• Title, Summary, Keyword: Steaming Process

Search Result 170, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Enhancement of Antioxidant Activities of Dioscorea batatas by Stepwise Steaming Process (증숙 공정에 의한 마의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Kang, Moon-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Sook;Kim, Gi-Chang;Choi, Song-Yi;Kim, Kyung-Mi
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.25 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1049-1057
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study investigated the physicochemical properties of Dioscorea batatas for improvement of biological activities during a three-step steaming process, steaming $120^{\circ}C$ for 30 min and hot air drying at $60^{\circ}C$ for 8 hrs. Samples were extracted with 70% ethanol and analyzed for free sugars, and organic acids were analyzed by HPLC. The DPPH & ABTS radical scavenging activities, crude saponin, water binding capacity, oil absorption, and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase activity were measured. The major free sugars in all samples were fructose, maltose, and sucrose, and the free sugar contents increased to 157~235% after the three-step steaming process compared to the control. Organic acid contents of samples treated by steaming increased to greater than 55.8 mg/100g. The ABTS radical scavenging activity significantly increased with repeated steaming process, especially after the three-step process. As the time of steaming process increased, DPPH radical scavenging activity increased from 26.99% fresh Dioscorea batatas to 80.46~97.79% after the three-step process. Crude saponin content increased rapidly as steaming time increased, but decreased after the three-step process steaming process. The water-binding capacities of the samples treated by steaming process were higher than that of the control, whereas oil absorption decreased as steaming time increased. From the results, steaming process could be suggested as beneficial for controlling fat intake. Compared to acarbose, a known antidiabetic drug, used as a positive control, ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity of samples treated by two-step steaming was among the samples. The results suggest that Dioscorea batatas treated by steaming process has antioxidative and anti-diabetis activities and can be used as a natural health product.

Enhancement of Ginsenosides Conversion Yield by Steaming and Fermentation Process in Low Quality Fresh Ginseng (증숙 발효 공정에 의한 파삼의 진세노사이드 전환 수율 증진)

  • Choi, Woon Yong;Lim, Hye Won;Choi, Geun Pyo;Lee, Hyeon Yong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.223-230
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was performed to enhance contents of low molecular ginsenoside using steaming and fermentation process in low quality fresh ginseng. For increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng, a steaming process was applied at $90^{\circ}C$ for 12 hr which was followed by fermentation process at Lactobacillus rhamnosus HK-9 incubated at $36^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. The contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Re and Rd were decreased with the steaming associated with fermentation process but ginsenoside Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK increased after process. It was found that under the steaming associated with fermentation process, low molecule ginsenosides such as Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK were increased as 3.231 mg/g, 2.585 mg/g and 1.955 m/g and 2.478 mg/g, respectively. In addition, concentration of benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene in extracts of the low quality fresh ginseng treated by the complex process was 0.11 ppm but it was 0.22 ppm when it was treated with the steaming process. This result could be caused by that the most efficiently breakdown of 1,2-glucoside and 1,4-glucoside linkage to backbone of ginsenosides by steaming associated with fermentation process. This results indicate that steaming process and fermenration process can increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng.

Neuroprotective Activity of So Cheong Ryong Tang with Steaming Process (증숙 과정을 통한 소청룡탕의 뇌신경세포 보호 활성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Weon, Jin-Bae;Yang, Hye-Jin;Lee, Bo-Hyoung;Yun, Bo-Ra;Ma, Jin-Yeul;Ma, Choong-Je
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.55 no.6
    • /
    • pp.451-455
    • /
    • 2011
  • So Cheong Ryong Tang (SCRT) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of the bronchial asthma. In this study, the effect of steaming process on changes in 11 major compounds (homogentisic acid, ephedrine HCl, paeoniflorin, cinnamic acid, cinnam aldehyde, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, schizandrin, methyleugenol, gomisin A and gomisin N) content and neuroprotective activity of SCRT were evaluated. Major compound content was slightly different with steaming produce. The contents of paeoniflorin, cinnamic acid, cinnam aldehyde, 6-gingerol and methyleugenol were decreased and homogentisic acid, ephedrine HCl, glycyrrhizin, schizandrin and gomisin A were increased by steaming process. The neuroprotective activity of steaming SCRT was determined in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells by MTT assay. As a result, neuroprotective activity of a steaming SCRT was higher than that of a non steaming SCRT. This study demonstrated that neuroprotective activity of SCRT can be improved through steaming process.

Screening of Skin Whitening Activity of Codonopsis lanceolata Extract by Complex Steaming Process (복합 고온 전처리 더덕 추출물의 미백 활성 탐색)

  • Kim, Ji Seon;Kim, Ji Woong;Kwon, Hee Seok;Lim, Hye Won;Lee, Hyeon Yong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.54-60
    • /
    • 2013
  • According to previous reports, antioxidant activities of Codonopsis lanceolata could be increased by a steaming process. This study was performed to improve its antioxidant activity and skin whitening activities of C. lanceolata by high pressure and stepwise steaming complex process. The complex processed C. lanceolata showed highest free radical scavenging acitivity as 45.21%, and for phenol and flavonoid contents, complex processed C. lanceolata contained higher than those from conventional extraction process or steaming process alone. The Cytotoxicity of all C. lanceolata extracts also showed low cytotoxicity against human fibroblast cell (CCD-986sk) as 4.49 ~ 10.40%. In whitening activity, high inhibition of tyrosinase activity was estimated as 25.08% by adding the extracts from complex process. We found that whitening and antioxidant activity of complex processed C. lancolata extract was higher than those obtained from conventional extraction and a steaming process because various kinds of antioxidant compounds could be easily released by combined process, compared to one of each process.

Remarkable impact of amino acids on ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

  • Liu, Zhi;Wen, Xin;Wang, Chong-Zhi;Li, Wei;Huang, Wei-Hua;Xia, Juan;Ruan, Chang-Chun;Yuan, Chun-Su
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.44 no.3
    • /
    • pp.424-434
    • /
    • 2020
  • Background: Amino acids are one of the major constituents in Panax ginseng, including neutral amino acid, acidic amino acid, and basic amino acid. However, whether these amino acids play a role in ginsenoside conversion during the steaming process has not yet been elucidated. Methods: In the present study, to elucidate the role of amino acids in ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng, an amino acids impregnation pretreatment was applied during the steaming process at 120℃. Acidic glutamic acid and basic arginine were used for the acid impregnation treatment during the root steaming. The ginsenosides contents, pH, browning intensity, and free amino acids contents in untreated and amino acid-treated P. ginseng samples were determined. Results: After 2 h of steaming, the concentration of less polar ginsenosides in glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng was significantly higher than that in untreated P. ginseng during the steaming process. However, the less polar ginsenosides in arginine-treated P. ginseng increased slightly. Meanwhile, free amino acids contents in fresh P. ginseng, glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng, and arginine-treated P. ginseng significantly decreased during steaming from 0 to 2h. The pH also decreased in P. ginseng samples at high temperatures. The pH decrease in red ginseng was closely related to the decrease in basic amino acids levels during the steaming process. Conclusion: Amino acids can remarkably affect the acidity of P. ginseng sample by altering the pH value. They were the main influential factors for the ginsenoside transformation. These results are useful in elucidating why and how steaming induces the structural change of ginsenoside inP. ginseng and also provides an effective and green approach to regulate the ginsenoside conversion using amino acids during the steaming process.

Effect of High Pressure and Steaming Extraction Processes on Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 Contents of Cultured-Root in Wild Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (초고압 증숙처리가 산삼배양근의 진세노사이드 Rg3와 Rh2의 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Woon-Yong;Lee, Choon-Geun;Seo, Yong-Chang;Song, Chi-Ho;Lim, Hye-Won;Lee, Hyeon-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.270-276
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was performed to enhance contents of low molecular weight ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg3 using an ultra high pressure and steaming process in wild cultured-Root in wild ginseng. For selective increase in contents of Rg3 and Rh2 in cultured wild ginseng roots, an ultra high extraction was applied at 500MPa for 20 min which was followed by steaming process at $90^{\circ}C$ for 12 hr. It was revealed that contents of ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd, were decreased with the complex process described above, whereas contents of ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg3 were increased up to 4.918 mg/g and 6.115 mg/g, respectively. In addition, concentration of benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene in extracts of the cultured wild ginseng roots treated by the complex process was 0.64 ppm but it was 0.78 ppm when it was treated with the steaming process. From the results, it was strongly suggested that low molecular weight ginsenosides, Rh2 and Rg3, are converted from Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd which are easily broken down by an ultra high pressure and steaming process. This results indicate that an ultra high pressure and steaming process can selectively increase in contents of Rg3 and Rh2 in cultured wild ginseng roots and this process might enhance the utilization and values of cultured wild ginseng roots.

Antioxidant and Anti-physical fatigue Effects of Polygonati Rhizoma and steamed Polygonati Rhizoma (황정(黃精)과 증숙 황정(蒸熟 黃精)의 항산화, 항피로 효능 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Lee, AhReum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kwon, OJun;Seo, Young-Bae
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.49-57
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objectives: Polygonati Rhizoma (PR) has containing the bioactive compounds such as poly sccharide A,B,C, oligosaccharide, amino acid, it has reported to anti-diabetes and hypertension, atherosclerosis. In this study, we were evaluates antioxidant and anti-physical fatigue effects of PR and steamed PR.Methods : The sample was divided into 5 groups-PR0 (PR without steaming process), PR1 (PR with once steaming process), PR3 (PR with third steaming process), PR6 (PR with sixth steaming process), PR9 (PR with ninth steaming process). We measured anti-oxidant activity through contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging capacity. And, anti-physical fatigue effect was evaluated using the swimming test, and the AMPK protein expressions in soleus muscle.Results : As a result, polyphenol, flavonoid, DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging capacity of PR were increased as steaming times. Anti-physical fatigue effects by swimming test, PR0 have significantly increased, but steamed PR groups were decreased. The AMPK protein expressions of PR0 and PR1 groups were increased comparing with PR3, PR6 and PR9. All groups had effects on decreasing TG, creatine in blood serum, but had no effects on TC in blood serum.Conclusions : In conclusion, PR with 9 steaming process was more excellent than not-processed PR in anti-oxidant effect such as DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity and contents of polyphenol, flavonoid, but, not-processed PR increased swimming times than processed PR. These results suggest that processed PR has anti-oxidant effect as steaming times, and not-processed PR may be a novel potential anti-physical fatigue agents than processed PR.

Review of Red Ginseng in terms of Mechanisms for Pharmacodynamics and Toxicity (홍삼의 약리와 독성 기전에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Yeong-Chul;Lim, Jung-Dae;Kim, Jong-Bong;Lee, Sundong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.200-230
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objectives: Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A., white ginseng, has been used for thousands of years in Traditional Korean Medicine. Red ginseng can be made by a steaming process of white ginseng changing a variety of ginsenosides and ingredients such as dencichine. This article reviews red ginseng for mechanisms for pharmacodynamics and toxicity based on the content of ginseng's active ingredients, ginsenoside changed by steaming. Methods: The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Science Direct and Chinese Scientific Journals full text database (CQVIP), and KSI (Korean Studies Information) from their respective inceptions to June 2012. Results: Compared with unsteamed ginseng, the content of ginsenosides Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, Rh2 and Rk1 called red ginseng-specific ginsenosides increased after the steaming process. Different ginsenosides have shown a wide variety of effects such as lowering or raising blood sugar and blood pressure or stimulating or sedating the nervous system. Especially, the levels of Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, Rh2 and Rk1 were increased by the steaming process, showing a variety of pharmacodynamics in biological systems. Also, various processing methods such as puffing and fermentation have been developed in processing crude ginseng or red ginseng, affecting the content of ginseng's ingredients. The safety issue could be the most critical, specifically, on changed ginseng's ingredients such as dencichine. The level of dencichine was significantly reduced in red ginseng by the steaming process. In addition, the possible toxicity for red ginseng was affected by cytochrome P450, a herbal-drug interaction. Conclusions: The variety of pharmacological and toxicological properties should be changed by steaming process of Panax ginseng C. A., white ginseng. Even if it is not sure whether the steaming process of white ginseng would be better pharmacologically, it is sure that steaming reduces the level of dencichine causing a lower toxicity to the nervous system.

Headspace Volatile Compounds of Steamed Liriopis Tuber Tea Affected by Steaming Frequency

  • Park, Jin-Yong;Park, So-Hae;Lee, Heeseob;Lee, Yang-Bong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.314-320
    • /
    • 2014
  • Flavor quality of Liriopis tuber tea that was made using a steaming process was studied by measuring changes in headspace volatile compounds. Headspace volatile compounds of the prepared samples were isolated, separated and identified by the combined system of purge & trap, automatic thermal desorber, gas chromatography, and mass selective detector. As steaming frequencies were increased, the area percent of aldehydes decreased from 32.01% to 3.39% at 1 and 9 steaming frequency times, respectively. However, furans and ketones increased from 18.67% to 33.86% and from 9.60% to 17.40% at 1 and 9 times, respectively. The savory flavor of Liriopis tuber tea was due to a decrease in aldehydes contributing a fresh flavor at the 1st steaming process and newly generated furans from nonenzymatic browning with repeated steaming frequencies. These results will provide basic information for quality control of the newly developed Liriopis tuber tea.

Variation of main components according to the number of steaming and drying of Rehmanniae radix preparata

  • Youn, Ui Joung;Gu, Bon-Seok;Kim, Kyung Hee;Ha, Chulgyu;Jung, In Chan
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.112-119
    • /
    • 2018
  • Contents of compounds in Rehmanniae Radix change depending on the number of steaming and drying and the drying method. In this study, as an impregnation method for dried Rehmanniae Radix, takju impregnation and cheongju impregnation were carried out and steaming and drying were repeated for 9 times. The changes of 5-HMF and catalpol contents were analyzed according to the number of repetition times to investigate which stage of steaming and drying is preferable. Also, total nitrogen, crude fat, ash, and crude fiber were measured to analyze changes in general components. 5-HMF was not detected in dried Rehmanniae Radix. As a result of repetitive steaming and drying, the content of 5-HMF increased only slightly from 1 to 4-times steaming and drying but increased significantly from 5-times. The catalpol in dried Rehmanniae Radix was not detected after 5 times of steaming and drying. Sucrose, maltose, and glucose were included in dried Rehmanniae Radix before steaming and drying. However, after the process in both Takju impregnation and Cheongju impregnation, galactose and fructose tended to decrease after production and sucrose and glucose tended to decrease after the increase. In this study condition, 6-times and more steaming and drying were appropriate process which met the content criteria (not less than 0.1%) of the Korean Pharmacopoeia (8th edition) for 5-HMF, an index component for quality control of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata.