• Title, Summary, Keyword: Squamous cell head and neck cancers

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Primary Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Contralateral Lymph Node Metastasis (반대측 림프절 전이를 동반한 비강의 편평 세포암 1예)

  • Kim, Tae-Hoo;Heo, Chul-Young;Kim, Beom-Gyu;Park, Il-Seok;Kim, Yong-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2009
  • Sinonasal malignant tumors comprise less than 1% of all cancers and 3% of all malignant tumors of the head and neck, which explains a lack of large series addressing the clinical characteristics and management of these tumors. Neck node metastasis occurs in only about 7% to 15% of malignant tumors compared with other head and neck cancers. A 90-yr-old woman presented with left palpable neck mass and right nasal mass occupying nasal cavity. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of left neck mass results in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma(SCC). PET/CT shows intense FDG uptake in right nasal cavity with bone invasion. Histopathologic examination of excised lesion in the right nasal cavity revealed SCC. We report here on a primary sinonasal SCC with contralateral lymph node metastasis.

PANENDOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF THE UPPER AERODIGESTIVE TRACT FOR THE DETECTION OF SECOND PRIMARY CANCERS IN HEAD & NECK CANCER PATIENTS (두경부암종 환자에서 상부 호흡소화기관에 병발한 원발성 중복암의 진단적 종합내시경검사)

  • 김기범;황찬승;양훈식
    • Korean Journal of Bronchoesophagology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.222-226
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    • 1996
  • The increasing incidence of multiple primary carcinomas occuring in the upper aerodigestive tract is well documented, with the accepted incidence being as high as 20-30%. The fiberoptic endoscopy has also enabled visualization of areas previously inaccessible without general anesthesia. A prospective panendoscopic examination of the upper aerodigestive tract was peformed on 104 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head & neck in our hospital between 1989 and 1994. Five second primary cancers (4.8% :2 stomach, 2 esophagus, 1 lung cancers) were detected endoscopically. These finding should reinforce the belief that head & neck cancer is a panmucosal disease of the aerodigestive tract that silent second primary cancers are not uncommon. So every effort should be done to detect second primary cancers in head & neck squamous cell carcinomas. Panendoscopy has proved valuable in achieving that.

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Clinical Application of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in Head and Neck Cancer (두경부 종양에서 $^{18}F-FDG$ PET의 임상이용)

  • Kim, Jae-Seung;Bae, Jin-Ho
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 2008
  • Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of human cancer worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of the head and neck. Since $^{18}F-FDG$ PET is very sensitive to detecting squamous cell carcinoma, it has been widely used in patients with head and neck cancers for initial staging, management of recurrent cancers, and therapeutic monitoring. According to clinical research data, $^{18}F-FDG$ PET is expected to be a very helpful diagnostic tool in the management of head and neck cancer.

EXPRESSION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND CELL CYCLE ANALYSIS IN THE HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS (두경부 편평세포암종에서 상피성장인자수용체의 발현과 세포주기에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Won;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2000
  • Growth factors and the receptors play an important role in the regulation of the growth and development of mammalian cells. In particular, epidermal growth factor is a polypeptide with potent mitogenic activity that stimulates proliferation of various normal and neoplastic cells through the interaction with its specific receptor(EGFR). EGFR has been described as a parameter of poor prognosis in many human neoplasms such as breast, bladder, and vulvar cancers. The objectives of this study are the evaluation of the expression of EGFR and cell cycle analysis in the head and neck squamous cell carcinomas(SCC), and the evaluation of the correlation between clinico-patholgic features and expression of EGFR and S-phase fraction. 37 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens were evaluated for expression of EGFR by Western blot analysis and S-phase fraction by cell cycle analysis using the flow cytometry. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The expressions of EGFR were observed in 20 specimens(54%) among 37 head and neck SCC specimens. In case of oral SCC, 15 specimens(56%) out of 27 specimens were observed, and in case of nasopharyngeal SCC 5 specimens(50%) out of 10 specimens. 2. There was no correlation between clinical features(location, stage) of head and neck SCC and expression of EGFR (p>0.05). 3. There was a significant correlation between histo-pathological differentiation of head and neck SCC and expression of EGFR (p<0.02). 4. There was a significant correlation between expression of EGFR and S-phase fraction of cell cycle in the head and neck SCC (p<0.05). The above results suggest that expression of EGFR and S-phase fraction of cell cycle are adjunctive prognostic marker in the head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

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T Cell-directed Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (두경부편평세포암에서의 T세포 면역치료)

  • Choi, Yoon Seok
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2017
  • Despite improved treatment outcomes of locally advanced disease over the last 2 decades, the survival of patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains dismal. There is a clear need for development of novel therapeutic strategies for recurrent and/or metastatic HNSCC. Recent advances in understanding tumor immunology have been directly and rapidly translated into clinical success of T cell-directed immunotherapeutic approach in the treatment of several types of solid cancers. Among them, impact of immune checkpoint inhibition using neutralizing antibodies is the most striking. A variety of immunotherapeutic strategies targeting T cells have been also studied in HNSCC, especially in recurrent and/or metastatic setting even with significant survival benefit. The present article reviews the basic concept of T cell-directed immunotherapy and the current status of such approaches in the treatment of HNSCC.

Roles of Human Papillomaviruses and p16 in Oral Cancer

  • Sritippho, Thanun;Chotjumlong, Pareena;Iamaroon, Anak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6193-6200
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    • 2015
  • Head and neck cancer, including oral cancer, is the sixth most common cancer in humans worldwide. More than 90% of oral cancers are of squamous cell carcinoma type. Recent studies have shown a strong relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and head and neck cancer, especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, the incidence of HPV-related OSCC appears to be on the rise while HPV-unrelated OSCC tends to have stabilized in the past decades. p16, a tumor suppressor gene, normally functions as a regulator of the cell cycle. Upon infection with high-risk types of HPV (HR-HPV), particularly types 16, 18, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 70, the expression of p16 is aberrantly overexpressed. Therefore, the expression of p16 is widely used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in head and neck cancer.

Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene are rare in the Korean Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Lee, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2016
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) protein kinase signaling is an important pathway in cancer development and recently reported that EGFR and its kinase domain molecules are mutated in various of cancers including head and neck cancer. Functional deregulation of EGFR due to mutations in coding exons and copy number amplification is the most common event in cancers, especially among receptor tyrosine kinases(TK). We have analyzed Korean oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) cell lines for mutations in EGFRTK. Exons encoding the hot-spot regions in the TK domain of EGFR (exons 17 to 23) were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequenced directly. EGFR expression was also analyzed in 8 OSCC cell lines using western blotting. Data analysis of the EGFR exons 17 to 23 coding sequences did not show any mutations in the 8 OSCC cell lines that were analyzed. The absence of mutations indicate that protein overexpression might be responsible for activation rather than mutation.

Human Papillomavirus Burden in Different Cancers in Iran: a Systematic Assessment

  • Jalilvand, Somayeh;Shoja, Zabihollah;Hamkar, Rasool
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7029-7035
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    • 2014
  • Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are undoubtedly involved in genesis of human malignancies. HPV plays an etiological role in cervical cancer, but also in many vaginal, vulvar, anal and penile cancers, as well as head and neck cancers. In addition, a number of non-malignant diseases such as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are attributable to HPV. Moreover, HPV forms have detected in several other cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung, prostate, ovarian, breast, skin, colorectal and urinary tract cancers, but associations with etiology in these cases is controversial. The aim of this systematic assessment was to estimate the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV types in HPV-associated cancers, HPV-related non-malignant diseases and in cancers that may be associated with HPV in Iran. The present investiagtion covered 61 studies on a variety of cancers in Iranian populations. HPV prevalence was 77.5 % and 32.4% in cervical cancer and head and neck cancers, respectively. HPV was detected in 23.1%, 22.2%, 10.4%, 30.9%, 14% and 25.2% of esophageal squamous cell, lung, prostate, urinary tract cancers, breast and skin cancers, respectively. HPV16 and 18 were the most frequent HPV types in all cancers. The findings of present study imply that current HPV vaccines for cervical cancer may decrease the burden of other cancers if they are really related to HPV.

Clinical Characteristics of Female Laryngeal Cancer (여성후두암의 임상적 특성)

  • Kwon Soon-Young;Jung Kwang-Yoon;Choi Jong-Ouck
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 1995
  • The laryngeal cancer is a cancer of secondary sex organ, such as malignant tumors of the mammary gland, endometrium, and prostate. The clinical characteristics of the female laryngeal cancers are considered somewhat to be different from that of male. As cancer of the larynx is principally a disease of men, many investigations have showed the characteristics of the male laryngeal cancers. For understanding the clinical characteristics of the female laryngeal cancers, we analyzed 21 cases of laryngeal cancer in women, diagnosed and treated in our institute during the last 10 years. The results were, 1) In female subjects, supraglottis was most common subsite of laryngeal cancer(85.7%). 2) On histopathologic grade, the moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (80.9%). 3) The positive neck nodes were 19 %, considered to be lower than that of total laryngeal cancer. 4) The treatment results, the 2 year disease free rate and 5 year survival rate were 88.9%, 83.3%, respectively. These results suggest, therefore, female laryngeal cancers are more likely to be supraglottic cancer than glottic cancer. In spite of high incidence of supraglottic cancer, the nodal metastases are rare, the prognosis appeared to be good.

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Role of Concomitant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancers

  • Lasrado, Savita;Moras, Kuldeep;Pinto, George Jawahar Oliver;Bhat, Mahesh;Hegde, Sanath;Sathian, Brijesh;Luis, Neil Aaron
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.4147-4152
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    • 2014
  • Standard therapy for advanced head and neck cancer consists of a combination of surgery and radiation. However, survival of this patient population has not improved during the past 20 years. Many different multimodality treatment schedules have been proposed, and chemotherapy is often used with the intent of organ preservation. The present study was intended to establish the efficacy of concomitant chemoradiation with a single agent carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancers.The objectives were to investigate the feasibility of concomitant administration of carboplatin, monitor acute toxicity during radiotherapy, and determine subacute side effects, such as wound healing following surgery after chemoradiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted wherein a total of 40 patients with stage III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were enrolled. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy and weekly carboplatin area under curve (AUC of 5). Radiotherapy was given in single daily fractions of 1.8-2 grays (Gy) to a total dose of 66-72 Gy. Salvage surgery was performed for any residual or recurrent locoregional disease. Neck dissection was recommended for all patients with neck disease showing less than a complete response after chemoradiation. A total of 40 patients were enrolled of whom 32 were males and 8 were females. Highest incidence of cancer was seen in the 5th-6th decades of life with a median age of 47.7 years. Oropharyngeal tumours constituted a maximum of 21 patients followed by hypopharynx in 10, larynx in 7 and oral cavity in 2. 80% of the patients had a neck node on presentation of which 40% had N2-N3 nodal status. TNM staging revealed that 58% of patients were in stage III and 43% in stage IV. Evaluation of acute toxicity revealed that 50% had grade II mucositis, 25% grade III mucositis, 2.5% grade IV mucositis. 50% of patients had grade I skin reactions, 65% of patients had grade I thrombocytopenia, and 24% of patients had grade I anaemia. After completion of treatment 65% of patients had complete response at the primary and regional sites, and 35% of patients had a partial response of whom 23% underwent neck dissection and 5% of them underwent salvage surgery at the primary site. At the end of one year there were six deaths and four recurrences and 70% were free of disease. Concurrent chemoradiation with carboplatin provided good locoregional control for locally advanced head and neck cancers. This regimen, although toxic, is tolerable with appropriate supportive intervention. Primary site conservation is possible in many patients. Chemoradiotherapy appears to have an emerging role in the primary management of head and neck cancers.