• Title, Summary, Keyword: Streptozotocin

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Protective effects of Jijang-kimchi extracts on diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver injury in laboratory rats (랫드에서 김치가 당뇨병 및 알코올성 간 손상 예방에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Chang-Hyu;Park, Byung-Sung;Um, Kyung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.1078-1087
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    • 2020
  • The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration for 30 days of the Jijang kimchi extracts on prevention of diabetes, alcoholic liver injury and reduction of blood lipids in laboratory rats with alcoholic liver injury and diabetes induced by streptozotocin. In a diabetic model animals, the blood lipid profile, ALT, and AST levels were lower in kimchi extract groups compared to DC (diabetes control) group, and blood glucose level of DCJK (DC+oral administration with Jijang kimchi extracts) group was lower than that of DCCK (DC+oral administration with commercial kimchi extracts) group. Insulin levels were increased in order of NC (normal control), DCJK > DCCK > DC groups. In alcoholic liver injury model animals, ALT, AST and bilirubin were lowed in order of AC (alcohol group received 1 bottle of soju) > ACCK (1 bottle of soju plus oral administration with commercial kimchi extracts) ACJK (AC plus oral administration with Jijang kimchi extracts) > NC groups. In the clinical pathologic findings of liver tissue, AC group was severely injured, and tended to be improved in groups eating a 1 bottle of soju plus oral administration with kimchi extracts, especially Jijang kimchi extract group. The results suggest that eating Jijang kimchi can improve insulin secretion ability while lowering blood lipid profile, blood sugar and ALT, AST, and bilirubin levles in diabetic and alcoholic liver injury model animals.

A study on the Effects of Rehmannia Radix and Eukmigihwangtang (EMGHT) on Antioxidation Activity in Aging Rats (숙지황(熟地黃)과 육미지황탕(六味地黃湯)이 노화과정(老化過程) 흰쥐에서의 항산화(抗酸化) 기전(機轉)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ahn, Sang-Won;Lee, Cheol-wan
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.593-623
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    • 1999
  • This experimental study was designed to verify the anti-aging efficacy of Eukmigihwangtang (EMGHT) and Rehmannia Radix, and determine the specific role and actions of Rehmannia Radix. Normal rat (2 months old), aging rat (8 months old), and pathologically induced rat (2 months old, injected 30mg/kg of streptozotocin) are observed to study the aging eliciting factors such as peroxide contents and enzyme activities. The following results were obtained in this study: 1. For the body weight changes, normal group given Rehmannia Radix showed decrease in the body weight compared to the control group, aging group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the body weight, and STZ injected group showed suppression to the body weight loss when given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix. 2. For the content changes in serum lipid peroxide, normal group showed increasing level as the rat gets older. Aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the lipid peroxide level compared to the control group. Decrease was more prominant in the group given EMGHT. 3. For the changes in serum hydroxyl radical, normal group did not show significant changes, but aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the hydroxyl radical level compared to the control group. Decrease was more prominant in the group given EMGHT. 4. For the changes in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, normal group did not show significant changes, but aging group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase in the SOD activity compared to the control group. STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the SOD activity compared to the control group. 5. For the content changes in hepatic lipid peroxide, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the lipid peroxide level compared to the control group. 6. For the changes in hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease compared to the control group. Cytochrome b5 activity was significantly decreased only in the STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix. 7. For the changes in hepatic aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase activity, aging group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease compared to the control group. STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase in the aminopyrine demethylase activity, and showed significant decrease in the aniline hydroxylase activity compared to the control group. 8. For the content changes in hepatic protein bound-SH and nonprotein bound-SH, againg group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase compared to the control group. 9. For the content changes in hepatic glutathione level, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase compared to the control group. 10. For the changes in hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase and decrease, respectively, compared to the control group. 11. For the changes in hepatic glutathione reductase activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase compared to the control group, while $\gamma$-Glutamylcystein synthetase activity did not show significant changes. 12. For the changes in hepatic superoxide dismutase activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease compared to the control group. From the above results, the antioxidant effects of EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix were proved, as well as the role of Rehmannia Radix, a chief of EMGHT, was examined. In addition, since no change was reconized as the quantity of Rehmannia Radix and the order herbs increased, the reasonableness on EMGHT was proven with respect to its composition and quantity. Thus, the significance of EMGHT could be objectively exmined in terms of its composition and quantity. Considering animals used in the experiment, there were obvious changes in aging rats and pathologically induced rats than in normal rats. Consequently, it was noticeable that EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix were working selectively on the subjects.

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Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 after Administration of Endotoxin in Diabetic Rats (내독소로 자극된 당뇨 쥐에서 단백분해효소와 그 억제제 발현)

  • Seo, Ki Hyun;Choi, Jae Sung;Na, Joo Ok;Uh, Soo Taek;Kim, Yong Hoon;Park, Choon Sik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 2006
  • Background: An acute lung injury(ALI) is characterized by the recruitment, activation, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells, numerous products released by inflammatory cells such as reactive oxygen species, inflammatory mediators, and a variety of proteolytic enzymes. It was reported that bacterial infections in diabetics showed impaired PMN functions such as reduced PMN respiratory burst and decreased microbicidal activity in inflamed tissue. However, the effect of the proteinase - inhibitor (MMP-9 vs TIMP-1) in ALI in diabetics is unclear. This study evaluated the differences in the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after the stimulation of endotoxin in a rat model. Methods: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into normal, DM, LPS and DM+LPS groups. The peripheral blood, BAL fluids, and lung tissues were obtained from individual rats. The MMP-9 activity was measured by gelatin zymography and the TIMP-1 level was measured by Western blotting. Results: The total BAL cells of the DM-LPS groups were significantly lower than the LPS groups (p < 0.01). The MMP-9 activities in the serum were higher in the DM+LPS groups than in the other groups. The MMP-9 activities in the BAL fluids were significantly higher in the DM+LPS group than in the normal and diabetic rats (p < 0.05). TIMP-1 expressions in the BAL fluids were significantly lower in the DM+LPS group than other groups (p < 0.05). The ratio between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in the BAL fluids was significantly higher in the DM+LPS groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In ALI in diabetics the higher MMP-9 activity and lower TIMP-1 level are believed to prolonged and intensify the course of inflammation.

Effects of Zinc Plus Arachidonic Acid on Insulin Resistance in High Fructose-Fed Rats (Zinc와 Arachidonic Acid가 고 Fructose 식이로 유도된 인슐린 저항성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Chul-Soo;Kim, Young-Wook;Lee, Hyo-Sun;Yoon, Tae-Ho;Cho, Byung-Mann;Lee, Soo-Il;Kim, Sung-Soo;Hwang, In-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.415-422
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    • 2009
  • We previously demonstrated that zinc plus arachidonic acid (ZA) treatment lowered blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, genetically diabetic obese (ob/ob) mice, and genetically diabetic, non-obese Goto-Kakizaki rats. However, plasma insulin levels did not increase with ZA treatment, suggesting that ZA lowers blood glucose levels not by stimulating pancreatic insulin secretion. However, it is unclear whether these agents lower blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose output (HGO) or by increasing glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, or both. In order to determine ZA target organ of insulin action, we divided 18 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing ${\sim}130g$ into 3 groups (6 rats per group) and treated them for four weeks with: (1) Control diet (regular rat chow), (2) High fructose (60.0%) diet only, and (3) the same fructose diet plus zinc (10 mg/L) and arachidonic acid (50 mg/L) containing drinking water. After 4 weeks, insulin action was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Food intake and body weights were comparable in all three groups of rats throughout the study period. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, glucose uptake, and HGO in the basal state were all the same in these three rat groups. During the clamp study, fructose-treated and fructose+ZA treated rat groups did not exhibit any detectable change on insulin-mediated glucose uptake compared to controls. High fructose feeding impaired insulin mediated suppression of HGO, compared to controls during clamp (4.39 vs. 2.35 mg/kg/min; p<0.05). However, ZA treatment in high fructose-fed rats showed a remarkable increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity compared to high fructose-fed rats, reflected by a complete recovery in suppression of HGO during the clamp (4.39 vs. 2.18 mg/kg/min; p<0.05). This data suggests that ZA increases insulin sensitivity in liver but not glucose utilization of peripheral tissues in high fructose-fed rats.

Quality Characteristics and Anti-Diabetic Effect of Yacon Vinegar (야콘 식초의 품질특성 및 항당뇨 효과)

  • Lee, Mi-Kyung;Choi, Sa-Ra;Lee, Jin;Choi, Yun-Hong;Lee, Ju-Hye;Park, Kyung-Uk;Kwon, Seung-Hyek;Seo, Kwon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the physiochemical properties and anti-diabetic effect of yacon vinegar by two-step fermentation. Yacon was matured at room temperature for 20 days. The sugar content of yacon juice prepared from mature yacon was approximately $14^{\circ}Brix$. In the first stage, yacon wine was produced from the juice at $28^{\circ}C$ for 6 days. In the second stage, acetic acid fermentation was conducted at $30^{\circ}C$ and 200 rpm for 6 days to produce yacon vinegar with 4.75% acidity. The major free sugars of yacon vinegar were glucose and fructose at 2,072.12 mg% and 463.95 mg%, respectively. The acetic acid content was the highest of the major organic acids at 3,881.44 mg%. The total free amino acid content was 62.88 mg% with the main free amino acids being proline, ${\gamma}$-amino-n-butyric acid and ornithine. The major minerals of yacon vinegar were Ca, K and Mg. The in vivo anti-diabetic activity of yacon vinegar was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were administered orally with 10% yacon juice and two yacon vinegars (5% and 10%) at a dose of 7 mL/kg body weight once per day for 4 weeks. Five% yacon vinegar improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance test significantly compared to the diabetic control group (p<0.05). Yacon vinegar increased the pancreatic C-peptide concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that 5% yacon vinegar has a more potent effect on ameliorating hyperglycemia than 10% yacon juice.

Hypoglycemic Effect of Culture Broth of Bacillus subtilis S10 Producing 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-Deoxynojirimycin을 생산하는 Bacillus subtilis S10 배양액의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Cho, Yong-Seok;Park, Young-Shik;Lee, Jae-Yeon;Kang, Kyung-Don;Hwang, Kyo-Yeol;Seong, Su-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1401-1407
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    • 2008
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is a strong $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitor which inhibits hyperglycemia in animals. To select the Bacillus strains highly producing DNJ, 4,000 strains were isolated from soil and grain samples. By the inhibitory activity against $\alpha$-glucosidase, nine Bacillus strains were selected and then identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. B. subtilis S10 was finally selected as the best strain for the production of DNJ. Various carbon sources and nitrogen sources in culture medium were evaluated for the highest production of DNJ. As the results, the optimized concentration of carbon source and nitrogen source was 1.0% galactose and 1.6% polypeptone and the concentration of DNJ produced was 0.75 g/L. The effect of culture supernatant of B. subtilis S10 on lowering blood glucose level was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice model. Mice were randomly assigned to control group (saline) and three test groups such as acarbose group, silkworm powder group and B. subtilis S10 group. After eight-week oral feeding, blood glucose levels of the B. subtilis S10 and silkworm powder groups were respectively $209.1{\pm}19.6\;mg/dL$ (59.1%) and $208.6{\pm}39.8\;mg/dL$ (59.0%) lower than $510{\pm}10\;mg/dL$ of the control group. These results indicated that the culture supernatant of B. subtilis S10 was able to reduce the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

Effects of Different Intensity Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Anti-diabetic and Lipid Profile Improvement in Type 2 Diabetic mice (다른 강도의 유산소성 및 저항성 운동이 제2형 당뇨 마우스의 항당뇨, 지질 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Byung-Kon;Park, Chan-Ho;Woo, Jin-Hee;Shin, Ki-Ok;Roh, Hee-Tae;Kim, Do-Yeon;Kim, Jung-Sook;Ha, Soo-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1108-1118
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise of different intensity on anti-diabetic and lipid profile improvement in type 2 diabetic mice. C57BL/6 mice were divided into six groups (n=8, in each group): normal group (Normal), type 2 diabetes (DM), type 2 diabetes+VO2max 50% aerobic exercise group (DM50A), type 2 diabetes+VO2max 75% aerobic exercise group (DM75A), type 2 diabetes+1RM 50% resistance exercise group (DM50R), and type 2 diabetes+1RM 75% resistance group (DM75R). DM50A and DM75A were subjected to treadmill exercise 40 min/day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks (DM50A, at the speed of 8 m/min for 1-4 weeks and 8~10 m/min for 5-8 weeks; DM75A, 12 m/min for 1-4 weeks and 12~14 m/min for 5-8weeks). DM50R (1RM50%) and DM75R (1RM75%) were subjected to ladder-climbing exercise with weights secured to their tails, 8 set/day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of exercise, fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR was significantly lower in DM group than in DM group. HbA1c showed significantly lower DM50R and DM75R groups than DM group. HDL-C showed the highest level in DM75A group and triglyceride was lowest in DM75R group. The cardiovascular risk index was lowest in the Normal and DM75A groups. Therefore, moderate intensity exercise in T2DM mice showed better improvement in blood glucose and insulin resistance control, and moderate intensity aerobic exercise was effective in reducing the cardiovascular risk index by increasing HDL-C levels.

Effect of Exercise on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Skeletal Muscle and Liver in STZ-diabetic Rats (STZ-당뇨쥐에서 운동부하가 골격근 및 간의 항산화효소 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Seok, Kwang-Ho;Lee, Suck-Kang
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2000
  • Background: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, super oxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GPX) and catalase(CAT) of skeletal muscle(gastrocnemius) and liver in streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats. The malondialdehyde(MDA) concentration was also measured as an index of lipid poroxidation of tho tissues by exercise-induced oxidative stresses in diabetic rats. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The STZ in citrate buffer solution was injected twice at S days intervals intraperitoneally(50, 70 mg/kg respectively). On the 28th day after the first STZ injection, the diabetic animals were randomly divided into pre- and post-exercise groups, The exercise was introduced to the rats of post-exercise group by treadmill running until exhaution with moderate intensity ($V_{O2max}$: 50-70%) of exercise. The duration of average running time was 2 hours and 19 minutes. Results: The blood glucose concentration was increased(p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentration was decreased(p<0.001) in the diabetic rats. The glycogen concentration in the muscle and liver was decreased by exhaustive exercise in the diabetic rats(p<0.001), In the skeletal muscle, the activities of GPX was increased(p<0.05) and the activities of SOD and CAT were not changed in the diabetic rats compare to those of the control rats. The activities of GPX was not changed by exercise but the activities of SOD(p<0.01) and CAT(p<0.01) were decreased by exercise in the diabetic rats, The concentration of MDA was not changed by exercise in diabetic rats, and the values of pre-exercise and post-exercise diabetic rats were not different from the value those of control rats, In the liver, the activities of SOD was decreased(p<0.01), and the activities of GPX and CAT were not changed in diabetic rats compared to the values of control rats, The activities of SOD, GPX and CAT were not changed by exercise in diabetic rats but the activity of SOD seemed to decrease slightly, The MDA concentration was increased in the diabetic rats compared to the values of control rats(p<0.001), but there was no change of MDA concentration by exercise in diabetic rats, Conclusions: In summary, exhaustive physical exercise did not seem to impose oxidative stress on the skeletal muscle because of due to oxygen free radicals, regardless of the decrease in SOD and CAT in the diabetic rats, In liver tissue, the tissue damage by oxidative stress was observed in diabetic rats but the additional tissue damage by exhaustive physical exercise was not observed.

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