• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spleenocytes

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Assessing the Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Sub Acute Exposure to Ocular Irritant Chemicals

  • Reshma, Cherian Sebastian;Sruthi, Sudhakaran;Syama, Santhakumar;Gayathri, Vishwanath;Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2015
  • Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers ($IL-1{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-8 and $TNF-{\alpha}$) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario.

Effect of Cassiae semen extract on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice (결명자 추출물의 난알부민 감작으로 천식이 유발된 마우스에서의 개선 효과)

  • Seo, Beom-Su;Park, Yong-Ki
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : In this study, we investigated the effect of Cassia obtusifolia Linne (Cassiae Semen; CS) extract on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Methods : CR was extracted with 70% ethanol. For in vitro study, HMC-1, human mast cells were treated with CS extract at 0.2 and $0.5mg/m{\ell}$ for 1 h, and then stimulated with compound (C) 48/80 for 30 min. Primary spleenocytes were isolated from the spleen of mice, treated with CS extract for 1 h, and then stimulated with ConA for 24 h. For in vivo study, mice were sensitized at day 0, 7 and 14 with 0.2% OVA and then airway challenged using neublizer at day 21, 23, 25, and 27 to induced allergic asthma. CS extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight was orally administered during OVA challenge once per a day. The levels of allergic mediators such as histamine, OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, and $IFN-{\gamma}$ were measured in the sera of mice or culture supernatants by EIA and ELISA, respectively. The expression of IL-4 and $IFN-{\gamma}$ gene was determined by RT-PCR. The histopathological change of lung tissues was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. Results : The treatment of CS extract in HMC-1 cells significantly inhibited C48/80-induced degranulation, and histamine release. The treatment of CS extract in spleenocytes suppressed the expression of IL-4 and $IFN-{\gamma}$ mRNA. The administration of CS extract in OVA-induced asthmatic mice significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner with OVA-control group. In addition, CS extract inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bronchiolar damage with epithelial thickening in lung tissues of OVA-induced asthma mice, and also mucin accumulation. Conclusions : These results indicate that CS extract prevents asthmatic damage through regulating the allergic immune response.

Induction of Immunity Against Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen by Intranasal DNA Vaccination Using a Cationic Emulsion as a Mucosal Gene Carrier

  • Kim, Tae Woo;Chung, Hesson;Kwon, Ick Chan;Sung, Ha Chin;Kang, Tae Heung;Han, Hee Dong;Jeong, Seo Young
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2006
  • Delivery of DNA vaccines to airway mucosa would be an ideal method for mucosal immunization. However, there have been few reports of a suitable gene delivery system. In this study we used a cationic emulsion to immunize mice via the intranasal route with pCMV-S coding for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Complexing pCMV-S with a cationic emulsion dramatically enhanced HBsAg expression in both nasal tissue and lung, and was associated with increases in the levels of HBs-specific Abs in serum and mucosal fluids, of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the spleen and cervical and iliac lymph nodes, and of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) against HBsAg. In contrast, very weak humoral and cellular immunities were observed following immunization with naked DNA. In support of these observations, a higher proliferative response of spleenocytes was detected in the group immunized with the emulsion/pCMV-S complex than in the group immunized with naked pCMV-S. These findings may facilitate development of an emulsion-mediated gene vaccination technique for use against intracellular pathogens that invade mucosal surfaces.

Organ Weights and Splenocytic Apoptosis in γ-irradiated Korean Dark-Striped Field Mice, Apodemus Agrarius Coreae (방사선 조사된 국내 야생 등줄쥐 (Apodemus agrarius coreae) 장기무게 및 비장세포 세포고사)

  • Joo, Hyunjin;Choi, Hoon;Yang, Kwang-hee;Keum, Dong-kwon;Kim, Hee sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.168-173
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    • 2015
  • The present investigation was planned to estimate potential possibility of striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae (A. a. coreae), as a biological dosimeter in radio-environmental ecology. We bred captured wild A. a. coreae at laboratory and classified taxonomically based on external, cranial and tooth characters. Organ weights and splenocytic apoptosis were observed in order to establish a basic data on radiation biology of A. a. coreae (male, 40 weeks old). The biological effects was observed at 24hrs following irradiation (doses : 0, 0.5, 1, 2 Gy, dose rate : $0.8Gymin^{-1}$, $^{137}Cs$). Only thymus weights was significantly decreased. Splenocytic apoptosis was increased after irradiation. But splenocytic apoptosis was decreased in 0.5 Gy ${\gamma}$-irradiated mice compared to those of 0, 1, 2 Gy (P < 0.05). These data suggested that events in thymus and spleen of Korean dark-striped field mice, A. a. coreae THOMAS, could be a potential radio-biological indicator in human environments.