• Title, Summary, Keyword: Steam fog

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On the Steam Fog in the Gumi Reservoir of Nakdong River (낙동강 구미 보의 증기 안개에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Dong;Cho, Chang-Bum;Seo, Kwang-Su
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.163-171
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    • 2016
  • We analyzed the characteristics of fog formation in the Gumi Reservoir of Nakdong river with the field observation data for recent 2 years (1 April 2013~31 March 2015) collected by the national institute of meteorological research, KMA. In early morning, we frequently observe the steam rising from the water surface. The fog occurs from adding water vapor into the air. We call the fog as steam fog. Steam fogs occur when cold, dry air mixes with warm, moist air above a water surface. The steam fog appears mainly in autumn under the following conditions; (1) sensible heat is positive values ($10{\sim}20W/m^2$), (2) latent heat is more positive values ($25{\sim}35W/m^2$) than sensible heat, (3) cloudless nights with light winds (about 1.5 m/s), (4) under condition(3), mountainous winds easily blows into the reservoir.

A Case Study of Coastal Fog Event Causing Flight Cancellation and Traffic Accidents (항공기 결항과 연쇄 교통사고를 야기한 연안안개 사례 연구)

  • Kim, Young Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • A heavy foggy event accompanying with complex coastal fog was investigated in this study. This heavy foggy event occurred on FEB 11, 2015. Due to reduced visibility with this foggy event induced more than 100times serial traffic accidents over the Young-jong highway, and Flights from 04:30 AM to 10:00 AM were cancelled on Inchon International Airport. This heavy foggy event was occurred in synoptic and mesoscale environments but dense coastal fog were combined with a combination of sea fog, steam fog, and radiation fog. This kind of coastal fog can predicted by accurate analysis of the direction of the air flow, sea surface temperature(SST), and 925hPa isotherms from numerical weather prediction charts and real time analysis charts.

Micro-meteorological Characteristics during the Steam Fog over the Gumi Reservoir of Nakdong River (낙동강 구미 보의 증기 안개 발생 시의 미기상학적 특성)

  • Kim, Hae-Dong;Cho, Chang-Bum;Seo, Kwang-Su
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.405-415
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    • 2016
  • We analyzed the micro-meteorological characteristics during typical steam fog over the Gumi Reservoir of Nakdong river with the field observation data for recent 2 year(1 April 2013~31 March 2015) collected by the national institute of meteorological research, KMA. Steam fog occur when the cold drainage flows over the warm water surface. As the sensible and latent heat from water are provided to the air, the instability of lower atmosphere is increased. The resultant vertical mixing of warm, moist air near water surface and cold air aloft causes the formation of status cloud. The convection strengthened by radiative cooling of the upper part of the stratus causes the fog to propagate downward. Also, the temperature at the lowest atmosphere is increased rapidly and the inversion near surface disappear by these processes when the fog forms. The increase of wind speed is observed because the downward transportation of momentum is caused by vertical mixing.

A Study on Prediction System of Sea Fogs in the East Sea (동해의 해무 예측 시스템 연구)

  • 서장원;오희진;안중배;윤용훈
    • The Sea
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2003
  • We have found that the east coast of Korea has had few sea fogs on January, February, November and December for the past 20 years by the analysis of monthly fog frequency and duration time. These phenomena appear to relate to the topographical characteristics of which the Taebaek Mountains descends toward the east to bar the radiation fog. On the other hand, the cause of occurring the spring and summer fog which has 90% of the whole frequency is divided into three cases. The first is the steam fog caused by the advection of the northeast cold air current on the East Sea due to the extension of Okhotsk High. The second is the advection fog caused by cooling and saturation of warm airmass advected on cold sea surface. And the last is the frontal fog caused by the supply of enough vapor due to the movement of low-pressure system and the advection of cold air behind a cold front. While, we simulate the sea fog for the period of the case studies by implementing fog prediction system(DUT-METRI) that makes it possible to forecast the fog in the vertical section of neighborhood of the East Sea and to predict the sea surface wind, relative humidity, ceiling height, visibility etc. Finally we verified this result by satellite image.

EVALUATION OF SEA FOG DETECTION USING A REMOTE SENSED DATA COMBINED METHOD

  • Heo, Ki-Young;Ha, Kyung-Ja;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Shim, Jae-Seol;Suh, Ae-Sook
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.294-297
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    • 2007
  • Steam and advection fogs are frequently observed in the Yellow Sea located between Korea and China during the periods of March-April and June-July respectively. This study uses the remote sensing (RS) data for monitoring sea fog. Meteorological data obtained from the Ieodo Ocean Research Station provided an informative synopsis for the occurrence of steam and advection fogs through a ground truth. The RS data used in this study was GOES-9, MTSAT-1R images and QuikSCAT wind data. A dual channel difference (DCD) approach using IR and near-IR channel of GOES-9 and MTSAT-1R satellites was applied to estimate the extension of the sea fog. For the days examined, it was found that not only the DCD but also the texture-related measurement and the weak wind condition are required to separate the sea fog from the low cloud. The QuikSCAT wind is used to provide a weak wind area less than threshold under stable condition of the surface wind around a fog event. The Laplacian computation for a measurement of the homogeneity was designed. A new combined method of DCD, QuikSCAT wind speed and Laplacian was applied in the twelve cases with GOES-9 and MTSAT-1R. The threshold values for DCD, QuikSCAT wind speed and Laplacian are -2.0 K, 8 m $s^{-1}$ and 0.1, respectively. The validation methods such as Heidke skill score, probability of detection, probability of false detection, true skill score and odds ratio show that the new combined method improves the detection of sea fog rather than DCD method.

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A Remote Sensed Data Combined Method for Sea Fog Detection

  • Heo, Ki-Young;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Shim, Jae-Seol;Ha, Kyung-Ja;Suh, Ae-Sook;Oh, Hyun-Mi;Min, Se-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2008
  • Steam and advection fogs are frequently observed in the Yellow Sea from March to July except for May. This study uses remote sensing (RS) data for the monitoring of sea fog. Meteorological data obtained from the Ieodo Ocean Research Station provided a valuable information for the occurrence of steam and advection fogs as a ground truth. The RS data used in this study were GOES-9, MTSAT-1R images and QuikSCAT wind data. A dual channel difference (DCD) approach using IR and shortwave IR channel of GOES-9 and MTSAT-1R satellites was applied to detect sea fog. The results showed that DCD, texture-related measurement and the weak wind condition are required to separate the sea fog from the low cloud. The QuikSCAT wind data was used to provide the wind speed criteria for a fog event. The laplacian computation was designed for a measurement of the homogeneity. A new combined method, which includes DCD, QuikSCAT wind speed and laplacian computation, was applied to the twelve cases with GOES-9 and MTSAT-1R. The threshold values for DCD, QuikSCAT wind speed and laplacian are -2.0 K, $8m\;s^{-1}$ and 0.1, respectively. The validation results showed that the new combined method slightly improves the detection of sea fog compared to DCD method: improvements of the new combined method are $5{\sim}6%$ increases in the Heidke skill score, 10% decreases in the probability of false detection, and $30{\sim}40%$ increases in the odd ratio.

The Influence of Evaporation from a Stream on Fog Events in the Middle Nakdong River (낙동강 중류에서 하천 증발이 안개에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jun Sang;Kim, Kyu Rang;Kang, Misun;Kim, Baek-Jo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.395-404
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we classified observed fog events in the Middle Nakdong River near Gumi and analyzed the meteorological characteristics before and after the fog formation. The observation was performed from 2013 to 2015 using visibility meter. A total of 74 fog events were observed and most of them were classified as steam fog. The duration of observed steam fogs was longer than that of typical inland fogs because the nocturnal evaporation from the water surface was enhanced by the topographical characteristics. In order to analyze the effect of evaporation from the stream on the fog duration, the evaporation was estimated using the Penman-Monteith and the Bulk aerodynamic methods. The estimated evaporation by the Bulk method was similar to the actual evaporation from the water surface. Therefore, the Bulk method is suitable for estimating the evaporation from water surface. The evaporation amount, estimated by using the Bulk method was higher on fog days than non-fog days at 06 LST and 07 LST. The added evaporation of fog days released latent heat to the atmosphere and provided energy to maintain the turbulence in the fog. This phenomenon was confirmed by the increase of wind speed, temperature and turbulent kinetic energy within the fog.

The Impact of the Dam Construction on the Fog Characteristics of Its Surrounding Area (대형 댐 건설이 주변 지역의 안개 특성에 미친 영향 - 주암댐과 충주댐을 사례로 -)

  • Lee, Seungho;Heo, Inhye
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 2003
  • This paper examined the impacts of dam construction on fog characteristics over surrounding areas. Juamdam which only supplies the water for use and Chungjudam which generates electricity were selected. The number of foggy days, fog occurrence and dissipation time and the differences of each lake water temperature and air temperature at Sunchun and Chungju were analyzed. After the construction of dam, the relative humidity and water vapor pressure were decreased at Sunchun and Chungju. The number of foggy days did not increase at Sunchun while largely increased at Chungju. Just because Juamdam were contained water, the water vapor pressure at surrounding areas of the weather station were largely decreased. It delayed the time of fog occurrence by bringing out the decrease of steam fog. The foggy days increased over the Chungju area due to the difference between air and cold outlet water temperature. The increase of foggy days mainly resulted from evaporation during colder seasons and from the temperature inversion over the water surface during warmer seasons.

Temporal and Spatial Variations of Marine Meteorological Elements and Characteristics of Sea Fog Occurrence in Korean Coastal Waters during 2013-2017 (2013~2017년 연안해역별 해양기상요소의 시·공간 변화 및 해무발생시 특성 분석)

  • Park, So-Hee;Song, Sang-Keun;Park, Hyeong-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.257-272
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    • 2020
  • This study investigates the temporal and spatial variations of marine meterological elements (air temperature (Temp), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and Significant Wave Height (SWH)) in seven coastal waters of South Korea, using hourly data observed at marine meteorological buoys (10 sites), Automatic Weather System on lighthouse (lighthouse AWS) (9 sites), and AWS (20 sites) during 2013-2017. We also compared the characteristics of Temp, SST, and air-sea temperature difference (Temp-SST) between sea fog and non-sea-fog events. In general, annual mean values of Temp and SST in most of the coastal waters were highest (especially in the southern part of Jeju Island) in 2016, due to heat waves, and lowest (especially in the middle of the West Sea) in 2013 or 2014. The SWH did not vary significantly by year. Wind patterns varied according to coastal waters, but their yearly variations for each coastal water were similar. The maximum monthly/seasonal mean values of Temp and SST occurred in summer (especially in August), and the minimum values in winter (January for Temp and February for SST). Monthly/seasonal mean SWH was highest in winter (especially in December) and lowest in summer (June), while the monthly/seasonal variations in wind speed over most of the coastal waters (except for the southern part of Jeju Island) were similar to those of SWH. In addition, sea fog during spring and summer was likely to be in the form of advection fog, possibly because of the high Temp and low SST (especially clear SST cooling in the eastern part of South Sea in summer), while autumn sea fog varied between different coastal waters (either advection fog or steam fog). The SST (and Temp-SST) during sea fog events in all coastal waters was lower (and more variable) than during non-sea-fog events, and was up to -5.7℃ for SST (up to 5.8℃ for Temp-SST).

Analysis of a Sea Fog Using Ocean-air Observation Data in the Mid-Yellow Sea off Korea (해양기상 관측자료를 이용한 서해 중부해역 해무 분석)

  • Oh, Hee-Jin;Lee, Ho-Man;Seo, Tae-Gun;Youn, Yong-Hoon;Kim, Tae-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.303-314
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    • 2003
  • Ocean-air observation using an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) was conducted in the Mid-Yellow Sea off Korea during 8-10 July 2002. A water mass lower than 17$^{\circ}C$ around the Taean peninsula and a tidal front between 36$^{\circ}$20'N and 36$^{\circ}$30'N were observed. The horizontal distribution of air temperature was similar to that of sea surface temperature (SST). Hourly observation around Dukjuk island showed the cold and saline southwesterly and the warm and fresh northeasterly in phase with tidal current. Sea fogs two times formed at 2300 LST 8-0130 LST 9, and 0300-0600 LST 9 July 2002 during the observation period, respectively. During the initial stage of fogs, winds became northeasterly at the speed of 2-4m/s$^{-1}$, and air temperature dropped to 18$^{\circ}C$, as the North Pacific High weakened. The satellite image indicated that sea fogs formed over warm water in the western Yellow Sea and moved eastward toward the observation site, which could be called a steam fog. The fogs dissipated when wind speed and air temperature increased.