• Title, Summary, Keyword: Starter and Grower Broilers

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THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY ENERGY ON THE TOTAL SULPHUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF BROILERS DURING TWO GROWTH PERIODS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 1996
  • There levels of dietary ME (3,000, 3,200 and 3,400 kcal/kg) and four levels of Total Sulphur Amino Acid (TSAA) (0.73, 0.83, 0.93 and 1.03%) were studied in the starter period (0-3 wks) of the broilers. Three levels of dietary ME (3,000, 3,200 and 3,400 kcal/kg) combined with four levels of TSAA (0.65, 0.72, 0.79 and 0.86%) were studied in the grower period (3-6 wks). The crude protein content of the diet of the starter period was 23% while the diet of the grower period was 20%. The performance data of the starter broilers indicated that the dietary energy levels had no significant effects on body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio. However, TSAA levels had a significant influence on the growth and feed parameters. The response pattern for the grower period was similar to the starter period. The present experiment showed that in the tropics the TSAA requirement for the starter period was between 0.83 to 0.93% which is similar to the values recommended by NRC while for the grower period the TSAA requirement was between 0.79 to 0.86% at all the three energy levels which is higher than the values recommended by NRC.

THE EFFECTS OF PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE TOTAL SULPHUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF BROILERS DURING TWO GROWTH PERIODS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 1996
  • Studies on the effects of protein levels on the total sulphur amino acid (TSAA) requirements of chickens were conducted on the starter broilers by feeding four levels of crude protein(16, 18, 20 and 23%) at three levels of TSAA (0.83, 0.93 and 1.03%) and on the grower broilers by feeding three levels of crude protein (16, 18 and 20%) at three levels of TSAA(0.72, 0.79 and 0.86%). The metabolisable energy of the diets was maintained constant at 3,200 kcal/kg and the experiments were carried out for two growing periods: starter (0-3 wk) and grower (3-6 wk). The results showed that there were significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio under different protein levels of the starters. Crude protein, ME and TSAA intake were significantly affected by increasing the CP levels. The TSAA requirement of the starter broilers is recommended at 0.93% and it is not influenced by different protein levels used in the experiment. For the grower period, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio improved significantly at higher protein diets. Birds fed higher protein diet consumed greater quantities of protein. Responses to TSAA supplementation for body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio were not significant. The present results showed that the TSAA level of 0.79 to 0.86% was required for grower diets and that the protein levels of the diet did not influence the TSAA requirement.

THE INFLUENCE OF COPPER ON THE TOTAL SULPHUR AMINO ACIDS REQUIREMENT OF BROILERS DURING TWO GROWING PERIODS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.359-362
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    • 1996
  • A study was conducted to assess the influence of copper on the total sulphur amino acid requirements of broiler chickens reared under two growing periods. The TSAA levels used were 0.73, 0.83, 0.93% with copper levels of 0, 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg for the starter period and the TSAA levels of 0.72, 0.79 and 0.86% with copper levels of 0, 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg for the grower period. Total feed consumption, body weight gain and feed L gain ratio were used as the parameters for the assessment. The results showed that adding copper at 250 mg/kg to the diets improved feed : gain ratio of the starter broilers and resulted in small improvement of body weight gain and feed : gain ratio of the grower broilers. Growth was depressed in relation to the reduction of feed intake on the chicks fed diet containing 375 mg/kg copper. There was a significant interaction between dietary TSAA and copper levels for feed intake, hence, indicating that the supplementation of copper at the level of 375 mg/kg increased the TSAA requirement of the starter broilers, although no interference with the requirement of grower broilers.

THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE CARCASS COMPOSITION OF STARTER AND GROWER BROILERS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.261-266
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    • 1996
  • Carcass analysis of most economical parts of broilers were studied after they were fed with different protein levels of 16, 18, 20 and 23% for the starter period and 16, 18 and 20% for the grower period. The energy value of the feed was constant at 3,200 kcal ME/kg. The results for the starter and grower broilers showed similar pattern of responses. There were significant increased in weight gain, feed intake, protein intake, while there were significant decrease in the feed conversion ratio (FCR), abdominal fat and carcass fat when dietary protein increased. For the economical parts of the carcass, most of the fats were found in the thigh meat, while the lowest was found in the breast meat. The protein levels did not influence the meat production of the breast, drumstick and thigh portion. Increasing the protein intake, increased the broiler performance in relation to increased protein content of the breast, drumstick and thigh meat. The different fat contents of the meat might be due to differences in the rate of lipogenesis and fat deposition of the meat.

Effects of Ligustrum lucidum Fruits on Growth Performance, Antioxidation and Meat Quality in Arbor Acres Broilers

  • Chen, P.;Wang, A.Q.;Shan, An Shan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.700-705
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ligustrum lucidum (LL) on growth performance, antioxidation, and meat quality in broilers. 270 birds (1 d old) were allotted to 3 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. The feeding program included a starter diet from d 1 to 21 of age and a grower diet from d 22 to 42 of age. The birds were given a basal corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 0 (the control), 5 or 10 g of LL/kg, respectively. The results showed that in the starter, grower and overall phase, broilers fed with 5 or 10 g of LL/kg had better (p<0.01) average daily gain, but there were no differences in feed: gain between treatments. In the starter and overall phase, average daily feed intake of LL groups was greater (p<0.05) than that of the control, but this difference was not observed in the grower phase. Supplementation of LL significantly increased (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capability in serum of chickens. In breast muscle, birds fed 5 g of LL/kg had an increase (p<0.05) in superoxide dismutase activity. The LL supplementation significantly decreased (p<0.05) malondialdehyde contents. Adding 5 or 10 g of LL/kg to the diet significantly increased pH value and reduced drip loss of meat (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated that dietary LL could improve growth performance, increase pH value and reduce drip loss of meat by decreasing lipid peroxidation and by improving antioxidative status in broilers.

Effects of α-Galactosidase Supplementation on Performance and Energy Metabolism for Broilers Fed Corn-non-dehulled Soybean Meal Diets

  • Zhang, Bo;Cao, Yunhe;Chen, Yiqun;Li, Yihang;Qiao, Shiyan;Ma, Yongxi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1340-1347
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    • 2010
  • To study the effects of ${\alpha}$-galactosidase (${\alpha}$-Gal) supplementation on performance and energy metabolism, 216 Arbor Acres male broilers were placed in 36 cages of 6 birds each and allotted to 4 diets for 42 d, with 0-21 d as starter period and 22-42 d as grower period. The 4 diets were based on corn non-dehulled soybean meal in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement, with 2 levels of ${\alpha}$-Gal (0 vs. 60 U/kg feed) and 2 levels of ME (normal metabolizable energy (NME) and low metabolizable energy (LME)). Bird performance was obtained at 21 and 42 d of age with samples of feces collected for nutrient digestibility from 19-21 d and 40-42 d. At 21 and 42 d, 1 bird from 6 cages of each treatment was killed to determine liver weight, intestinal pH and chyme viscosity. With the addition of ${\alpha}$-Gal the 42 d body weight (BW) and 0-42 d average daily gain (ADG) were significantly improved (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake (ADFI) of birds fed the LME diet was significantly increased compared to those fed the NME diet during starter (p<0.01) and grower (p<0.05) periods and overall (p<0.01). There was an interaction of ${\alpha}-Gal{\times}ME$ on 0-21 d ADFI (p<0.01). Supplementation of ${\alpha}$-Gal significantly improved (p<0.01) feed efficiency during the grower period and overall. Feed efficiency of birds fed the LME diet was significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to those fed the NME diet during the starter period and overall. With the addition of ${\alpha}$-Gal apparent metabolizable energy (AME) was improved (p<0.01) by 2.1% and 1.8% during starter and grower periods, respectively. There was a main effect (p<0.05) of ${\alpha}$-Gal on the digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) during the starter period and crude protein (CP), NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) during the grower period. With the addition of ${\alpha}$-Gal, the relative weight of liver was reduced (p<0.01) during the two phases. The duodenal and jejunal pH were significantly decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of ${\alpha}$at the two phases. ${\alpha}$-Gal addition reduced (p<0.01) chyme viscosity of the ileum during the starter and grower periods. Overall, ${\alpha}$-Gal showed a major effect on nutrient efficiency, improved ADG and feed efficiency, whereas LME decreased feed efficiency. The incorporation of ${\alpha}$-Gal into a LME diet could at least partially offset ME deficiency of non-dehulled soybean meal.

Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broilers Fed Low-protein Diets Supplemented with Various Ratios of Threonine to Lysine

  • Gong, L.M.;Lai, C.H.;Qiao, Shiyan;Li, Defa;Ma, Y.X.;Liu, Y.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1164-1170
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to evaluate performance, breast (thigh) muscle yield, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers fed low-protein diets supplemented with various threonine to lysine ratios (Thr/Lys). Three hundred and twenty four day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment and nine broilers per replicate. Six treatments included one control diet [formulated according to NRC (1994)], and five experimental diets (treatments 1-5). In treatments 1-5, the crude protein level was 2% lower than that of the NRC control diet. The Thr/Lys in treatments 1-5 was 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 and 0.85 during the starter and grower phases and 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90 during the finisher phase with other nutrient levels kept consistent. The results showed that: (1) With increasing Thr/Lys, ADG of treatments 1, 3 and 4 were lower (p<0.05) than those of the NRC control diet during the starter phase; ADG of treatments 1-5 were lower (p<0.05) than those of the NRC control during the grower phase, and ADG of treatment 1 was lower (p<0.05) than that of the NRC control during the finisher phase. Average daily feed intake in treatments 1 and 4 were lower (p<0.05) than that of broilers on the NRC control diet during the grower phase. Feed/gain (F/G) of the NRC control diet was lowest (p<0.05) during the starter phase. F/G in treatments 2 and 5 were higher (p<0.05) than that of NRC during the grower phase. (2) Breast muscle proportion on d 21 increased linearly (p<0.05) in response to graded levels of Thr/Lys. (3) No differences were detected for dry matter, energy and crude protein digestibility among all seven treatments. (4) On d 21, serum triglyceride of broilers on dietary treatments 3 and 5 was higher (p<0.05) than that of broilers in control. The results indicate that the low-protein diets supplemented with an appropriate Thr/Lys could not support the same performance that was achieved by the broilers fed the NRC control diet.

Effect of Supplementing 2-Hydroxy-4-(Methylthio) Butanoic Acid and DL-methionine in Corn-soybean-cottonseed Meal Diets on Growth Performance and Carcass Quality of Broilers

  • Liu, Y.L.;Song, G.L.;Yi, G.F.;Hou, Y.Q.;Huang, J.W.;Vazquez-Anon, M.;Knight, C.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1197-1205
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of feeding DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) and DL-methionine (DLM) supplemented corn-soybean-cottonseed meal diets on growth performance, carcass composition, and muscle color of broilers. The trial was designed as a $2{\times}3{\times}2$ factorial experiment, including two methionine (Met) sources (HMTBA and DLM), three equimolar graded levels of Met supplementation (i.e., 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24% in the starter diet and 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% in the grower and finisher diets, respectively), and two sexes (male and female). Additionally, one basal diet for each sex was formulated to be limiting in Met to test the dosage response of increasing supplemental Met levels. Four hundred and twenty 10-d-old broilers were randomly allotted to 14 treatments (seven each for males and females), with five replicate pens per treatment and six chicks per pen. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the two Met sources in growth performance and muscle deposition of broilers throughout the whole experimental period (d 10 to 49). With the increasing Met supplementation levels, average daily gain was increased (quadratic; p<0.01) during the starter, grower, and overall phases, average daily feed intake was increased (quadratic; p<0.01) during the starter phase, and feed:gain ratio was decreased (quadratic; p<0.05) during the grower and overall phases. At the end of finisher phase, Met supplementation increased breast muscle content (quadratic; p<0.01) and thigh muscle content (linear; p<0.05), and decreased abdominal fat content (quadratic; p<0.02). Compared to the broiler fed DLM, broilers fed HMTBA had superior breast and thigh muscle coloration (p<0.01). Male broilers had higher weight gain and feed intake and better feed conversion than female broilers (p<0.01). The fat content of thigh muscle in female broilers was higher than that of male broilers (p<0.03). The best fit comparison of HMTBA vs. DLM was determined by Schwarz Bayesian Criteria index, which indicated that the average relative bioefficacy of HMTBA vs. DLM was 120% with 95% confidence limit 67 to 172%. These results indicated that Met supplementation improved growth performance and carcass quality of broilers fed corn-soybean-cottonseed meal diets irrespective of Met sources. Compared to DLM, HMTBA has the same molar bioefficacy on improving the growth performance and carcass quality of broilers; however, HMTBA fed birds had superior meat color to DLM fed birds.

Effect of different phase levels of medium chain triglycerides on the growth performance, excreta microflora and blood profiles of broilers

  • Hu, Jing;Park, Jae Hong;Zhang, Jian Ying;Yoo, Jong Sang;Cheong, Jin Young;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2018
  • Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) provide polka dot grouper Chromileptes altevelis with a more readily utilizable source of energy than long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and significantly elevate the plasma cholesterol level of chickens. As a possible alternative to feed antibiotics, this study investigated the effect of different phase levels of medium chain triglycerides on the growth performance, excreta microflora and blood profiles in broilers. A total of 450 ROSS 308 mixed-sex broilers with an average initial body weight of $49{\pm}0.79g$ (1 day of age) were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to the following 3 treatments (15 birds / 10 replications): CON (Basal diet); MCT1 (Starter, Grower, Finisher: Basal diet + 0.1%, 0.075%, 0.05% of MCT) and MCT2 (Starter, Grower, Finisher: Basal diet + 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.1% of MCT). The results show that supplementing the diets with different phase levels of MCT did not have a significant impact on the body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period. Additionally, there were no differences in the blood profiles and excreta microflora among the treatments. However, this study found that the BWG was increased by 2.3%, and the FCR was decreased by 0.6% in the broiler fed MCT1 treatment group during overall experiment phase. Therefore, the results suggest that MCTs could be used as an alternative to growth promoting feed additives. Moreover, further research should be done to evaluate the effect of the different levels of MCTs.

Replacement value of cottonseed meal for soybean meal in broiler chicken diets with or without microbial enzymes

  • Abdallh, Medani Eldow;Musigwa, Sosthene;Ahiwe, Emmanuel Uchenna;Chang'a, Edwin Peter;Al-Qahtani, Mohamed;Bhuiyan, Momenuzzaman;Iji, Paul Ade
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.159-173
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    • 2020
  • A 4×2 factorial feeding trial was designed to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with cottonseed meal (CSM) in wheat/sorghum/SBM-based diets fed with or without microbial enzymes in diets on the performance, visceral organ development and digestibility of nutrients of broiler chickens. Four graded levels of CSM - none (0%), low (4%, 8%, and 12%), medium (5%, 10%, and 15%), and high (6%, 12%, and 18%) of complete diets in starter, grower and finisher, respectively were fed with or without 100 mg/kg of xylanase and β-glucanase blend. Eight isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated using least-cost method to meet the nutrient specifications of Ross 308 male broilers. Each treatment was randomly assigned to 6 replicates (10 birds per replicate). There were CSM-enzyme interactions (p < 0.05) on feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) in the starter phase. Enzyme supplementation improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the grower and finisher phases, and increased WG in growing and finishing birds. CSM inclusion reduced (p < 0.05) the weight of gizzard and proventriculus in starter chicks, while these organs were bigger (p < 0.05) in the grower phase. The test ingredient decreased (p < 0.05) small intestinal weight in starter and grower birds. The CSM increased the absolute weight of thighs (p < 0.05) while breast meat was increased (p < 0.01) by enzyme addition. Starch digestibility was improved (p < 0.01) by enzyme inclusion and decreased (p < 0.01) by CSM. Enzyme supplementation improved (p < 0.05) the ileal digestibility of gross energy and protein. The results demonstrate that CSM can substitute up to 90% SBM in broiler chicken diets without compromising performance, and the nutritive value of CSM-containing diets can effectively be improved by enzyme supplementation.