• Title, Summary, Keyword: Stone Stupa

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A Starting Point of Formation and Development of Baekje-style Stone Stupa (백제양식석탑의 형성과 전개의 시발점(始發點))

  • Jun, Ji Hye
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.172-197
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    • 2009
  • The stone stupas of the Mireuk Temple Site and Jeongnim Temple Site were the beginning of Korean stone stupa and the unique ones stemming from the Baeje period. Therefore, the work of investigating the characteristics of these two stone stupas would give us a basis for understanding Korean stone stupas in a large scale and Baekje-style stone stupas in a narrow sense. As shown in some records, the excellent architectural skills of Baekje could be known by the fact that Abiji was invited to the building of Hwangryong Wooden stupa, one of the national undertakings of Shilla and the skills and styles related to stone stupas were thought to be disseminated in this process. However, it has not been very convincing that the stone stupas with Baekje styles were disconnected in an instant with the unification of Shilla, in terms that culture and art would inherited and developed. The current academic circle set a frame and defined all these types of stone stupas as Baekje-system stone stupas built in Goryeo period and put them in a uniformly chronological order. The popularization of Buddhism, support of regionally powerful clans and cultural revival were suggested as the factors of their appearance, but it seemed difficult to be assured that these led Baeje-style stone stupas to reappear in a moment by breaking the gap of about 300 years. Of course, it has not been active in Gyeongju area, but they have greatly influenced the stone stupas of Shilla; therefore, it would be possible to consider that they were developed but limited to certain areas. This study focused on the starting point of such development and investigated the formation of Baeje-style stone stupas through the stone stupas of the Mireuk Temple Site and Jeongnim Temple Site and their subsequent development through Wanggung-ri Stone Stupa.

Conservation of stone cultural properties-Restoration and Conservation Treatment about Bowonsabeobin-guksaboseungtap(Stupa of high priest Beobinguksa of Bowonsa Temple) (서산보원사법인국사보승탑 해체복원을 통해 살펴 본 석조문화재의 보존)

  • Sin, Eun-Jeong;Kim, SaDug
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.93-117
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    • 2004
  • The stone cultural properties durability is the falling. So the conservation is easy relatively. But the conservation countermeasure of the stone cultural properties the environment pollution needed urgently as extreme. I will find out about the stone cultural properties Through the example of Restoration and conservation treatment about Bowonsabeobin-guksaboseungtap in the paper. Damage reasons of the stone cultural properties are a physical damage, a structural damage, a biology damage, a chemical damage and artificial damage. The moisture plays especially the role which damage is make the stone cultural properties. The stone cultural properties is damaged due to damage reasons. So we investigate the stone cultural properties and must remove damage reasons. Bowonsabeobin-guksaboseungtap is funerary stupa of buddhist monk with circleorientedoctagon in Geryeo Period. There is the open air. Parts of it were damaged by grave robbery in 2004. So restoration was begun in 2004.While restoring it, wrong arrangement on top of the monk-stupa was rearranged. After being arranged in right order, the middle of monk-stupa was fixed by setting up stainlesssteel shaft. A roof stone of stupa finial has cracks. So It was adhered with epoxy resin(L-30) and was washed with distilled water for pollution clearing. The stone cultural properties takes the influence of the environment pollution much because it stays at the fields. It is easy also to be robed. Therefore we must watch more with the concern.

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Ancient Korean Architecture Presented in Stone Remains - Focused on the Analysis of the Architectural Elements of the Stone Stupa - (석조유구(石造遺構)에 표현(表現)된 고대건축(古代建築) 연구 - 부도(浮屠)의 건축요소(建築要素) 분석(分析)을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Jae-pyoung;Lee, Jae-heun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.45-60
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    • 2002
  • This research is the second attempt to illustrate the phases of ancient Korean architecture through a comparative study of historical materials such as historical ruins, relics, stone remains and art products. Among these the stone stupa (budo), contains many architectural aspects of old times, which give clues to trace the characteristics of the antient Korean structures. The study brings about following results: 1. The pillar employs an entasis technique, and the bracket system (gongpo) consists of cross beams (changbang) and small supporting blocks (soro) thereupon. A type of the bracket arm (chomcha) is also found on top of the pillar. 2. Windows and doors are assumed from the carved features on the stone stupa to be pair-doors which could be folded twice sideways and upwards. 3. There are two types of eaves; the single eaves and the double eaves consisting of a rafter and a flying rafter. 4. The roof has furrows formed by the concave tiles and the convex ones and also the tiles at the edge of eaves. And there are evidences that a variety of small images of animal and human figures were decorated along on top of the eaves.

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Stylistic Interchange Patterns of Stone Stupa Construction in the Gangwon-do Region (강원도 지역 석탑 조영(造營)의 양식적 교류양상)

  • Jun, Ji Hye
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.190-205
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    • 2016
  • Buddhist stupas, which are a symbolic architecture of Buddhism and enshrine the Jinsinsari of Buddha, were reinvented as stone stupas appropriate for the natural soil of Korea from existing wooden stupas around the 7th century after the introduction of Buddhism. Later, the construction of a stone stupa was expanded to local areas from the central area around the 9th century; thus, stone stupas of more diverse local colors were built in a nationwide scale, and today it is called a "country of stone stupas". While focusing on the stylistic interchanges between stone stupas, which were established in each region in accordance with the localization of the establishment of stone stupas that was begun actively from the 9th century, this paper selected several cases of stone stupas among about 50 stone stupas in the Gangwondo-region. First, the study compared the stone stupas and Buddhist priest tower of Seollimwonji, Jinjeonsaji, and Geodonsaji, which are located at the same temple site as the current Buddhist priest tower, from among typical Silla style stupas that match the 9 stone stupas in the Gangwon-do region. This is because stylistic interchanges were possible while there were mutually organic relationships between Buddhist statues such as stone stupas, Buddhist priest towers, stone lanterns, and Buddhist pedestals, which used the same stone material along with the expansion of Buddhism to local areas in accordance with the spread of Zen Buddhism in the 9th century. Second, a comparison was made of the stylistic similarities between the Woljeongsa Palgakgucheong (eight sides nine-storied) stone stupa and the Sinboksaji Samcheung (three-storied) stone stupa, which are totally different in regard to the number of stories and the flat form. These two stone stupas are representative Goryeo stone stupas. The Woljeongsa stone stupa is a Goguryeo-oriented stone stupa with many sided multiple stories whereas the Sinboksaji stone stupa has been known as an early case of the insertion of the support of Tapsin in each story. Although the two stone stupas may look very different, but through close investigation it was confirmed that there were many stylistic interchanges between them and not only the seated stone Buddha statue in the cylinder jewel case in front of the stupa but also the stone stupa established by the same master. Consequently, this paper aimed not merely to mention the simple patterns of stone stupas, but, further, to trace the interchange in patterns in accordance with the construction period based on those patterns.

A study on characteristics of composition method of inner foundation in stone stupa (석탑 기단부 적심구성방법에 대한 특성 고찰 - $7{\sim}8$세기 석탑 중 해체 수리한 석탑을 중심으로 -)

  • Chung, Hae-Doo;Jang, Suk-Ha
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 2007
  • Through analysing on construction cases of stupa built in A.D. 7,8th, I have researched about these : constructive methods of inner soil of stupa, spatial compositions, characteristics of structures, arrangements of inner soil and etc. And cases analysed are six ; Mireuksajiseoktap(stone pagoda of Mireuksa Temple site), Gameunsajisamcheumgseoktap(three storied stone pagoda of Gameunsa Temple site), Goseonsajisamcheungseoktap(three storied stone pagoda of Goseonsa Temple site), Wolseong nawolliocheungseoktap(five storied stone pagoda in Nawonri, Wolseong), Guksagokseoktap(three storied stone pagoda in Guksa valley), Giamgokseoktap(three storied stone pagoda in Giam valley). Additionally we researched about inner soil of Sacheonwangsaji tapji(basement of stone stupa site in Sacheonwang Temple site) to speculate on composition of Synthetically, the foundation could be divided as core space and outer space. ; the former as structural function and the latter as ornamental function. And the core area could be divided again as center column space and buffer space. The relationship between core spaces and its formation are as belows; First, according to the area of foundation and scale of stone pagoda, formations of core are differed. As the scale of stone pagoda goes bigger, and the area of foundation goes larger, the structure of stone pagoda comprised by center column type and layered-core which endure upper load independently. On the contrary, as the scale of stone pagoda goes smaller, and the area of foundation goes lesser, the structure of stone pagoda tend to use only center column to endure upper part. Second, spatial composition of core area is comprised as two spaces, one which endure upper load and buffer space which absorb side pressure and upper pressure. The buffer space tend to be used in case of those structures which could not endure side pressure or have lots of joint. In some cases, it was located below the cover stone of foundation and gained upper load. And in case that have not gained pressure from side stone, the buffer space are comprised by smalle stone or roof tile to get structural supplement.

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A Study on the Relief-Stupa in Flatland Temple in India (인도 평지사원 탑형부조(塔形浮彫) 연구)

  • Kim, Jun-O;Cheon, Deuk-Youm
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.135-156
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    • 2011
  • Stupa in India divides into two: stupa in flatland temple with a character of tomb, and devotional stupa made for offering. The difference of such character is made by whether there is any Sari, and main center for worship is flatland stupa where Sari is settled. Stupa in flatland temple is targeted to that with Sari, whose character is applied into Relief-stupa. The characteristics of Relief-stupa can be divided into two: a relief with similar type of flatland stupa in the form, and a devotional relief in which drum and upper part of tower are developed. The Relief-stupa of flatland temple could be confirmed at tower gate of Sanchi tower, decoration of handrail, and the wall attached to Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda stupa. To the contrary, drum and upper wheel part in the Relief-stupa are developed in the votive stupa. Such characteristics had different features according to usage: The example of former is that there is an expression of landscape of stupa built at that time, and the example of latter is those which had similar type of stone cave temple or offering tower near stupa. Thus, the meaning is subject to the existing of Sari. Stupa building developed along with the development of Buddhist structural activity with the existing popular tradition. And its influence was expanded along with various cultures locally. And, the structure and tower reflected various types and thoughts. Stupa reflected its building site and method according to types, and was created in a new form by its usage.

Inquiry about 'The Theory of Brick-Copy' of the Stone Pagoda at Bunhuangsa Temple (신라 분황사탑의 '모전석탑(模塼石塔) 설(說)' 대한 문제 제기와 고찰)

  • Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.39-54
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    • 2011
  • The Bunhuangsa stone pagoda, constructed in AD. 634, National Treasure no. 30, has been named as 'brick-copied pagoda' since the Japanese-ruling period by scholars. It is said that the Chinese brick pagoda was its precedent model, however the Bunhuangsa Pagoda is the oldest of all the Chinese-style brick pagodas except one, the Sungaksa Pagoda. The Chinese pagoda cannot have been a precedent model to copy due to its complex detail of wood vestige, as the Bunhuangsa pagoda is simple form without ornament. Domestic brick pagodas cannot have been a precedent model to copy as well, because all the domestic brick pagodas are younger than the Bunhuangsa Pagoda. Therefore, the terminology 'brick-copied pagoda' is a fallacy; it is rather that later brick pagoda copied the precedent the Bunhuangsa stone pagoda. The Bunhuangsa Pagoda is simply a piled-up pagoda of thick or thin, big or small slates of stone, facing only one smooth side and therefore needing nothing to relate to brick. The originality of the pagoda is more related to simple piled-up Indian stone stupa rather than Chinese brick pagoda. The roof form of its gradually stepped projection comes from the harmika of the summit of Indian stupa. Contrary to general history, old Silla Dynasty imported Buddhism directly from India by sea. From written national history and by temple foundation history, the Indian Buddhism evangelist possibly made influence to the erecting of temple and pagoda. The original wrong terminology has made a harmful effect gradually to the naming of mass-styled stone pagoda of only carved stepped-roof form after brick-copied pagoda. The false term 'brick-copied pagoda' should be discarded, which comes with superficial observation based on toadyism to China and colonialism to Japan. Instead of the fallacious term, this paper suggests multi-storied 'piled-up pagoda with slate stone.'

The Development Process and Construction Characteristic of the Stone Stupa in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도 지역 석탑의 전개과정과 조영 특징)

  • Lee, Seohyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.184-205
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    • 2019
  • Buddhism was introduced to Gyeonggi-Do early on and thus created various types of Buddhist culture there. Since the introduction of Buddhism into Gyeonggi-do, the there has been continuous construction of stone stupas. More stone stupas were built in southern Gyeonggi than in northern Gyeonggi-do. In particular, Anseong, Icheon, Yongin, and Yeoju were centers of construction. Looking at the characteristics of each period, stone stupas remain from the Unified Shilla Period to Joseon, indicating that stone stupas were steadily built during this period. The stone stupa corresponding to the Unified Shilla Period is meaningful in that it shows the northern limit of Shilla Buddhist culture. Since then, the stone stupas of the Goryeo Dynasty were actively constructed in the southern part of Gyeonggi-do in the early Goryeo Dynasty. By the late Goryeo Dynasty, the stupas were built throughout Gyeonggi-do, indicating that the construction of the stupa was active. In the Joseon Dynasty, stone stupas were built in temples near Hanyang and deeply related to the royal family. Stone pagodas were erected mainly on major traffic routes. Stone stupas built in Gyeonggi-do have a variety of artistic and historical significance.

A Study on the Construction of Stupa in Heungcheon-Temple which represents Buddhism in Early Joseon Era (조선 초기 수선본사(修禪本寺) 흥천사(興天寺) 사리각 영건에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Bue-Dyel;Cho, Jeong-Sik
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2015
  • This is a study on the construction of the Heungcheon-Temple. The results are follows. 1) The Heungcheon-Temple was anticipated to be the Jeongneung. However, when completed, the Heungcheon-Temple was symbolized Buddhism; moreover, there was a stupa enshrined sarira. The stupa was a land mark in Hanyang. While king Sejong repaired the stupa, it disappeared during the regin of King Jungjong. Before it disappeared the stupa signified a Buddhist event and a rite of good fortune. 2) The stupa was constructed using a double-frame, and there was a stone-stupa in an octagonal multi-layer temple. This single location consisted of a sarira space and a worship space. 3) Buddhist Relic(Sarira) worship was to witness holiness and therefore reics could be moved according to need. It appeared as though Buddhist Relic worship occurred in Southeast Asia. 4) The Heungcheon-Temple stupa was considered a new and superior architectural-symbol to comfort people and recognize the new order of Ming and neo-Confucianism. Therefore, the stupa was a good alternative to politics, religion, and external relations during the early Joseon era.

A Study on the Relief-Stupa of Indian Cave Temple (인도 석굴사원의 Relief Stupa 연구)

  • Kim, Jun-O;Cheon, Deuk-Youm
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.7-24
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    • 2012
  • The Buddhist cave temple carved into the rock provides a large space for the ritual in general in which a structure of Stupa is built in the center of the space purely for religious worship empty of Sarira, and the temple is formed around this Stupa. Relief-Stupa of the cave temple indicates the similar shape that of Relief-religious worship of flat land temple. However, there appears a small difference in representation since the background of formation of the cave temple differs in that of flat land temple. Specially, Caitya Stupa of currently existing cave temples have been damaged to lose of their original shape only possible to be analyzed the stylistic development through Relief-Stupa from which the characteristic of Stupa could be understood. The early cave temple could be characterized with a balanced structure consists of upturn bowl, steeple stone with simple drum & Hamikawasnagae, in which it appears strongly the detail factor characteristics of drum & steeple of having system with Caitya Stupa. In the post cave temple, the subject of worship moved to statue of Buddha due to the influence of Gandhara, Mathura art which reduced the importance of Stupa. This illustrates in Relief-stupa as well the style change as well as changes in detail factor. The sculpture appeared at the limited location either the wall of Caitya shrine or pillar in vihara cave with stronger decorative meaning. Contrast to the Relief Stupa of early flat land temples or the cave temples mentioned above sculptured with symbolism, however, the post cave temple showed the relief structure based on the plan of flat plan.