• Title, Summary, Keyword: Steers

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Comparison of Beef Color Stability during Display of Two Muscles between Japanese Shorthorn Steers and Japanese Black Steers

  • Muramoto, T.;Higashiyama, M.;Kondo, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1303-1308
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    • 2004
  • The beef color stability during display of two muscles, m. longissimus thoracis and m. semitendinosus, of Japanese Shorthorn steers (n=14) was compared with that of Japanese Black steers (n=14). The beef color of each carcass was evaluated according to the Japanese Grading Standards at 24 h post mortem. Steak samples from muscles were over-wrapped with PVC film and displayed under fluorescent lights at $4^{\circ}C$ for 9 days. Metmyoglobin percentages of steak samples were determined at days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The overall grade of beef color of the carcasses of Japanese Shorthorn steers was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of Japanese Black steers. The metmyoglobin percentages during the display of two muscles of Japanese Shorthorn steers were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of Japanese Black steers. These results suggested that though beef color evaluation of the carcasses of Japanese Shorthorn steers was lower than that of Japanese Black steers, the beef color stability during the display of the muscle of Japanese Shorthorn steers was higher than that of Japanese Black steers.

The Effects of Copper Source and Concentration on Lipid Metabolism in Growing and Finishing Angus Steers

  • Johnson, L.R.;Engle, T.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1131-1136
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    • 2003
  • Forty-eight individually fed Angus steers (body weight $220kg{\pm}9.1$) were utilized to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) source and concentration on lipid metabolism and carcass quality. Steers were stratified by body weight and initial liver Cu concentration and randomly assigned to one of five groups. Groups were then randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu); 2) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from $CuSO_4$; 3) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from a Cu amino acid complex (Availa Cu) 4) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from $CuSO_4$; and 5) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Availa Cu. Steers were fed a corn-alfalfa-based growing diet for 56 d. Steers were then switched to a high concentrate finishing diet for 145 d. On day 74 of the finishing phase subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from three steers/treatment to determine basal and stimulated lipolytic rates in vitro. Steers were then slaughtered after receiving the finishing diet for 145 d. Control steers tended (p<0.12) to have lower ceruloplasmin (Cp) activity than Cu supplemented steers. Steers receiving 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Availa Cu had higher (p<0.03) Cp activity than steers receiving 20 mg Cu/kg DM from $CuSO_4$. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids were similar across treatments. Steers receiving 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Availa Cu had higher (p<0.02) total plasma cholesterol concentrations relative to steers receiving 10 mg Cu/kg DM from $CuSO_4$. Steers receiving 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Availa Cu had lower (p<0.03) plasma triglyceride concentrations than steers supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM from $CuSO_4$. Fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle was similar across treatments. Backfat depth tended (p<0.18) to be lower in Cu supplemented steers relative to controls. Steers supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Availa Cu had heavier (p<0.03) hot carcass weights and a greater (p<0.02) dressing percentage than steers supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM from $CuSO_4$. Furthermore, in vitro basal (p<0.06) and epinephrine stimulated (p<0.04) lipolytic rates of subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in Cu supplemented steers relative to controls. The results of this study suggest that Cu supplementation has minimal effects on blood and lean tissue lipid profile. However, it appears that Cu may play a role in lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Effects of Trace Mineral Source and Growth Implants on Trace Mineral Status of Growing and Finishing Feedlot Steersa,b,c

  • Dorton, K.L.;Wagner, J.J.;Larson, C.K.;Enns, R.M.;Engle, T.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.907-915
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    • 2010
  • Three hundred and seventy-three steers (approximately 7 mo of age and $247{\pm}19.4\;kg$) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) source and growth implants on trace mineral status. Steers were blocked by ranch, post-weaning treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head/pen). Treatment consisted of: I) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), ii) inorganic trace minerals, and iii) organic trace minerals. Six pens of steers per treatment received a growth implant at the beginning of the experiment and were re-implanted during the finishing phase. The remaining steers received no growth implants. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet for 56 d then were gradually switched to a high concentrate finishing diet. Treatments during the finishing phase consisted of: i) control (no supplemental Zn); ii) inorganic Zn (30 mg of Zn/kg DM from $ZnSO_4$); and iii) organic Zn (iso-amounts of organic Zn). By the end of the growing and finishing phases, implanted steers had greater (p<0.01) plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers. During the growing phase, liver Cu concentrations (p<0.01) and plasma Zn concentrations (p<0.02) were greater in steers supplemented with TM compared to control steers. Steers supplemented with inorganic minerals had greater liver Cu concentrations than steers supplemented with organic minerals at the beginning (p<0.01) and end (p = 0.02) of the growing phase. During both the growing (p = 0.02) and finishing phases (p = 0.05), nonimplanted control steers had greater plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers supplemented with TM, whereas, implanted control steers had similar plasma Cu concentrations than implanted steers supplemented with TM. Non-implanted steers that received inorganic TM had lower plasma Cu concentrations (p = 0.03) during the growing phase and ceruloplasmin activity (p<0.04) during the finishing phase than non-implanted steers that received organic TM, whereas, implanted steers supplemented with either organic or inorganic TM had similar plasma Cu concentrations.

WATER TURNOVER OF GROWING CATTLE FED FRESH CUT GRASS OR HAY AND GRAZED ON PASTURE

  • Sekine, J.;Morita, Z.;Asahida, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.163-166
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    • 1988
  • Water turnover and consumption of steers fed either fresh cut grass or hay and water turnover of steers grazed in summer or in fall were determined using 18 Holstein steers weighing 226 to 382 kg. Steers consumed 7.0 or 7.5 kg of dry-matter from hay or fresh cut grass. Animals fed hay drank significantly more water than those given fresh cut grass (P<0.01). Total water consumption, however, was greater in steers fed fresh cut grass than those given hay (P<0.05). Water turnover was about the same as total water consumption with a tendency for slightly higher values in water turnover irrespective of feeding regimes. Steers grazed in summer had greater water turnover than those grazed in fall. Water turnover was about the same in steers fed fresh cut grass and grazed in summer but decreased in steers on the dry ration or grazing in a cool season of the year.

Effect of the Mixed Oil and Monensin Supplementation, and Feeding Duration of Supplements on c9,t11-CLA Contents in Plasma and Fat Tissues of Korean Native (Hanwoo) Steers

  • Wang, J.H.;Choi, S.H.;Lim, K.W.;Kim, K.H.;Song, Man K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1464-1469
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    • 2006
  • The present study was conducted with twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers to observe the effect of mixed oil and monensin supplementation and duration of feeding on c9,t11-CLA content in plasma and fat tissues. The steers were randomly assigned to three groups of eight animals each according to body weight. Hanwoo steers in the control group were fed the commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. The other groups of steers were fed the same diet as control steers, but the concentrate was supplemented with high-$C_{18:2}$ oil mixture (soybean oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil) and fish oil at 6% level of concentrate (DM basis), and monensin (20 ppm). The second and third group of steers was fed the oil mixture supplemented diet with monensin for the last 10 weeks and 20 weeks, respectively, prior to being slaughtered. The oil mixture consisted of 45% soybean oil, 20% sunflower oil, 20% safflower oil and 15% fish oil. Average daily gain (p<0.049) and feed efficiency (p<0.018) of the steers fed the diet supplemented with oil mixture and monensin (OM-M) for 20 weeks were higher than those of the other groups of steers. Dressing percent, fat thickness and longissimus muscle area were not affected by the OM-M supplementation and duration of its feeding. The OM-M supplementation increased the content of total-cholesterol (p<0.0001-0.0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p<0.0001) in the plasma of steers compared to the control diet. The steers fed the OM-M diet had a higher proportion of c9,t11-CLA in plasma (p<0.048-0.044) than the control steers. Feeding the OM-M diet for 20 weeks increased the proportion of CLA in intramuscular (p<0.015), intermuscular (p<0.039) and subcutaneous (p<0.001) fat tissues compared with both steers fed the control diet and the OM-M diet for 10 weeks. Increased (p<0.007) proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids in steers fed the OM-M diet for 20 weeks compared to those in control steers was related to the increased (p<0.001) $C_{18:2}$ and decreased (p<0.001) $C_{18:0}$ proportions in subcutaneous tissue.

A COMPARISON OF COTTONSEED AND FORMALDEHYDE-TREATED SUNFLOWER MEALS ON THE PRODUCTION OF BOS INDICUS AND BOS TAURUS CATTLE ON A SUB-TROPICAL PASTURE HAY

  • Hennessy, D.W.;Williamson, P.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 1988
  • Six steers of each breed type, Hereford ($H{\times}H$), Brahman ($B{\times}B$) and Brahman $\times$ Hereford ($B{\times}H$) were ranked on liveweight and allocated to three treatments, basal hay diet (Basal), Basal plus 1 kg/head/day of cottonseed meal (Basal + CSM) and Basal plus 1 kg/head/day of formaldehyde-treated sunflower meal, $Norpro^{(R)}$ (Basal + NPO). The hay was made from a pasture based predominantly on carpet grass (Axonopus affinus) growing in subtropical New South Wales, and had an estimated organic matter digestibility of 52% and a nitrogen (N) content of 7.8 g/kg dry matter (DM). The steers were accustomed to the Basal diet over 15 days and supplements offered over 42 days. Intake of the basal hay diet by steers was not increased by supplementation. When intakes were adjusted for differences between breed types in liveweight the $B{\times}H$ steers ate 25% (P<0.01) more hay than $H{\times}H$ steers (6.3 V 5.0 kg/head/d) and $B{\times}B$ steers ate 8% less hay than $H{\times}H$ steers. Supplementation significantly (P<0.01) increased liveweight gain during the experiment, being ($g/head/d\;{\pm}\;s.e.d.$) 290, 770 and $795{\pm}118$ respectively for Basal, Basal + NPO and Basal + CSM. There was no difference between supplements in the liveweight gain of steers nor between steers of different genotypes. However, there was a significant interaction (P<0.01) between breeds and treatments such that $B{\times}B$ steers gained most on the basal diet but least of the breed types when supplemented. The estimated non-degradeable fraction of N in the protein meals was 58.5 and 44.5%, respectively for NPO and CSM. Both meals increased (P<0.01) plasma urea N and rumen ammonia N concentrations.

Effect of Potato By-products Based Silage on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Carcass Fats in Holstein Steers

  • Pen, B.;Oyabu, T.;Hidaka, S.;Hidari, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.490-496
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    • 2005
  • Ten 18.5-month old Holstein steers were allocated into two diet groups of five and fed either concentrates as control group or potato by-products based silage (PBS) as experimental group for six months to investigate the effect of PBS on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition of carcass fats. The PBS diet consisted, in a DM basis, of 74.5% PBS, 16% hay, and 9.5% soybean milk residue (SMR). The control diet consisted, in a DM basis, of 82.5% concentrates and 17.5% hay. There were no significant differences in the overall average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, yield score and meat quality score of dressed carcass between the two diet groups. There were no statistical differences in DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) of beef and melting point of all adipose tissues from steers fed both diets. The PBS-fed steers tended to have lower Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) values than in the concentrate-fed steers (13.0 vs. 17.7 lb, p<0.1). At both sampling times 3 and 6 months of feeding period, PBS-fed steers had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (C18:2) acids in subcutaneous fat than in control group (p<0.05). PBS-fed steers had significantly higher proportions of PUFA, especially C18:2 fatty acids than in concentrate-fed steers in carcass fats (p<0.05). In conclusion, feeding PBS to fattening steers has shown to have the same potential as concentrate feeding in terms of effect on the growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics. Interestingly, PBS also seems preferable to concentrates because it increased the proportion of C18:2 fatty acid composition of carcass fats which is valuable for beef consumers.

Nutrient requirement for maintenance and nutritional changes of the Hanwoo steers in early-fattening stage under heat stress

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Four early-fattening Hanwoo steers weighing $247{\pm}13.5kg$ were used within a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to establish a nutrient requirement for maintenance and to investigate nutritional changes in the steers under heat stress condition. The steers were fed four different energy level diets: 100% (control) and 100%, 115% and 130% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) requirement of the early-fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance based on the Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. The steers in the control were housed with no stress (temperature $24^{\circ}C$ and humidity 60%), whereas the steers in the other groups were under heat stress (temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and humidity 70%). True digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and other nutrients were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by heat stress (i.e., control vs T100). This may be the result of a lower DM intake than that of the Korean feeding standard due to the establishment of the nutrients requirement under heat stress. Heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect the blood metabolite concentrations. Average daily gain (ADG) for T100 (-69.6 g) was lower than that of the control (-44.6 g, numerically), T115 (44.6 g, p < 0.05) and T130 (83.3 g, p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the ADG and TDN intake, the equation (Y = 0.1814X + 111.5) for the TDN requirement of the early fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance was calculated, indicating that 11.5% of TDN requirement for maintenance under heat stress may be additionally supplied.

Effects of Feeding Level of Concentrate and Age on the FAS Activities of Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Steers

  • Choi, S.H.;Song, M.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1696-1700
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different feeding levels of concentrate (85, 100 and 115%) and age (15, 18 and 24 month) on fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities in the 4 locations of adipose tissues (intermuscular, ITER; intramuscular, ITRA; kidney, KIDN and subcutaneous, SUBC) of 36 Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) steers. Steers of 100% feeding group were fed the amount of concentrate to meet the daily nutrient requirements, and the steers of second and third groups were fed concentrates at the levels of 85% and 115% of that of control group, respectively, up to 18 month of age. Thereafter, the steers were fed ad libitum up to 24 month of age. Feeding level of concentrates tended to affect the FAS activity of various adipose tissues in Hanwoo steers of each age. The FAS activity of ITER adipose tissue had the decreasing trend as the age of steers advanced while those of ITRA and SUBC adipose tissues had the slightly increasing tendency with age. The FAS activity based on the pooled data increased with the feeding level of concentrates (115%) in which the activities from all 4 adipose depots were higher than those with the lowest (85%) feeding level. Similar trend was observed from the pooled data of feeding level of concentrates by age of steers in which the FAS activities for all 3 ages were increased with feeding levels of concentrates. But the response in the FAS activity to the feeding level varied with age.

Comparison of Meat Quality Traits, Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid on Longissimus Lumborum Muscles from Hanwoo, Holstein and Angus Steers, Fattened in Korea

  • Jeong, Da-Woon;Oh, Mi-Ra;Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kim, Jin-Hyung;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Lee, Jun-Soo;Park, Beom-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.591-597
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to compare meat quality traits related to the tenderness of longissimus muscles obtained from domestic and imported steers. A total of 12 steers from three breeds were slaughtered, and were graded as quality grade 2. They were composed of 4 Hanwoo and 4 Holstein steers (domestic) as well as 4 Angus steers (imported from Australia and gained for six months in Korea until slaughtered). The longissimus lumborum muscles were separated and were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 7 and 14 d. Sarcomere length of Hanwoo was significantly shorter than Holstein and Angus at storage day 14 (p<0.05). The myofibrillar index was significantly lower on Hanwoo than Angus at ageing day 7, and was significantly lower than Holstein and Angus steers at storage day 14 (p<0.05). Total collagen contents of Hanwoo and Angus steers were significantly higher than Holstein on storage day 7 (p<0.05), whereas soluble collagen contents of Holstein were significantly higher than Hanwoo and Angus on storage days 7 and 14 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the fatty acid composition of the three breeds (p>0.05). Glutamic acid contents of Hanwoo and Angus steers were higher than those of Holstein steers at ageing day 7 and 14 (p<0.05). The results of this study have shown that there were no dramatic differences between beef from the three breeds that were fattened for 6 months under equal conditions.