• Title, Summary, Keyword: Stigma

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Concept Analysis of Stigma (낙인(stigma) 개념분석)

  • Lee, In-Ok;Lee, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 2006
  • Aims. In order to analyze the concept of stigma, so to develop a valid instrument to measure stigma. Methods. First, a concept analysis was conducted with the aim of clarifying the state of the science of discipline-specific conceptualizations of stigma. The criterion-based method of concept analysis as described by Morse and colleagues was used (Morse et al., 1996; Morse, 2000). This analytic process enabled the assessment of the scientific maturity of the concept of stigma. The interdisciplinary concept of stigma was found to be immature. Based on this level of maturity it was determined that in order to advance the concept of stigma toward gloater maturity. techniques of concept development using the literature as data were applied. In this process, questions were 'asked of the data' (in this case, the selected disciplinary literatures) to identify the conceptual components of stigma. Results. The inquiry into the concept of stigma led to the development of an expanded interdisciplinary conceptual definition by merging the most coherent commonalties from each discipline. And the conceptual components of stigma were identified. The antecedent factors of stigma were "apart from social identity". The attributes of stigma were "devaluing, labeling, negative stereotypes, discrimination". The consequences of stigma were "social rejection, social isolation, deficiency of social support, low social status".

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A Comparative Study on the Level of Perceived Stigma Towards Physically Disabled Between Physically Disabled and Non-disabled (지체장애인에 대한 낙인(stigma) 비교분석)

  • Jung, Mi-Yeon;So, Hee-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The purposes were to explore and compare the level of perceived stigma toward physically disabled, and to find factors related with the perceived stigma. Method: Data were collected by structured questionnaire from July to September 2007. The participants consisted of 292 physically disabled and 294 non-disabled living in Daejeon, Korea. These data were analyzed using SPSS Win 12.0 by descriptive statistics, Chi-Square test, t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: The perceived stigma towards physically disabled of the physically disabled was higher than non-disabled's. The physically disabled stigmatized themselves in all the subcategories of the perceived stigma. The physically disabled perceived the stigma differently according to the spouses, economic status, educational level, comorbidity and impairment sites. The non-disabled's perceived stigma was different according to gender, existence of spouses, job and economic status. Non-disabled's stigma towards physically disabled was not different by experiences related with physically disabled. Conclusion: For reducing the perceived stigma, nursing intervention strategies should be developed, especially for physically disabled, and further studies should be conducted to define related factors. The results of this study might be a standard to evaluate effects of nursing interventions for decreasing the stigma.

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Perceived Stigma and Self-esteem of the Person with Physical Disability (지체장애인의 지각된 낙인과 자아존중감)

  • Lee, In-Ok
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Perceived stigma may disrupt the ability of people with physical disability to successfully adapt to their situation. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived stigma and self-esteem among adults with physically disabled. Method: The sample was drawn from August to October of 2006 at the rehabilitation centers and public health centers in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The data were collected from 314 persons with physical difficulty. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Perceived stigma was measured using the Perceived Stigma Scale for the person with physical disability developed by Lee. Result: There were significant differences of perceived stigma of the person with physical disability according to marital status and economic status. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between perceived stigma and self-esteem of the person with physical disability. Conclusion: The Findings of this study suggest that using nursing intervention to decrease the perceived stigma may promote self-esteem among persons with physical disability.

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The Effect of Human Potential Seminars on the Perceived Stigma of Adults with Epilepsy (잠재력훈련 집단상담이 성인 간질환자의 치욕감에 미치는 효과)

  • 김은자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.1003-1012
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this research was to identify the effect of human potential seminars on the perceived stigma of adults with epilepsy. The research employed a quasi experimental design and unequivalent control group pre-post design. The test was conducted on 15 adults with epilepsy attending one psychiartric out-patient clinic in Masan City, Korea. The stigma questionnaire was used as a pre-test to these patients. HPS was done ten times for five weeks from May 6, to July 26, 1996. The stigma questionnaire was again given, but this time as a post test. The control group of 14 adults with epilepsy were receiving medication at the same clinic. The human potential seminars were structured by McHolland(1972) and translated by Lee, Hae Seung(1990). The stigma research tool was modified and revised to be appropriate to Korean culture. It consisted of 15 sentences. The internal consistency was 0.92 with Cronbach's α. Research results are as follows. 1) To determine the homogenity of the experimental and control groups, the pre-stigma results were used and democratic-sociologic characteristics, job characteristics and disease related variables were compared. There was no significant difference between the two groups. 2) To identify the relationship between stigma and patient characteristics a pre-test was done. The study used both Mann-Whitney U-test and ANOVA test for statistical analysis. The variables related to stigma were the reason of unemployment and age at onset of epilepsy. 3) The test results of the effect of the human potential seminars on stigma in the patients with epilepsy, showed that stigma in the experimental group was lower than in the control group. The statistical method used to determine the difference between pre and post stigma results was the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The test results were statistically significant at the one percent level. 4) As a follow-up evaluation ten more patients(66.7% of the total) were additionally tested. In order to investigate if the stigmas were different between the pre, post and follow-up, Repeated measure ANOVA was used. The test results showed that the stigma scores were statistically different between the three groups at the one percent level(F=10.06, d.f.=2, p=0.00).

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The Effect of Ex-prisoner's Perception of Stigma on Trust in Interpersonal Relationship (낙인에 대한 출소자의 인식이 대인관계에서 신뢰에 미치는 영향)

  • Gong, Jung Sik
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.57
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    • pp.57-84
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    • 2018
  • This study assumes that the perception of the ex-prisoner's against stigma will affect trust in interpersonal relationship. Prior studies have suggested that there is a stigma at the base of the awareness where people avoid and discriminate against ex-prisoner's. This in turn affects ex-prisoner's' recividicism, but there is no study about ex-prisoner's perception of stigma in Korea. Although stigma can be explained in numerous ways, this study is based on the opinion of Phillips(2016), which divides the subscale of stigma as perceived public stigma, perceived personnel stigma, and self stigma. He insisted that ex-prisoner's believe perceived public stigma higher than self-stigma. these results are consistent with this study. However, it is important to note that although ex-prisoner's are more aware of public stigma than self-stigma, they are actually more influenced by self stigma in pereonal relationships. This means that ex-prisoner's are more susceptible to internal psychological awareness than external social recognition. Therefore, the development and intervention of the program to overcome the internal self-stigma of the released prisoner is required. In this study, first, stigma, especially self-stigma turned out to have influence on the interpersonal trust. Therefore, as self-stigma level increased, the interpersonal trust decreased in most cases. Second, it was shown that stigma has the greatest influence on children out of family members, co-workers out of social relationship, self trust out of general relationship in. This confirms that stigma is a factor that greatly influences relationship between important people for ex-prisoner's. Third, since self-sigma negatively reestablish self-identity, make individuals recognize themselves as deviators and show bad lifestyle, which lead them to become habitual offender, ex-prisoner's need to make efforts to overcome self-stigma, and development and intervention of program that can make ex-prisoner's have positive self identity is requested. Fourth, although participants in the study were only male, it seems that there is difference in recognition of stigma by gender, and influence of stigma not only on interpersonal relationships, but also on social reintegration and recidivism imply that these might be good future research topics.

The Effect of Social Stigma on Suicidal Ideation of Male HIV Infected People: Focusing on the Mediating Effect of Hope and Depression (남성 HIV 감염인의 사회적 낙인이 자살생각에 미치는 영향: 희망과 우울의 매개효과)

  • Kim, Il Ok;Shin, Sun Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.563-572
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the mediating effect of hope and depression applied on the influence of social stigma on suicidal ideation of 108 HIV infected males. Methods: This study was a descriptive, crosssectional design that used a survey approach. Data collection was one-on-one interviews by a counseling nurse from July 2012 to January 2013. The survey included questions about social stigma, hope, depression, and suicidal ideation. Results: Fitness of the hypothetical model was appropriate ($x^2/df=1.97$, TLI=.97, CFI=.98, RMSEA=.07, SRMR=.04). Social stigma had no direct effect on suicidal ideation but had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation via hope and depression. Hope had a mediating effect the relationship between stigma and depression but no direct effect on the relationship between stigma and suicidal ideation. Hope had an indirect effect on suicidal ideation via depression. Stigma and hope accounted for 41% of depression was where as suicidal ideation was explained 56.3% by depression, hope, and stigma. Conclusion: In order to reduce depression and suicidal ideation of HIV infected people, stigma improving strategies are required. And hope intervention for HIV infected people may decrease their suicidal ideation and depression.

Factors that affect Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma(CIAS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (파킨슨병에 대한 낙인에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Bae, Eun-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.121-133
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: This study aimed to examine factors that affect chronic illness anticipated stigma among patient living with Parkinson's disease. The attributes of stigma measured in this study were labeling, expectation of prejudice, negative stereotyping, and discrimination. Chronic illness anticipated stigma was correlated with measures of mental and physical health as well as certain health behaviors. Methods: The sample included 250 adults with idiopathic Parkinson's disease that attended D university hospital in B metropolitan city from June to August 2014. Results: The chronic illness anticipated stigma were significantly correlated to depression, anxiety, Schwab & England ADL, Hoehn & Yahr stage, and age. The significant predictors of chronic illness anticipated stigma were anxiety, depression, and age. These factors accounted for 47% of variance in chronic illness anticipated stigma. Conclusions: In order to reduce the chronic illness anticipated stigma, nurse involved in the treatment and care of patients with Parkinson's disease should encourage patients to attend programs of depression and anxiety management in Parkinson's disease and systemic education programs on stigma.

The Relations among Stigma, Expectation About Counseling, and Attitude Toward Seeking Counseling in College Students (대학생의 낙인, 상담에 대한 기대와 상담 추구태도 간의 관계)

  • Kim, Jung-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.391-402
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of expectation about counseling among self-stigma, public stigma and attitude toward seeking counseling. The participants of this study were 327 university students and this research investigated some results by using SPSS 17.0. The major results were as follows: this study reported the negative effects of public stigma and self-stigma on the attitude toward seeking counseling. Self-stigma showed a significant negative correlation with regard to expectation for the counseling, on the other hand, expectations about the social stigma and counseling did not show a significant correlation statistically. And this study verified the expectation about counseling partially mediated the relationship between self-stigma and attitude toward seeking counseling. The findings of this study provided meaning in that particular search was made for variables that mediate the relationship between self-stigma and attitude toward seeking counseling. This study suggested that the stigma of individual acts effects on using real counseling services than emotional issues with each individual. Finally, this paper suggested the needs of development about the counseling and the education program as a special intervention.

Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus related Stigma, Shame, and Intent of HPV Test (인유두종 바이러스와 관련된 낙인, 수치심과 검사의도의 영향요인)

  • Kim, Hae-Won
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with HPV (Human Papillomavirus) related stigma, shame and intent to have HPV test among adult women. Methods: Data were collected from December 1, 2009 to January 31, 2010, and participants were 324 women who visited an obstetric gynecologic clinic. They anticipated testing positive for HPV. Then HPV related stigma, shame, intent to have HPV testing and HPV knowledge were measured. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test and multivariate adjusted logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The levels of stigma and shame were higher than average. Intent to have HPV test was high and HPV knowledge was low. Women who answered that HPV is not sexually transmitted had lower HPV stigma than did women who answered they didn't know (OR=0.20, 95%CI 0.06-0.68). Women with lower stigma showed lower intent to have HPV test than women with higher stigma (OR=0.46, 95%CI 0.26-0.82). Conclusion: Basic HPV information should be fully understood for women especially prior to HPV test. Normalizing HPV stigma is necessary for women who perceive HPV as sexually transmitted and women intending to have HPV test.

Development and Effects of a Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Based Program in Reducing Internalized Stigma in Patients with Schizophrenia (조현병 환자의 내재화된 낙인 감소를 위한 인지행동 프로그램 개발 및 효과검증)

  • Kim, Mi Young;Jun, Seong Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.349-363
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was done to develop a internalized stigma reducing program based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and appropriate for patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods: The study design was a mixed method research. Qualitative study, 13 patients with schizophrenia who had experience in overcoming stigma were purposively chosen for interviews and data were analyzed using Giorgi method. Quantitative study, 64 patients with schizophrenia (experimental group =32, control group =32) were recruited. The cognitive-behavioral therapy-based program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia was provided for 8 weeks (12 sessions). Data were collected from June. 20, 2013 to Feb. 14, 2014. Quantitative data were analyzed using ${\chi}^2-test$, t-test, repeated measures ANOVA with the SPSS program. Results: Qualitative results, from the experience of coping with stigma in patients with schizophrenia seventeen themes and five themes-clusters were drawn up. Quantitative results showed that internalized stigma, self-esteem, mental health recovery and quality of life were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Study findings indicate that this program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia is effective and can be recommended as a rehabilitation program intervention to help patients with schizophrenia to cope with internalized stigma.