• Title/Summary/Keyword: Static Analysis

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New Development of Hybrid Concrete Support Structure with Driven Piles for Offshore Wind Turbines (하이브리드 해상풍력 파일 기초 콘크리트 지지구조(MCF) 개발)

  • Kim, Hyun Gi;Kim, Bum Jun;Kim, Ki Du
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.307-320
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes a new hybrid support structure by the driven piles which removes disadvantages of the existing type of support structure for offshore wind turbines. The hybrid type of support structure is combined with concrete cone and steel shaft, and is supported not only by gravity type foundations but also by driven piles. For three dimensional analysis of the huge and thick concrete structure, a solid-shell element that is capable of exact modeling and node interpolations of stresses is developed. By applying wave theory of stream function and solid-shell element in XSEA simulation software for fixed offshore wind turbines, a quasi-static analysis and natural frequency analysis of proposed support structure are performed with the environmental condition on Southwest Coast in Korea. In the result, lateral displacement is not exceed allowable displacement and a superiority of dynamic behavior of new hybrid support structure is validated by natural frequency analysis. Consequently, the hybrid support structure presented in this study has a structural stability enough to be applied on real-site condition in Korea. The optimized structures based on the preliminary design concept resulted in an efficient structure, which reasonably reduces fabrication costs.

Prediction of Structural Performance of an Automotive Ball Joint (자동차용 볼조인트의 구조적 성능 예측)

  • Kim, Seong-Uk;Jeong, Gyeong-Il;Lee, Kwon-Hee;Lee, Dong-Jin;Lee, Myeong-Gon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.705-713
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    • 2018
  • An automotive ball joint connects the suspension system to the steering system and helps to enable rotational and linear motion between the two elements for steering. This study examines a ball joint used in medium and large-sized pickup trucks. Ball joints consist of a stud, socket, bearing, and plug. The main structural performance metrics of ball joints are the pull-out strength and push-out strength. These structural parameters must meet certain criteria to avoid serious accidents. Test and simulation methods are used to investigate the design requirements, but tests are time-consuming and costly. In this study, we modeled ball joints in SolidWorks and performed a finite element analysis in Abaqus to predict structural performance. The analysis was used to obtain the structural performance required for the static analysis of a 2D axisymmetric model. The uncertainties in the manufacturing of the ball joint were assumed to be the manufacturing tolerances, and the dimensional design variables were identified through case studies. The manufacturing tolerances at each level were defined, and the results were compared with experimental results.

Design and Implementation of Static Program Analyzer Finding All Buffer Overrun Errors in C Programs (C 프로그램의 버퍼 오버런(buffer overrun) 오류를 찾아 주는 정적 분석기의 설계와 구현)

  • Yi Kwang-Keun;Kim Jae-Whang;Jung Yung-Bum
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.508-524
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    • 2006
  • We present our experience of combining, in a realistic setting, a static analyzer with a statistical analysis. This combination is in order to reduce the inevitable false alarms from a domain-unaware static analyzer. Our analyzer named Airac(Array Index Range Analyzer for C) collects all the true buffer-overrun points in ANSI C programs. The soundness is maintained, and the analysis' cost-accuracy improvement is achieved by techniques that static analysis community has long accumulated. For still inevitable false alarms (e.g. Airac raised 970 buffer-overrun alarms in commercial C programs of 5.3 million lines and 737 among the 970 alarms were false), which are always apt for particular C programs, we use a statistical post analysis. The statistical analysis, given the analysis results (alarms), sifts out probable false alarms and prioritizes true alarms. It estimates the probability of each alarm being true. The probabilities are used in two ways: 1) only the alarms that have true-alarm probabilities higher than a threshold are reported to the user; 2) the alarms are sorted by the probability before reporting, so that the user can check highly probable errors first. In our experiments with Linux kernel sources, if we set the risk of missing true error is about 3 times greater than false alarming, 74.83% of false alarms could be filtered; only 15.17% of false alarms were mixed up until the user observes 50% of the true alarms.

Construction stages analyses using time dependent material properties of concrete arch dams

  • Sevim, Baris;Altunisik, Ahmet C.;Bayraktar, Alemdar
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.599-612
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents the effects of the construction stages using time dependent material properties on the structural behaviour of concrete arch dams. For this purpose, a double curvature Type-5 arch dam suggested in "Arch Dams" symposium in England in 1968 is selected as a numerical example. Finite element models of Type-5 arch dam are modelled using SAP2000 program. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into consideration in the construction stage analysis using P-Delta plus large displacement criterion. In addition, the time dependent material strength variations and geometric variations are included in the analysis. Elasticity modulus, creep and shrinkage are computed for different stages of the construction process. In the construction stage analyses, a total of 64 construction stages are included. Each stage has generally $6000m^3$ concrete volume. Total duration is taken into account as 1280 days. Maximum total step and maximum iteration for each step are selected as 200 and 50, respectively. The structural behaviour of the arch dam at different construction stages has been examined. Two different finite element analyses cases are performed. In the first case, construction stages using time dependent material properties are considered. In the second case, only linear static analysis (not considered construction stages) is taken into account. Variation of the displacements and stresses are obtained from the both analyses. It is highlighted that construction stage analysis using time dependent material strength variations and geometric variations has an important effect on the structural behaviour of arch dams. The maximum longitudinal, transverse and vertical displacements obtained from construction stages and static analyses are 1.35 mm and 0 mm; -8.44 and 6.68 mm; -4.00 and -9.90 mm, respectively. In addition, vertical displacements increase from the base to crest of the dam for both analyses. The maximum S11, S22 and S33 stresses are obtained as 1.60MPa and 2.84MPa; 1.39MPa and 2.43MPa; 0.60MPa and 0.50MPa, respectively. The differences between maximum longitudinal, transverse, and vertical stresses obtained from construction stage and static analyses are 78%, 75%, and %17, respectively. On the other hand, there is averagely 12% difference between minimum stresses for all three directions.

A Methodology of Seismic Damage Assessment Using Capacity Spectrum Method (능력 스펙트럼법을 이용한 건물 지진 손실 평가 방법)

  • Byeon, Ji-Seok
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.3 s.43
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • This paper describes a new objective methodology of seismic building damage assessment which is called Advanced Component Method(ACM). ACM is a major attempt to replace the conventional loss estimation procedure, which is based on subjective measures and the opinions of experts, with one that objectively measures both earthquake intensity and the response ol buildings. First, response of typical buildings is obtained analytically by nonlinear seismic static analysis, push-over analyses. The spectral displacement Is used as a measure of earthquake intensity in order to use Capacity Spectrum Method and the damage functions for each building component, both structural and non-structural, are developed as a function of component deformation. Examples of components Include columns, beams, floors, partitions, glazing, etc. A repair/replacement cost model is developed that maps the physical damage to monetary damage for each component. Finally, building response, component damage functions, and cost model were combined probabilistically, using Wonte Carlo simulation techniques, to develop the final damage functions for each building type. Uncertainties in building response resulting from variability in material properties and load assumptions were incorporated in the Latin Hypercube sampling technique. The paper also presents and compares ACM and conventional building loss estimation based on historical damage data and reported loss data.

A Study on the Optimal EITC Program (근로장려세제의 최적 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Hanwook
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.131-170
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    • 2008
  • Korea's public assistance system, represented by NBLS(National Basic livelihood Security), has disclosed critical problems despite the rapid increase in its budget, such as decreasing work incentive and deepening welfare trap. These typical problems of classical welfare system have been commonly witnessed in many other advanced countries. Therefore a number of efforts have been exerted to correct these problems by transferring the existing welfare system into a welfare-to-work(or workfare) system, and the most common one of such efforts is introducing the EITC(Earned Income Tax Credit)-type programs. They have already been implemented in many countries such as the USA, the UK and France, also Korean government decided to launch EITC program in 2009. This paper aims to propose some measures to improve Korean EITC program. For this, an optimization problem is constructed from the government's viewpoint. Optimal EITC program is defined to be a solution to the problem - a combination of phase-in rate, phase-out rate, and maximum credit that maximizes labor supply increase under a exogenously given budget constraint. Using a mechanism design analysis, we derive and characterize the optimal EITC program. Analysis results implies that Korean EITC structure needs to be modified so that phase-in rate is larger than phase-out rate and the upper limit of phase-out range becomes larger. Comparative static analysis results show that the feature of the optimal EITC program is sensitive to the change of income distribution, suggesting that if beneficiaries are categorized into different income groups, then it is desirable to apply distinctive EITC programs to each group.

Detecting Security Vulnerabilities in TypeScript Code with Static Taint Analysis (정적 오염 분석을 활용한 타입스크립트 코드의 보안 취약점 탐지)

  • Moon, Taegeun;Kim, Hyoungshick
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.263-277
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    • 2021
  • Taint analysis techniques are popularly used to detect web vulnerabilities originating from unverified user input data, such as Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and SQL Injection, in web applications written in JavaScript. To detect such vulnerabilities, it would be necessary to trace variables affected by user-submitted inputs. However, because of the dynamic nature of JavaScript, it has been a challenging issue to identify those variables without running the web application code. Therefore, most existing taint analysis tools have been developed based on dynamic taint analysis, which requires the overhead of running the target application. In this paper, we propose a novel static taint analysis technique using symbol information obtained from the TypeScript (a superset of JavaScript) compiler to accurately track data flow and detect security vulnerabilities in TypeScript code. Our proposed technique allows developers to annotate variables that can contain unverified user input data, and uses the annotation information to trace variables and data affected by user input data. Since our proposed technique can seamlessly be incorporated into the TypeScript compiler, developers can find vulnerabilities during the development process, unlike existing analysis tools performed as a separate tool. To show the feasibility of the proposed method, we implemented a prototype and evaluated its performance with 8 web applications with known security vulnerabilities. We found that our prototype implementation could detect all known security vulnerabilities correctly.

Dynamic Factor of Safety Calculation of Slope by Nonlinear Response History Analysis (비선형 응답이력해석을 통한 사면의 동적 안전계수 계산)

  • Lee, Yonghee;Kim, Hak-Sung;Ju, Young-Tae;Kim, Daehyeon;Park, Heon-Joon;Park, Duhee
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2021
  • Pseudo-static slope stability analysis method is widely used in engineering practice to calculate the seismic factor of safety of slope subjected to earthquake ground motions. Although the dynamic analysis method is well recognized to have the primary advantage of simulating the stress-strain response of soils, it is not often used in practice because of the difficult in estimating the factor of safety. In this study, a procedure which utilizes the dynamic analysis method to extract the transient dynamic factor of safety is devleoped. This method overcomes the major limitation of the pseudo-static method, which uses an empirically determined seismic coefficient to derive the factor of safety. The proposed method is applied to a slope model and the result is compared with that of the pseudo-static method. It is shown that minimum dynamic factor of safety calculated by the dynamic analysis is slightly larger than that determined from the pseudo-static method. It is also demonstrated that the dynamic factor of safety becomes minimum when the horizontal seismic coefficient and horizontal average acceleration are maximum.

Analyzing the Market Structure of International Construction Contracts : Focusing on Korean Construction Firms (국내 건설기업의 해외건설 계약실적 구조 분석)

  • Lee, Kang-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.124-132
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    • 2019
  • Notwithstanding the crucial contribution of international construction industry in the national economy, previous studies on international construction contracts had mainly focused either on trend investigation or market share analysis at a point of time. Fundamentally, the international construction industry is fragmented due to its project-based nature, is heterogeneous that has to involve different firms from diverse fields, and tends to be dynamic according to macroeconomic conditions. Therefore, the combination of static and dynamic analyses is necessary to understand its underlying structure. This study analyzes the market structure of international construction contracts using the data of 9,173 projects awarded by Korean construction firms from 2000 to 2017. Industry-level performance data is analyzed both in static (market concentration) and dynamic (market mobility and instability) methods, and detailed methodology is also provided. Consequently, the static analysis result shows that the competition among Korean construction firms has been more intensified, and the dynamic analysis result indicates that market positions of Korean construction firms are unstable and vulnerable in most of the regions and the sectors. The combination of static and dynamic indices is found to be helpful to understand the underlying aspects of market structure and can be utilized as an effective strategic reference in the highly competitive market.

An Analytical Study on Composite Beam Performance with Post-Fire Temperature Using ANSYS Program (ANSYS를 이용한 화재 후 온도에 따른 합성보 성능에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Kwak, Sung-Shin;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.391-400
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    • 2019
  • In the case of fire, a structure loses its original stiffness due to the temperature rise, and the load bearing capacity decreases. The loss of structural strength increases with increasing fire time of the structure. To prevent the collapse of buildings, it is very important to understand whether or not the members are damaged. On the other hand, there is insufficient data to be a guideline for diagnosing and evaluating the residual strength of the members in Korea. Therefore, this study examined the resistance performance by Finite-Element-Analysis of composite beams, which are composite structures among structural members. Composite beam modeling was carried out based on the model used in the Electrical Penetration Room (EPR) in cooperation with KEPCO. The heat transfer analysis and structural analysis of the critical phase were performed using ANSYS, a finite element analysis program. ANSYS was used to perform heat transfer analysis and structural analysis at the static analysis. To analyze the residual performance, the temperature distribution of the composite beam and the maximum displacement result of the heat-affected structure analysis were derived and the experimental data and the structural analysis result data were compared and analyzed.