, 7 and 8 weeks of age) in the proportion of 0.5 at 6 weeks followed by 0.25 at each of the subsequent weanings. In the first lactation treatment, the suckling pattern was left undisturbed, similar to the practice used in the villages in which the remaining piglets after first weaning are allowed continuous suckling. In the other treatment, the remaining piglets after first weaning were allowed to suckle their sows only during the night, whilst in the day time (09:00-16:00) they were excluded from the sow but left free to roam around. After weaning, estrus detection procedures were carried out in the absence or presence of two different boar stimuli: a synthetic boar pheromone spray or fresh boar urine. These were applied sequentially in a sequence of testing that alternated for each sow on a daily basis. The weaning to re-mating interval was significantly longer for the unrestricted suckling treatment. All sows were re-mated within 30 days after first weaning in the restricted suckling treatment groups, whereas only 71% of sows were re-mated within 30 days after weaning in the unrestricted suckling treatment groups ($x^2=3.877$, 1df, p<0.05). Both boar pheromone spray and boar urine increased the estrus detection probability, with no significant differences between the two stimuli treatments.

Protective Effects of Ig Y against Diarrhea in Suckling Piglets

  • Wen Jin;Han, Jeong-hee;Kwang Jeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Veterinary Pathology Conference
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    • pp.43-43
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    • 2003
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) are an acute viral enteritis. colibacillosis by E coli is a microbial enteritic disease in suckling piglets[1]. These infectious intestinal diarrheal diseases cause severe diarrhea to suckling piglets, so that lead to enormous economical loss in swine-product industries. Ig-Top (AD Biotech, Korea) is a immunomodulator with IgY the specific yolk-antibody for PED, TGE and E. coli and oligosaccharide. The purpose of this study was to investigate protective effects against PED virus, TGE virus E.coli and in suckling piglets by oral administration of the Ig-Top. (omitted)

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Detection of rotavirus and coronavirus from suckling Korean indigenous calves with acute diarrhea

  • Chon, Seung-Ki;Lee, Han-Kyoung;Song, Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2007
  • In order to evaluation of prevalence of rotavirus and/or coronavirus, forty suckling Korean indigenous calves (between 2 and 98 days old) with acute diarrhea were investigated by the immunochromatographic rapid test in the field (veterinary practice) on October and on December 2006. Rotavirus and coronavirus were detected in 13 (32.5%) and 8 (20.0%) of the fecal samples from diarrheal calves, respectively. The highest mortality rate in diarrheal calves occurred in the neonatal period from 2 to 7 days old. Totally, 40.0% of diarrheal calves showing acute enteritis were not detected with rotavirus and/or coronavirus. The rotavirus infection rate was significantly difference (p<0.05) between October and December, and the detection rate of rotavirus was bigger than that of coronavirus. These results suggested that rotavirus can be frequently associated with acute diarrhea of suckling calves and affected with changes of temperature.

Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves

  • Chen, Siyu;Tanaka, Shigefumi;Ogura, Shin-ichiro;Roh, Sanggun;Sato, Shusuke
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1662-1668
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    • 2015
  • We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration ($25.5{\pm}4.9$ [mean${\pm}$standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS ($16.9{\pm}6.7$) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration ($5.8{\pm}2.5$ [mean${\pm}$standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS ($10.0{\pm}2.8$) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations.

Selecting an Effective Sound for Inducing Sows and Their Piglets to Nurse and Suckle (돼지의 수.포유행동 유발에 효과적인 소리의 선정)

  • Jeon, J.H.;Yeon, S.C.;Chang, H.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.627-632
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    • 2003
  • Piglets communicate with their sow by using special sounds and synchronize their suckling behavior with their mother’s grunting. This study sought to find an effective sound for controlling the nursing/suckling behavior of pigs. Eighteen crossbred Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire sows and their piglets were studied on days 1, 7, and 14 post-partum. The parity of the sows was three or four. The litter size ranged from 9 to 11, with a mean of 10.4 piglets. Thirty minutes after the end of the last suckling, either the nursing-suckling sound (NSS) or the nursing-suckling sound + click sound (NSSCS) was played for 90 s randomly, and this experiment was repeated three times. The behavior of the sows and their piglets was recorded using camcorders and observed each second. When comparing NSS and NSSCS, there was less lying and sleeping and more sitting, standing, walking, and massaging when NSSCS was played than when NSS was played. These results suggest that NSSCS may induce more nursing and suckling in pigs than NSS.

Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus infection in Korean suckling pigs

  • Kim, Eun Mi;Kim, Hye Kwon;Park, Seong Jun;Lee, Chul Seung;Luo, Yuzi;Moon, Hyoung Joon;Yang, Jeong Sun;Park, BongKyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.425-428
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    • 2007
  • From January to June 2006, 54 suckling pigs had been submitted in virology lab., College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University. All pigs had suffered from various symptoms such as respiratory sign, enteric signs, neurologic signs, etc. Among 54 pigs, 24 pigs (44.4%) were positive for porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) through reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction. According to this result, HEV infections seemed to be prevalent and widespread in Korean swine farms, and the infection is associated with respiratory signs and neurologic signs more than enteric signs. The HEV positive pigs showing respiratory signs were co-infected with viruses such as PRRSV, and PCV2, or bacteria such as Pasteurella spp. The single infection may subclinically have an influence on outbreak of other respiratory pathogens in suckling pigs.

Effect of autogenous Escherichia coli vaccine in pig (돼지에서 대장균 자가백신 효과)

  • 윤교복;김종술;정동수;박양주;이유섭;한정희
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to investigate the immunogenicity of autogenous E coli vaccines and their preventive effects on diarrhea in suckling piglets. Autogenous E coli live and killed vaccines were made from the E coli strains isolated from piglets showing diarrhea in field. In group I, pregnant sows were administered with live and killed vaccines at 4 and 2 weeks before parturition, respectively, Killed vaccines were administered twice to pregnant sows at 4 and 2 weeks before parturition in group II, and saline instead of autogenous E coli vaccines was administered to pregnant sows in group III for the control. After parturition, antibody titers in colostrum and milk from sows, incidence of diarrhea in suckling piglets, and immunoreactivity in the ileum of piglets from each treatment group were examined. The results were as follows ; 1. Sixty-two strains of E coli were isolated from suckling piglets with diarrhea. Of the strains, K88 pilus and K99 pilus antigens were identified in 6(9.8%) and 4(6.5%), respectively. Molecular weights of K88 and K99 pilus were 27,500 and 18,500 daltons, respectively. 2. Antibody titers in colostrum from sows after parturition were 1 : 512 to 1 : 1,024 in group I, 1.256 to 1.512 in group II, and 1 : 4 to 1 : 16 in group III. 3. The incidences of diarrhea In suckling piglets of group I, II and III were 3.3%, 9.4% and 21.4%, respectively. 4. When the immunoreactivity in the ileum of piglets from each group was examined, the proportion of IgG-immunoreactivity cells in group I or II was higher than that in group III. In conclusion, administration of autogenous E coli vaccines to pregnant sows before parturition can be an effective way to prevent diarrhea in suckling piglets.

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Calf Rearing Systems in Smallholder Dairy Farming Areas of Zimbabwe : A Diadnostic Study of the Nharira-Lancashire Area

  • Mandibaya, W.;Mutisi, C.;Hamudikuwanda, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 1999
  • A formal survey was carried out in Nharira-Lancashire areas located in Chivhu to assess the calf rearing systems practiced in smallholder dairy farming areas of Zimbabwe. A total of 47 farmers, collectively owning 305 cows and 194 calves of various breeds, participated in the survey. All the farmers allowed their calves to suckle their dams all day to obtain colostrum. The colostrums intake period was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter (5.2 vs 4.1 days) in the small scale commercial area (SSCA) compared to communal area (CA). Milk was first sold to the Nharira-Lancashire Milk Centre a day after the colostrum intake period ended. Most of the CA (91.3%) and SSCA (77.8%) farmers penned their cows and calves together at night during the colostrum intake period. Thereafter the calves were penned separate from their dams. After colostrum intake, two types of calf suckling systems were practised; twice a day suckling and twice a day then changed to once a day suckling. In both systems, suckling was allowed for 30 minutes after the cows had been hand milked. There was no significant (p < 0.05) difference in the mean weaning age of calves between the CA and SSCA (5.8 vs 5.4 months). The most common weaning method was through separation of the calves from the dams. The limitaitions to calf production in Chivhu were the prohibitively high costs of calf meals, poor feed resources during the dry season, a general lack of knowledge on calf rearing diseases and inappropriate calf housing.