• Title, Summary, Keyword: Steinernema glaseri

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Isolation and Culture Characteristics of a Bacterial Symbiont from Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema galseri (Steinernema glaseri 곤충병원선충으로부터 공생박테리아의 분리 및 배양특성)

  • 박선호;유연수
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.198-204
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    • 1999
  • Asymbiotic bacterium with highly effective toxins was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri which has been widely used against various soil-inhabiting pests. The symbiont of S. glaseri was identified as Xenorhabdus nematophilus sp. by using several biochemical and physiological tests. When this strain was released into the hemolymph of insect larva, it produced highly toxic substances and killed the larva within 2 days. Two colony forms that differed n some biochemical characteristics were observed when cultures in vitro. Phase l colonies were mucid and difficult to be dispersed in liquid. Phase II was not mucoid and was easily dispersed in liquid. It did not adsorb neutral red or bromothymol blue. Rod-shaped cell size was highly variable between two phases, ranging 2-10 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. It was also found that only infective-stage nematodes can carry only primary-phase Xenorhabdus in their intestine.

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Biological Control of Apple Pests with Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Steinernema spp. (Steinernema 속 곤충병원선충을 이용한 사과원 병해충의 생물학적 방제)

  • 유연수;박선호
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2000
  • Peach fruit month, smaller tea tortrix, and Melotontha incana are major pests of apple and apple trees throughout the country. In this work, we examined efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri against these apple pests. Steinernema carpocapsae showed 100% mortality after 24hr against peach fruit moth when it was applied on the larva with the concentration of 80 nematodes per larva, but Steinernema glaseri caused 83.3$\pm$5.8% mortality after 24hr at the concentration of 50 nematodes per larva. In the case of smaller tea tortrix, S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri caused 100%, 43.3$\pm$5.8% at the concentration of 50 nematodes per larva after 48 hr, respectively. However, 5~6 instar of Melotontha incana was not killed by treatments with S. carpocapsae and S.glaseri up to concentration of 200~800 nematodes per larva. The motility of nematodes in a soil increased as both inoculation concentration of nematode per larva and temperature increased. The mortality of G. mellonella by S. carpocapsae was 100% up to 10cm in depth and 56.7$\pm$5.8% at 10~15cm in depth when the temperature was $25^{\circ}C$ and 50 nematodes per larva were used.

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Characteristics of the Oxygen Uptake Rate of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema spp. (곤충병원성 선충 Steinernema spp.의 산소 요구도 특성)

  • 김도완;박선호
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 1999
  • Recently, entomopathogenic nematodes have received a considerable attention as biologicalcontrol agents. For in vitro cultivation, storage and transportation of nematodes, oxygen supply isextremely impotant due to its limited solubility and mass transfer problem. The oxygen uptake rates(OURs) of four different Steinernema species were measured in a 5L bioreactor at varying temperatures.The OURs of the Steinernema spp. were below 0.5 x mmolO'||'&'||' . min in the range of 13-17$^{\circ}$C. TheOURs (mmo102/L - min) of S. glaseri Dongrae and S. carpocapsae Pocheon strains were 0.4 x lo-', 0.75x lo-\ulcorner at 21$^{\circ}$C, 1.5 x lo-\ulcorner, 3.2 x 10-2 at 25"C, and 2.8 x lo-', 5.8 x lo-\ulcorner at 29"C, respectively. However,the OURs were not significantly altered by the agitation speed of 50-150 rpm. The specific oxygenuptake rates (qol) of S. glaseri NC, S. glaseri Dongrae, S. glaseri Mungyeong and S. carpocapsaePocheon strains were 0.3 x 0.5 x 0.3 x and 0.2 x mmolO~/cell min at 25"C,respectively. As the nematode size and temperature were increased, the qo, was also increased.the qo, was also increased.

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Noneffective Results of Steinernematid and Hoterorhabditid Nematodes Agains Pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda : Armadillidae) (Steinernematid와 Heterorhabditid 선충의 쥐며느리에 대한 비효용적결과)

  • 추호렬;이동운;허은영;김준범
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.91-93
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    • 1996
  • Steinemematid and heterorhabditid nematodes were not effective to control the piU bug, Armadillidium vulgare although these nematodes were able to infect pill bugs. Steinernema carpocapsae Pocheon strain and S. glaseri Dongrae strain were more effective than S. carpocapsae AU strain or Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Nematode concentration was more important factor than host density to develop infectivity.

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Temperature Effects on Korean Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Steinernema glaseri and S. longicaudum, and their Symbiotic Bacteria

  • Hang Dao Thi;Choo, Ho-Yul;Lee, Dong-Woon;Lee, Sang-Myeong;Kaya Harry K.;Park, Chung-Gyoo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.420-427
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    • 2007
  • We investigated the temperature effects on the virulence, development, reproduction, and otility of two Korean isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema glaseri Dongrae strain and S. longicaudum Nonsan strain. In addition, we studied the growth and virulence of their respective symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus poinarii for S. glaseri and Xenorhabdus sp. for S. longicaudum, in an insect host at different temperatures. Insects infected with the nematode-bacterium complex or the symbiotic bacterium was placed at $13^{\circ}C,\;18^{\circ}C,\;24^{\circ}C,\;30^{\circ}C,\;or\;35^{\circ}C$ in the dark and the various parameters were monitored. Both nematode species caused mortality at all temperatures tested, with higher mortalities occurring at temperatures between $24^{\circ}C\;and\;30^{\circ}C$. However, S. longicaudum was better adapted to cold temperatures and caused higher mortality at $18^{\circ}C$ than S. glaseri. Both nematode species developed to adult at all temperatures, but no progeny production occurred at $13^{\circ}C\;or\;35^{\circ}C$. For S. glaseri, nematode progeny production was best at inocula levels above 20 infective juveniles/host at $24^{\circ}C\;and\;30^{\circ}C$, but for S. longicaudum, progeny production was generally better at $24^{\circ}C$. Steinernema glaseri showed the greatest motility at $30^{\circ}C$, whereas S. longicaudum showed good motility at $24^{\circ}C\;and\;30^{\circ}C$. Both bacterial species grew at all tested temperatures, but Xenorhabdus sp. was more virulent at low temperatures $(13^{\circ}C\;and\;18^{\circ}C)$ than X. poinarii.

Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Egg Mass Formation by the Northern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapia (곤충병원성 선충이 당근뿌리혹선충의 난낭 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김형환;추호렬;조명래;전흥용;임명순
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2002
  • The entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae All strain (ScA), S.glaseri NC strain (SgN) and H. bacteriophora NC 1 strain (HbN), were evaluated for the effects on egg mass formation by the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla in pot experiment using tomato. In the first experiment, 2.5$\times$10$^{5}$ infective juveniles (Ijs) of entomopathogenic nematodes were inoculated to 100 g of the soil infected with ca. 450 Ijs of M. hapla/100 ㎤ in 150 $mell$ container. The number of egg mass was significantly decreased to 9.4-36.5 in ScA, to 5.7-24.7 in SgN and to 11.2-16.0 in HbN treatments compared with 62.5 in M.hapla alone. In the second experiment, ScA and S.carpocapsae Pocheon strain (ScP) and SgN and S.glaseri Dongrae strain (SgD) were treated to 350 g of the soil infected with 100, 200 M.hapla larvae/100 ㎤ in 450 $mell$ container The entomopathogenic nematodes were inoculated at the rate of 2,020 Ijs and 1.6$\times$105 Ijs in 350 g soil. The number of egg mass of M.hapla were significantly decreased in the entomopathogenic nematode treatments compared with M.hapla alone although no differences were observed among Steinernema species, strains, or infection concentrations. Treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes 3 days before M.hapla inoculation were more effective on reduction of egg mass formation than those of 3 days after M.hapla treatments. Growth of tomato was not affected by entomopathogenic nematode treatments.

Effect of Aqueous Solutions of Pesticides on Survival of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (농약이 곤충병원성 선충의 생존에 미치는 영향)

  • 이동운;추호렬;최은정
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.213-222
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    • 1999
  • The toxic effects of four pesticides on the entomopathogenic nematodes. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora NC strain, Steinernema glaseri NC and Dongrae strain were tested by checking the mortality of infective juveniles(Ijs) in aqueous solution of pesticide. Mortality of Ijs was influenced by pesticide and concentration and soaking time. The herbicide alachlor and insecticide fenitrothion were toxic to Ijc of three entomopathogenic nematodes. But, the fungicides mepronil and tolclofos-methyl were nontoxic to Ijs. Tolclofos-methyl showed significantly very week toxicity at 28 days after soaking for S. glaseri NC strain. H. bacteriophora NC strain was more highly sensitive to high temperature condition then were the other nematodes.

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Culture Condition of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Using Galleria mellonella Larva (Galleria mellonella 유충을 이용한 곤충병원성 선충의 배양 조건)

  • 김도완;박선호
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1998
  • A simple method for the in vivo production of third-stage infective juveniles(IJs) of Steinernema glaseri was developed. Using Galleria mellonella larvae, only IJs can be rapidly generated inadequate quantities for field application. The nematode inoculation concentration and incubation temperature were critically important. The most effective temperature for infectivity of Steinernema glaseri IJs to Galleria mellonella larvae was 33$^\circ C$. However, the total number of menatodes harvested at 25$^\circ C$ about 66,000 IJs per larva was significantly greater than those at other temperatures. The optimal inoculation number of nematodes was 60 to 80 nematodes per host larva. The higher nematode inoculation concentration of 100 IJs per larva caused a rapid decrease in the total number of IJs harvested. As the inoculation medium pH increased, the number of IJs harvested increased and reached about 110,000 IJs per larva at pH 9.0. The pathogenicity of IJs decreased y increasing the salt concentration in the medium.

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Microbial Control of Fly Maggots with Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungus in Outhouses of Farmhouses (곤충병원선충과 곰팡이를 이용한 농가화장실 파리의 미생물적 방제)

  • 추호렬;김형환;이동운;박영도
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.80-84
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    • 1996
  • Infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungus was evaluated against fly larvae in the laboratory and outhouses. Mortalities of Muscina stabulans larvae were 96.7f 2.8% in Steinernema glaseri Dongrae strain, 90.0+0.0% in S. carpocapsae All strain, 86.7f 2.7% in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang strain, and 70.0+9.4% in S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain on the filter paper. When 260, 000 nem\ulcornertodes were sprayed into the outhouses, H. bacterwphora Hamyang strain killed 100%, S. glaseri Dongrae strain killed 76.9+3.9%, and S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain killed 58.5+6.1% of maggots. When 130, 000 nematodes and 7.0X lo9 cfu of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria brongniartii were sprayed alone or combined into outhouses, mortalities of maggots were 73.6+0.1% in B. brongniartii alone, 77.8+3.9% in S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain plus B. brongniartii, and 77.7f 5.1% in H. bacteriophora Hamyang strain plus B. brongniartii. Entomopathogenic nematodes and fungus were potential biological control agents in this study.

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Partial Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Protease from Xenorhabdus nematophilus a Symbiotic Bacterium Isolated from an Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema glaseri

  • Chae Young-Rae;Ryu Keun-Garp
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.379-382
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    • 2004
  • Entomopathogenic nematodes are used for insect control. Herein, an extracellular protease was partially purified from a culture supernatant of Xenorhabdus nematophilus, a symbiotic bacterium of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema glaseri: using precipitation with $80\%$ v/v isopropyl alcohol followed by gel permeation chromatography with a packed Sephacryl S-300 HR media. The partially purified protease exhibited maximal activity at pH 7 in the presence of 1 mM $CaCl_2$. The protease was identified as a metallo-protease based on the inhibition of its activity by the metal chelating agent, EDTA.